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The Effect of European Intellectual Property Institutions on Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investment

  • Nikolaos Papageorgiadis (a1), Yue Xu (a2) and Constantinos Alexiou (a3)
Abstract

This study examines the role of the strength of the Intellectual Property (IP) institutions of 23 European countries in attracting Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) during the time period 2003–2015. Following a dynamic panel data analysis methodology, we find that the strength of IP institutions has a positive effect in attracting higher levels of OFDI from China. This is an important finding for the OFDI literature from emerging markets, since previous studies have researched this relationship from the OFDI perspective of developed countries. However, we also find a weak indication of a potential U-shaped relationship between the strength of IP institutions and Chinese OFDI. To better understand this relationship, we interact a European country's membership in the Former Eastern Bloc (FEB) with the strength of IP institutions and find a negative moderating effect. We therefore find that when investing in FEB countries, Chinese firms are attracted to weaker levels of IP institutional strength. The results of this study have important implications for future studies on the determinants of OFDI from emerging markets, as well as for European and Chinese businesses and policy-makers concerning the importance of IP institutional strength.

本研究检验了23个欧洲国家的知识产权(IP)制度的力度在2003年 - 2015年期间对吸引中国对外直接投资(OFDI)的作用。采用动态的面板数据分析方法,我们发现知识产权制度优势对吸引更多来自中国的对外直接投资具有积极的作用。这在新兴市场对外直接投资文献中是一个重要发现,因为之前的研究已经从发达国家对外直接投资的角度研究了这种关系。然而,我们也发现,知识产权制度的力度与中国对外直接投资之间存在潜在的U形关系。为了更好地理解这种关系,我们考虑了欧洲国家在前东欧区(FEB)的成员国家与其知识产权制度力度的交互作用,并发现了负面的调节作用。由此,我们提出,在投资前东欧区国家时,中国企业会受其较弱的知识产权制度力度的吸引。这项研究结果为今后研究新兴市场对外直接投资的决定因素,对于欧洲和中国的企业,以及强调知识产权制度力度的政策制定者,都具有重要含义。

इस शोध अध्ययन में 23 यूरोपीय देशों के बौद्धिक सम्पदा संस्थानों की शक्ति के चीनी बहिर्गामी सीधे निवेश पर 2003 से 2015 के बीच प्रभाव का परीक्षण किया गया है. गतिमान पैनल आँकड़ा अनुसंधान परिपाटी का प्रयोग करते हुए हमने यह पाया की बौद्धिक सम्पदा संस्थानों की शक्ति का अधिक चीनी बहिर्गामी सीधा निवेश को आकर्षित करने पर सकारात्मक प्रभाव है. बहिर्गामी सीधा निवेश के अध्ययन में यह महत्वपूर्ण योगदान है क्योंकि इस सन्दर्भ में पूर्व अध्ययन विकसित देशों के परिप्रेक्ष्य से हैं. तथापि हमें बौद्धिक सम्पदा संस्थानों की शक्ति व चीनी बहिर्गामी विदेशी सीधा निवेश के बीच संभावित U-आकारनुमा सम्बन्ध के सीमित प्रमाण भी मिले हैं. इस सम्बन्ध को बेहतर समझने हेतु हमने यूरोपीय देशों की अतीत की पूर्वी ब्लॉक से सम्बन्ध व बौद्धिक सम्पदा संस्थानों की शक्ति की परस्परता के बीच के सम्बन्धों के युगल प्रभाव को जांचा और नकारात्मक संयमन प्रभाव पाया. इस प्रकार हमने यह देखा की भूतपूर्व पूर्वी ब्लॉक के देशों में निवेश करते समय चीनी फर्म बौद्धिक सम्पदा संस्थानों की सीमित शक्ति की ओर आकृष्ट होती हैं. इस अध्ययन के परिणामों का आगामी उदीयमान अर्थव्यवस्थाओं के बहिर्गामी विदेशी सीधा निवेश का अध्ययनों तथा चीनी व यूरोपीय व्यवसायियों/नीति निर्धारकों के बौद्धिक सम्पदा संस्थानों की शक्ति समझने में महत्व है.

Este estudo examina o papel da força das instituições de Propriedade Intelectual (IP) de 23 países europeus na atração do Investimento Externo Estrangeiro Direto Chinês (OFDI) durante o período de 2003-2015. Seguindo uma metodologia de análise dinâmica de dados em painel, descobrimos que a força de instituições de IP tem um efeito positivo em atrair níveis mais altos de OFDI da China. Este é um achado importante para a literatura sobre OFDI em mercados emergentes, uma vez que estudos anteriores pesquisaram essa relação a partir da perspectiva de OFDI de países desenvolvidos. No entanto, também encontramos uma leve indicação de uma possível relação em forma de U entre a força das instituições de IP e o OFDI chinês. Para melhor entender essa relação, interagimos a participação de um país europeu do antigo bloco oriental (FEB) com a força de instituições de IP e encontramos um efeito de moderação negativo. Portanto, concluímos que ao investir em países do FEB, empresas chinesas são atraídas por níveis mais fracos de força institucional de IP. Os resultados deste estudo têm importantes implicações para estudos futuros sobre determinantes do OFDI de mercados emergentes, bem como para empresas e formuladores de políticas europeus e chineses no que tange à importância da força institucional da IP.

В данной работе, мы рассматриваем значение институтов по защите прав интеллектуальной собственности (ИС) в 23 европейских странах для привлечения внешних прямых иностранных инвестиций (ПИИ) из Китая в период 2003-2015 годов. Используя метод анализа динамических панельных данных, мы приходим к выводу о том, что сильные институты по защите прав интеллектуальной собственности (ИС) оказывают положительное влияние на привлечение внешних ПИИ из Китая. Это важный вывод для научной литературы по внешним ПИИ из развивающихся рынков, поскольку предыдущие исследования изучали эту взаимосвязь на примере внешних ПИИ из развитых стран. Более того, мы также обнаруживаем слабые признаки потенциальной U-образной связи между силой институтов по защите прав интеллектуальной собственности (ИС) и китайскими внешними ПИИ. Для того, чтобы лучше понять эту взаимосвязь, мы сопоставляем членство европейской страны в бывшем восточном блоке (БВБ) с сильными институтами по защите прав интеллектуальной собственности (ИС) и обнаруживаем отрицательную взаимозависимость. Поэтому мы приходим к выводу о том, что в случае инвестиций в страны БВБ китайские фирмы привлекают более слабые институты по защите прав интеллектуальной собственности (ИС). Результаты данной работы имеют важное значение для будущих исследований в области ключевых факторов для внешних ПИИ из развивающихся рынков, а также для европейского и китайского бизнеса и политиков, которые определяют уровень институциональной силы в сфере защиты прав интеллектуальной собственности (ИС).

Este estudio examina el papel de la fortaleza de las instituciones de Propiedad Intelectual (PI) de 23 países europeos en atraer inversiones extranjeras directas (IED) provenientes de China durante el periodo 2003-2015. Siguiendo una metodología de análisis de datos de un panel dinámico, encontramos que la fortaleza de las instituciones de PO tiene un efecto positivo en atraer mayores niveles de inversión extranjera directa saliente de la China. Esto es un hallazgo importante para la literatura de inversión extranjera directa proveniente de mercados emergentes, puesto que los estudios previos habían investigado esta relación de inversión extranjera directa saliente desde la perspectiva de países desarrollados. Sin embargo, también encontramos una indicación debido de una potencial relación en forma de U entre la fortaleza de las instituciones de IP y la inversión extranjera directa saliente de la China. Para entender mejor esta relación, interactuamos la membresía de un país europeo en el Antiguo Bloque del Este (FEB por sus iniciales en inglés) con la fortaleza de las instituciones de IP y encontramos un efecto moderador negativo. Por lo tanto, encontramos que cuando se invierto en países del Antiguo Bloque del Este, las empresas chinas son atraídas a niveles más débiles de fortaleza institucional de PI. Los resultados de este estudio tienen implicaciones importantes para estudios futuros de los determinantes de IED proveniente de países emergentes, también como para las empresas europeas y chinas y los responsables de políticas en relación a la importancia de la fortaleza institucional de la IP.

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Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Yue Xue (xuy63@cardiff.ac.uk)
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Accepted by: Senior Editor Bent Petersen

The Open Materials badge recognizes authors who deposit their research materials in an open-access repository. The materials used in this study can be found at [https://osf.io/jpxat/quickfiles]. Details about the badge are available on the journal's website.

The Open Data badge recognizes authors who deposit their data (and statistical code, if necessary) in an open-access repository. The data used in this study can be found at [https://osf.io/jpxat/quickfiles]. Details about the badge are available on the journal's website.

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Management and Organization Review
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