Skip to main content
×
×
Home

From Friendship to Family: Jiangyiqi and Strong Interpersonal Relationship Development in Chinese Organizations

  • Xin Liang (a1), Sibin Wu (a2) and Shujuan Zhang (a3)
Abstract

Moral obligation, reciprocity, and affection contribute to the development of strong interpersonal relationships. An indigenous notion in Chinese culture, jiangyiqi, captures these three component principles of strong relationship development in one concept. Jiangyiqi has been held anecdotally as a common code of conduct for building strong, trustworthy relationships in China. We explore the possible integration of these three components of interpersonal relationships in Chinese society in our introduction of the construct of jiangyiqi, based upon Confucian ethics and the circles of relationships delineated in past literature on Chinese societies. Drawing from social exchange theory as well as the perspective of reciprocal altruism in evolutionary biology, we propose that jiangyiqi makes an individual a good candidate for developing strong non-kin relationships. We discuss the managerial implications of jiangyiqi for relationship building in a Chinese cultural context.

摘要:

回报和情感是影响建立牢固人际关系的因素。中国本土文化中的“讲义气”概念涵盖了这三个发展人际关系的重要因素。在中国, 当谈及建立值得信赖的牢固人际关系的一些轶事的时候, 人们经常会提到讲义气。本文在以往中国儒家道德观和人际关系圈子研究的基础上, 探讨了讲义气如何涵盖上述三个因素, 并借此引入了讲义气的概念。从进化生物学中的互惠性利他主义和社会交换理论的角度, 我们提出讲义气有助于个人与非亲属的他人发展牢固的人际关系。我们还对中国文化情境下建立人际关系过程中讲义气的管理启示进行了讨论。

नैतिक दायित्व, पारस्परिकता, व स्नेह सुदृढ़ अन्तर्सम्बन्धों के विकास में योगदान करते हैं. चीनी संस्कृति की जियांग्यिकी अवधारणा सुदृढ़ सम्बन्ध विकास के इन तीनों पहलुओं को एक सिद्धांत में जोड़ती है. जियांग्यिकी को उपाख्यान के स्तर पर सुदृढ़ विश्वसनीय सम्बन्ध बनाने हेतु एक सामान्य आचार संहिता समझा जाता है. हमने कंफ्यूशियन नीति व चीनी समाज के अतीतकालीन साहित्य में निरूपित सम्बन्ध वृत्त आधार पर अपने जियांग्यिकी संरचना में अन्तर्सम्बन्धों के तीनों पहलुओं के संभावित एकीकरण का अनुसंधान किया है. सामाजिक विनिमय सिद्धांत व उद्विकासी जीव-विज्ञान के पारस्परिक परोपकारिता के माध्यम से हम यह प्रस्ताव करते हैं की जियांग्यिकी एक व्यक्ति को गैर-परिजनों से सम्बन्ध बनाने में सहायक है. चीनी सांस्कृतिक सन्दर्भ में सम्बन्ध निर्माण में जियांग्यिकी के योगदान के प्रबंधकीय आशयों की चर्चा की गयी है.

SUMÁRIO:

Obrigação moral, reciprocidade e afeição contribuem para o desenvolvimento de fortes relações interpessoais. Uma noção oriunda da cultura chinesa, jiangyiqi, captura esses três princípios do desenvolvimento de um forte relacionamento em um único conceito. Jiangyiqi tem sido considerado como um código de conduta comum para a construção de relações fortes e confiáveis na China. Exploramos a possível integração destes três componentes de relações interpessoais na sociedade chinesa na nossa introdução do construto de jiangyiqi, baseada na ética confucionista e nos círculos de relações delineadas na literatura passada sobre sociedades chinesas. Com base na teoria do intercâmbio social e na perspectiva do altruísmo recíproco da biologia evolutiva, propomos que o jiangyiqi faça do indivíduo um bom candidato para o desenvolvimento de fortes relacionamentos não-familiares. Discutimos as implicações gerenciais de jiangyiqi para a construção de relacionamentos em um contexto cultural chinês.

АННОТАЦИЯ:

АННОТАЦИЯ: Моральные обязательства, взаимность и привязанность способствуют развитию сильных межличностных отношений. Исконное понятие в китайской культуре, jiangyiqi, связывает эти три составляющие развития сильных отношений в одну концепцию. Интересно, что jiangyiqi является общепринятым кодексом поведения для построения прочных надежных отношений в Китае. Мы изучаем возможную интеграцию этих трех компонентов межличностных отношений в китайском обществе, с помощью введения понятия jiangyiqi, которое основано на конфуцианской этике и сферах отношений, которые рассмотрены в существующей литературе по китайским сообществам. Исходя из теории социального обмена, а также перспективы взаимного альтруизма в эволюционной биологии, мы предполагаем, что jiangyiqi способствует развитию сильных неродственных отношений. Мы также обсуждаем значение jiangyiqi для управления в рамках построения отношений в китайском культурном контексте.

RESUMEN:

La obligación moral, la reciprocidad y el afecto contribuyen al desarrollo de fuertes relaciones interpersonales. Una noción autóctona en la cultura china, jiangyiqi, captura estos tres componentes principales del desarrollo de relaciones fuertes en un concepto. Jiangyiqi se ha considerado anecdóticamente como un código de conducta común para construir relaciones fuertes y confiables en China. Exploramos la posible integración de estos tres componentes de las relaciones interpersonales en la sociedad china en nuestra introducción del constructo jiangyiqi basado en la ética Confuciana y los círculos de relaciones delineados en la literatura previa en las sociedades chinas. Basándonos en la teoría de intercambio social como también en la perspectiva de altruismo reciproco en la biología evolutiva, proponemos que el jiangyiqi es un candidato bueno e individual para desarrollar fuertes en relaciones sin vínculos de parentezco. Discutimos las implicaciones gerenciales del jiangyiqi para la construcción de relaciones en un contexto cultural chino.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Xin Liang (xliang@d.umn.edu)
References
Hide All
Annis, D. B. 1987. The meaning, value, and duties of friendship. American Philosophical Quarterly, 24 (4): 349356.
Argyris, C. 1960. Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorse.
Ashton, M. C., Paunonen, S. V., Helmes, E., & Jackson, D. N. 1998. Kin altruism, reciprocal altruism, and the Big Five personality factors. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19 (4): 243255.
Barclay, P. 2004. Trustworthiness and competitive altruism can also solve the ‘tragedy of the commons’. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25 (4): 209220.
Cao, C., Xi, Y., Zhang, X., & Han, W. 2012. Effect of socialization and native culture on formulation of leadership trait. Chinese Journal of Management, 9 (8): 11181153.
Chai, C. U. 1959. Chinese humanism: A study of Chinese mentality and temperament. Social Research: 31–46.
Chan, A. 2006. The Chinese concepts of guanxi, Mianzi, Renqing, and Bao: Their interrelationships and implications for international business. In Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference: 2016. Brisbane, Queensland.
Chen, X. P. 2013. Cultural value system is the foundation to the success of a company. Aug. 1–19, Executive Perspectives. [Cited 1 August 2016]. Available from URL: http://www.iacmr.org/V2/Publications/CMI/LP021101_CN.pdf
Chen, X. P., & Chen, C. C. 2004. On the intricacies of the Chinese guanxi: A process model of guanxi development. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 21 (3): 305324.
Chen, C. C., Chen, X. P., & Huang, S. 2013. Chinese guanxi: An integrative review and new directions for future research. Management and Organization Review, 9 (1): 167207.
Chen, C. C., Chen, Y. R., & Xin, K. 2004. Guanxi practices and trust in management: A procedural justice perspective. Organization Science, 15 (2): 200209.
Chen, Y., Friedman, R., Yu, E., & Sun, F. 2011. Examining the positive and negative effects of guanxi practices: A multi-level analysis of guanxi practices and procedural justice perceptions. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 28 (4): 715735.
Cheng, C. Y. 1972. On yi as a universal principle of specific application in Confucian morality. Philosophy East and West, 22 (3): 269280.
Choi, Y., & Mai-Dalton, R. R. 1998. On the leadership function of self-sacrifice. The Leadership Quarterly, 9 (4): 475501.
Chu, C. L. 1972. On the shame orientation of the Chinese from the interrelationship among society, individual, and culture. In Symposium on the character of the Chinese: An interdisciplinary approach: 85125. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica.
Coyle-Shapiro, J. A. M. 2002. A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23 (8): 927946.
Dalbert, C. 2009. Belief in a just world. In Leary, M. R. & Hoyle, R. H. (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior: 288297. New York: Guilford Publications.
Dunfee, T. W., & Warren, D. E. 2001. Is guanxi ethical? A normative analysis of doing business in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 32 (3): 191204.
Eisenberg, N., & Miller, P. A. 1987. The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 101 (1): 91.
Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Cumberland, A., Murphy, B. C., Shepard, S. A., Zhou, Q., & Carlo, G. 2002. Prosocial development in early adulthood: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82 (6): 993.
English, J. 1992. What do grown children owe their parents?? In Jecker, N. S. (Ed.), Aging and Ethics. Contemporary issues in biomedicine, ethics, and society. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
Farh, J. L., Tsui, A. S., Xin, K., & Cheng, B. S. 1998. The influence of relational demography and guanxi: The Chinese case. Organization Science, 9 (4): 471488.
Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. 2003. The nature of human altruism. Nature, 425: 785791.
Fei, H. 1992/1947. From the soil, the foundations of Chinese society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Friedrichs, R. W. 1960. Alter versus ego: An exploratory assessment of altruism. American Sociological Review, 25: 495508
Fung, H. 2006. Affect and early moral socialization: Some insights and contributions from indigenous psychological studies in Taiwan. In Indigenous and Cultural Psychology: 175196. New York: Springer.
Gouldner, A. W. 1960. The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25 (2): 161178.
Granovetter, M. S. 1973. The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78 (6): 13601380.
Hofstede, G. 1991. Cultures and organizations. Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.
Hosmer, L. T. 1995. Trust: The connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 20 (2): 379403.
Hough, L. M. 1992. The ‘Big Five’ personality variables-construct confusion: Description versus prediction. Human Performance, 5 (1—2): 139155.
Hovland, C. I., & Rosenberg, M. J. (Eds.). 1960. Attitude organization and change. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Hsieh, Y-W. 1967. Filial piety and Chinese society. In Moore, C. A. (Ed.), The Chinese mind: 167187. Honolulu: East-West Center Press.
Hwang, K. K. 1987. Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 92 (4): 944974.
Hwang, K. K. 1999. Filial piety and loyalty: Two types of social identification in Confucianism. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2 (1): 163183.
Ip, P. K. 2009. Is Confucianism good for business ethics in China? Journal of Business Ethics, 88 (3): 463476.
Jacobs, J. B. 1979. A preliminary model of particularistic ties in Chinese political alliances: Kan-ch'ing and Kuan-hsi in a rural Taiwanese township. The China Quarterly, 78: 237273.
Krackhardt, D., & Hanson, J. R. 1993. Informal networks. Harvard Business Review, 71: 104111.
Krebs, D. 1970. Altruism – An examination of the concept and a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 73: 258302.
Krebs, D. 1975. Empathy and altruism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32: 11341146.
Krebs, J. R., & Davies, N. B. 1987. An introduction to behavioural ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Lau, D. C. 2003. Mencius. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
Larsen, J. T., Hemenover, S. H., Norris, C. J., & Cacioppo, J. T. 2003. Turning adversity to advantage: On the virtues of the coactivation of positive and negative emotions. A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology, 211225.
Lee, K. K. 1998. Confucian tradition in the contemporary Korean family. In De Vos, G. A. & Slote, W. H. (Eds.), Confucianism and the family: 249266. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Leung, W., Liang, X., Priem, R., & Shaffer, M. 2013. Top management team trust, behavioral integration and the performance of international joint ventures. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 7 (2): 99122.
Li, J. J., Zhou, K. Z., & Shao, A. T. 2009. Competitive position, managerial ties, and profitability of foreign firms in China: An interactive perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (2): 339352.
Li, P. P. 2007. Social tie, social capital, and social behavior: Toward an integrative model of informal exchange. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 24 (2): 227246.
Lin, L. H. 2011. Cultural and organizational antecedents of guanxi: The Chinese cases. Journal of Business Ethics, 99 (3–10): 441451.
Lo, Y. K. 2011. The idea of evil in early China. In Zuñiga, L. T. & Andrés Cuevas, I. M. (Eds.), Constructing good and evil, 310. Oxford, UK: Interdisciplinary Press.
Luo, J. D. 2005. Particularistic trust and general trust: A network analysis in Chinese organizations. Management and Organization Review, 1 (3), 437458.
Luo, Y. 2008. The changing Chinese culture and business behavior: The perspective of intertwinement between guanxi and corruption. International Business Review, 17 (2): 188193.
Mancini, J. A., & Blieszner, R. 1989. Aging parents and adult children: Research themes in intergenerational relations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51 (2): 275290.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. 1991. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98 (2): 224253.
Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. 1995. An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20 (3): 709734.
McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., & Chervany, N. L. 1998. Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 23 (3): 473490.
Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. 2002. Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61 (1): 2052.
McIsaac, L. 2000. Righteous fraternities’ and honorable men: Sworn brotherhoods in wartime Chongqing. The American Historical Review, 105 (5): 16411655.
Moore, J. 1984. The evolution of reciprocal sharing. Ethology and Sociobiology, 5 (1): 514.
Mount, M. K., & Barrick, M. R. 1995. The Big Five personality dimensions: Implications for research and practice in human resources management. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 13 (3): 153200.
Pagel, M. D., Erdly, W. W., & Becker, J. 1987. Social networks: We get by with (and in spite of) a little help from our friends. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53 (4): 793.
Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & DeMarree, K. G. 2007. The Meta–Cognitive Model (MCM) of attitudes: Implications for attitude measurement, change, and strength. Social Cognition, 25 (5): 657686.
Roberts, B. W., Jackson, J. J., Fayard, J. V., Edmonds, G., Meints, J. 2009. Chapter 25. Conscientiousness. In Leary, M. R. & Hoyle, R. H. (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior: 257273. New York/London: The Guildford Press.
Robinson, S. L., & Morrison, E. W. 1995. Psychological contracts and OCB: The effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16 (3): 289298.
Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S., & Camerer, C. 1998. Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23 (3): 393404.
Rousseau, D. M. 1989. Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2 (2): 121139.
Schein, E. H. 1990. Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45 (2):109119
Steidlmeier, P. 1999. Gift giving, bribery and corruption: Ethical management of business relationships in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 20 (2): 121132.
Strelan, P. 2007. The prosocial, adaptive qualities of just world beliefs: Implications for the relationship between justice and forgiveness. Personality and Individual Differences, 43: 881890.
Su, C., & Littlefield, J. E. 2001. Entering guanxi: A business ethical dilemma in mainland China? Journal of Business Ethics, 33 (3): 199210.
Su, C., Mitchell, R. K., & Sirgy, M. J. 2007. Enabling guanxi management in China: A hierarchical stakeholder model of effective guanxi. Journal of Business Ethics, 71 (3): 301319.
Trivers, R. L. 1971. The evolution of reciprocal altruism. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 46 (1): 3557.
Trivers, R. L. 2006. Reciprocal altruism: 30 years later. In Kappeler, P. M. & van Schaik, C. P. (Eds.), Cooperation in primates and humans: Mechanisms and evolution: 6783. New York: Springer.
Tsang, E. W. 1998. Can guanxi be a source of sustained competitive advantage for doing business in China? The Academy of Management Executive, 12 (2): 6473.
Tung, R. L., & Worm, V. 2001. Network capitalism: The role of human resources in penetrating the China market. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12 (4): 517534.
Tushman, M. L., & Scanlan, T. J. 1981. Boundary spanning individuals: Their role in information transfer and their antecedents. Academy of Management Journal, 24 (2): 289305.
Uslaner, E. M. 2002. The moral foundations of trust. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Van Norden, B. W. 2002. The emotion of shame and the virtue of righteousness in Mencius. Dao, 2 (1): 4577.
Wang, L. 2010. A research on the code of brotherhood in the organization of criminal syndicate. Journal of Southwest University of China, 36 (2): 18.
Xin, K. K., & Pearce, J. L. 1996. Guanxi: Connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (6): 16411658.
Yang, K. S. 1997. Theories and research in Chinese personality: An indigenous approach. In Kao, H. S. R. & Sinha, D. (Eds.), Asian Perspectives on Psychology: 236262. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yang, L. S. 1957. The concept of Pao as a basis for social relations in China. In Fairbank, J. K. (Ed.), Chinese thought and institutions: 291309. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Yu, J. 2006. Yi: Practical wisdom in Confucius's analects. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 33 (3): 335348.
ZannaM, P. M, P., & Rempel, J. K. 1988. Attitudes: A new look at an old concept. In Bar-Tal, D. & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.), The social psychology of knowledge: 315334. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Management and Organization Review
  • ISSN: 1740-8776
  • EISSN: 1740-8784
  • URL: /core/journals/management-and-organization-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed