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How Domestic Firms Absorb Spillovers: A Routine-Based Model of Absorptive Capacity View

  • Cheng-Hua Tzeng (a1)
Abstract

Extant spillover literature explains domestic firms' productivity change mainly by the presence and attributes of foreign direct investment. In contrary, this paper, by adopting a routine-based model of absorptive capacity, intends to explore how domestic firms absorb spillovers over time. Based on a qualitative study of a domestic firm in China's silicone adhesive industry, the findings show that unbounded by geographical constraints, domestic firms enact their external absorptive capacity routines to actively search for spillovers from multinational enterprises (MNEs) at both national and international levels. Moreover, rather than searching for what is available, domestic firms are selective for spillovers that are coherent with their business strategies. The most unexpected finding is that domestic firms diligently acquire spillovers from MNEs and from local competitors in combination. Spillovers acquired from local competitors are used to increase the inferential accuracy of spillovers acquired from MNEs about strategic successes. Further, instead of absorbing spillovers from MNEs which pose moderate technology gaps, domestic firms target at MNEs which exhibit wider technology gaps, and undertake organizational learning and develop complementary assets to enhance their internal absorptive capacity routines. Socially enabling mechanisms are found to facilitate domestic firms' absorption of spillovers by employee turnover.

摘要:

现有的知识外溢文献主要是从外商直接投资的种种特性来解释本土企业生产力的变化。本文采用基于惯例的吸收能力模型, 研究本土企业如何吸收知识外溢。透过一个生产有机硅胶粘剂中国企业的案例研究, 结果表明, 本土企业吸收知识外溢并不会受到地理位置的限制;相反, 本土企业会透过其外部吸收能力的惯例, 积极地在国内外大范围搜寻跨国企业所带来的知识外溢。此外, 本土企业不是一味地搜寻既有的知识外溢, 而是主动挑选与其商业战略相符合的知识外溢。最意外的发现是, 本土公司企图积极地从跨国公司和当地竞争对手身上获取知识外溢。从当地竞争对手那所获得的知识外溢主要用来提高本土企业准确地推断从跨国公司那里获取的有关战略成功的知识外溢。为了从技术差距较大的跨国企业身上获取知识外溢, 本土企业会透过组织学习和发展互补性资产来提高其内部吸收能力的惯例。最后, 本研究也发现, 社会支持机制可以促进本土企业透过从其他企业跳槽过来的员工来吸收知识外溢。

वर्तमान संसाधन प्लवन शोध साहित्य स्वदेशीय फर्मों के उत्पादकता परिवर्तन को मुख्यतः विदेशी सीधे निवेश की उपस्थिति व गुणों के आधार पर समझाता है. इसके विपरीत यह शोध पत्र अवशोषक क्षमता के नैत्यिक आदर्श को अपनाते हुए यह अनुसंधान करने का इच्छुक है कि किस प्रकार स्वदेशीय कंपनियां समय के अंतराल में संसाधन प्लवन को लीं करती हैं. चीन के सिलिकॉन आसंजक उद्योग की स्वदेशीय फर्म के गुणात्मक अध्ययन के आधार पर हमारे परिणाम यह दिखाते हैं की भौगोलिक सीमितताओं से मुक्त, स्वदेशीय फर्म अपनी अवशोषक क्षमता को देशीय व विदेशी स्तर पर बहुराष्ट्रीय कंपनियों के संसाधन प्लवन अवसरों को खोजने के लिए प्रयोग करते हैं. साथ ही देशीय स्तर पर उपलब्ध संसाधनों पर न सीमित हो, स्वदेशीय फर्म अपनी रणनीति से संगत नियत संसाधन प्लवन पर केंद्रित होते हैं. सबसे अप्रत्याशित परिणाम यह है कि स्वदेशीय फर्म देशीय व बहुराष्ट्रीय उद्यमों से तत्परता से, संयुक्त रूप से संसाधन प्लवन अधिगृहीत करते हैं. देशीय प्रतिस्पर्धियों से अधिगृहीत प्लवन का प्रयोग रणनैतिक सफलता हेतु बहुराष्ट्रीय उद्यमों से अधिगृहीत क्षमता की आनुमानिक सटीकता को बढ़ाने के लिए किया जाता है. साथ ही स्वदेशीय फर्म मध्यम तकनीकी अंतर वाले बहुराष्ट्रीय उद्यम के प्लवन को आत्मसात करने की जगह संगठनीय विज्ञता व पूरक क्षमता बढ़ने हेतु अधिक तकनीकी अंतर वाले बहुराष्ट्रीय उद्यमों पर लक्ष्य करती हैं जिससे आंतरिक परिपोषक क्षमता बढ़ सके. कर्मचारी विच्छेद से प्लवन अवशोषण को सुगम करने वाली सामाजिक सामर्थ्य वर्धक प्रक्रियाएं भी इस शोध में देखी गयीं.

SUMÁRIO:

A literatura existente sobre spillovers explica a mudança de produtividade das empresas domésticas principalmente pela presença e atributos do investimento estrangeiro direto. Em contraste, este artigo, adotando um modelo baseado em rotina da capacidade de absorção, pretende explorar como as empresas domésticas absorvem spillovers ao longo do tempo. Com base em um estudo qualitativo de uma empresa doméstica na indústria de adesivos de silicone da China, os resultados mostram que ilimitadas por restrições geográficas, as empresas domésticas promovem suas rotinas externas de capacidade de absorção para procurar ativamente spillovers de empresas multinacionais (MNEs) a nível nacional e internacional. Além disso, em vez de procurar pelo que está disponível, as empresas domésticas são seletivas para spillovers coerentes com suas estratégias de negócios. A descoberta mais inesperada é que as firmas domésticas diligentemente adquirem spillovers de MNEs e de concorrentes locais em combinação. Spillovers adquiridos de concorrentes locais são usados para aumentar a precisão inferencial de spillovers adquiridos de MNEs sobre sucessos estratégicos. Além disso, em vez de absorver spillovers de MNEs que apresentam falhas tecnológicas moderadas, as empresas domésticas visam MNEs que exibem maiores lacunas tecnológicas e realizam o aprendizado organizacional e desenvolvem ativos complementares para aprimorar suas rotinas internas de capacidade de absorção.

Mecanismos socialmente capacitantes são encontrados para facilitar a absorção de spillovers pelas empresas domésticas pela rotatividade de funcionários.

АННОТАЦИЯ:

В обширной литературе о распространении знаний, изменение производительности местных фирм объясняется, главным образом, наличием и особенностями прямых иностранных инвестиций. Данная работа, напротив, на основании рутинной модели поглощающей способности, ставит своей целью исследовать, каким образом национальные фирмы поглощают спилловеры знаний с течением времени. Результаты качественного исследования, проведенного в национальных компаниях, которые работают в кремнийорганической промышленности в Китае, показывают, что, при условии отсутствия географических ограничений, местные компании внедряют свои процедуры внешней поглощающей способности, чтобы активно искать спилловеры знаний от многонациональных компаний (МНК) на национальном и международном уровнях. Более того, вместо того, чтобы искать то, что доступно, национальные компании весьма избирательны и стремятся к знаниям, которые соответствуют стратегиям их бизнеса. Самое неожиданное открытие заключается в том, что национальные фирмы усердно приобретают знания одновременно как от МНК, так и от местных конкурентов. Знания, приобретенные у местных конкурентов, используются для увеличения достоверности знаний о стратегических успехах, которые получены от МНК. Кроме того, вместо поглощения знаний от МНК с незначительными технологическими преимуществами, национальные фирмы ориентируются на МНК с большими технологическими преимуществами, а также проводят организационное обучение и вкладывают дополнительные средства для усиления своих процедур внутренней поглощающей способности. Мы также обнаружили, что социально-стимулирующие механизмы способствуют поглощению знаний в национальных компаниях из-за текучести кадров.

RESUMEN:

La literatura existente sobre el spillover explica el cambio de productividad de las empresas nacionales principalmente por la presencia y atributos de la inversión extranjera directa. Por el contrario, este artículo al adoptar un modelo basado en rutina de capacidad de absorción intenta explorar cómo las empresas nacionales absorben spillovers a lo largo del tiempo. Con base en un estudio cualitativo de una empresa nacional de la industria de adhesivos de silicona en China, los hallazgos muestran que, sin limitaciones de restricciones geográficas, las empresas nacionales promulgan sus rutinas de capacidad de absorción externa mediante la búsqueda activa de spillovers de empresas multinacionales tanto a nivel nacional como internacional. Además, en lugar de buscar por lo que está disponible, las empresas nacionales son selectivas para los spillovers que sean coherentes con sus estrategias de negocio. El hallazgo más inesperado es que las empresas domésticas de manera diligente adquieren en combinación spillovers de las empresas multinacionales y de competidores locales. Los spillovers que se adquieren de los competidores locales son usados para aumentar la precisión inferencial de los spillovers adquiridos de las empresas multinacionales acerca de los éxitos estratégicos. Además, en lugar de absorber spillovers de las empresas multinacionales que poseen brechas tecnológicas moderadas, las empresas nacionales tiene como objetivo las multinacionales que demuestran brechas tecnológicas más amplias, y emprenden aprendizaje organizacional y desarrollaran activos complementarios para aumentar sus rutinas de capacidad de absorción interna. Los mecanismos socialmente favorables se encuentran para facilitar la absorción de spillovers de las empresas nacionales por la rotación de empleados.

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