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How Early Entrants Impact Cluster Emergence: MNEs vs. Local Firms in the Bangalore Digital Creative Industries

  • Mark Lorenzen (a1)

Abstract

This article addresses the question of how the emergence of a cluster in a global innovation system is influenced by early entrants. It does so by presenting an explorative study of the emerging digital creative industries cluster in Bangalore. I find that MNE entrants develop production and technological capabilities comparatively fast within a narrow range of value chain activities with limited spillovers to the cluster. In comparison, local entrants develop such capabilities more slowly, but within a broader range of value chain activities and with higher spillovers of skills and knowledge, as well as higher participation to building a local entrepreneurial ecosystem. I propose that these effects are moderated by the size of national consumer markets as well as industry context in the guise of project lengths and technological modularity. I also point to the role of global connectivity, proposing that local entrants, in particular, leverage international personal relationships for development of not only relational, but also production capabilities.

本文探讨全球创新系统中集群的产生是如何受到早期进入者影响的。本文报告一项针对班加罗尔兴起的数字创意产业集群的探索性研究。我发现跨国企业进入者在狭窄的价值链活动范围内比较快速地形成生产和技术能力,但外溢到集群却是有限的。相比之下,本地进入者发展这些能力的速度慢得多,但发生在更广的价值链活动范围内,并且具有更高的技能和知识外溢,也更深地参与到本地创业生态系统的建设当中。我认为这些效应受到国家消费者市场以及由项目时长和技术模块化为名义的行业情境的调节。我还指出全球连通性的作用,即本地进入者特别利用国际上的个人关系,建立关系能力和生产能力。

В этой статье рассматривается вопрос о том, как первые участники влияют на развитие кластера в глобальной инновационной системе. Данное исследование проводится на примере нового цифрового креативного кластера в Бангалоре. Я прихожу к выводу о том, что МНП, в качестве участников, сравнительно быстро развивают производственные и технологические возможности в узком диапазоне операций в производственной цепи и с ограниченными вторичными эффектами для кластера. Для сравнения, местные участники развивают такие возможности медленнее, но в более широком спектре операций в производственной цепи и с более обширным распространением навыков и знаний, а также с более активным участием в построении местной предпринимательской экосистемы. Я предполагаю, что на эти факторы влияют размер национальных потребительских рынков, а также отраслевой контекст, прежде всего продолжительность проектов и технологическая модульность. Я также подчеркиваю роль глобальной взаимосвязанности и предполагаю, что местные участники, в особенности, используют личные связи на международном уровне для развития не только личных отношений, но и производственных возможностей.

Este artículo aborda la pregunta de cómo el surgimiento de un clúster en un sistema de innovación global está influenciado por quienes ingresaron tempranamente. Lo hace presentando un estudio exploratorio del clúster de industrias creativas digitales emergentes en Bangalore. Encuentro que las EMN que ingresan desarrollan capacidades de producción y tecnológicas comparativamente rápidas dentro de un rango estrecho de actividades de la cadena de valor con efectos secundarios limitados al clúster. En comparación, los locales desarrollan dichas capacidades más lentamente, pero dentro de una gama más amplia de actividades de la cadena de valor y con mayores efectos secundarios de habilidades y conocimientos, así como una mayor participación en la construcción de un ecosistema empresarial local. Propongo que estos efectos sean moderados por el tamaño de los mercados de consumo nacionales, así como también por el contexto de la industria en la forma de la duración de los proyectos y la modularidad tecnológica. También indico el papel de la conectividad global, proponiendo que los locales, en particular, aprovechen las relaciones personales internacionales para el desarrollo no sólo de capacidades relacionales, sino también de producción.

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Accepted by: Guest Editors Suresh Bhagavatula and Ram Mudambi, and Deputy Editor Johann Peter Murmann

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How Early Entrants Impact Cluster Emergence: MNEs vs. Local Firms in the Bangalore Digital Creative Industries

  • Mark Lorenzen (a1)

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