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A Measurement Model for Dignity, Face, and Honor Cultural Norms

  • Jingjing Yao (a1), Jimena Ramirez-Marin (a1), Jeanne Brett (a2), Soroush Aslani (a3) and Zhaleh Semnani-Azad (a4)...
Abstract

In this work we develop and validate a model measuring norms that distinguish three types of culture: dignity, face, and honor (Leung & Cohen, 2011). Our motivation is to produce empirical evidence for this new cultural framework and use the framework to explain cultural differences in interdependent social interactions such as negotiation. In two studies, we establish the content validity, construct validity, predictive validity, and measurement invariance of this measurement model. In Study 1, we present the model's three-factor structure and situate the constructs of dignity, face, and honor in a nomological network of cultural constructs. In Study 2, which uses a sample of participants from 26 cultures, we show that the measurement model discriminates among people from the three cultural regions corresponding to the dignity, face, and honor framework. In particular, we report differences between face and honor cultures, which are not distinguished in other cultural frameworks (e.g., Hofstede, 1980). We also show that the measurement model accounts for cultural differences in norms for use of negotiation strategy.

摘要:

在这篇文章中, 我们开发和验证了一个模型来测量和区分三种文化:尊严文化、面子文化和荣誉文化 (Leung & Cohen, 2011) 。我们的目的是为这个新的文化理论框架提供实证数据, 并用这个框架来解释相互依赖的社会互动 (例如谈判) 中存在的文化差异。在两个子研究中, 我们检验了该测量模型的内容效度、构念效度、预测效度、和测量不变性。在子研究1中, 我们提出了模型的三因素结构, 将尊严、面子和荣誉这三个构念放置在一个文化构念的理论命题网络中。在子研究2中, 我们使用了来自26个文化的样本, 发现此测量模型能有效区分尊严、面子和荣誉文化框架相对应的三个文化区域的人。值得注意的是, 我们报告了面子文化和荣誉文化之间的差异, 而这两者在其他文化框架中没有被区分开来 (例如, Hofstede, 1980) 。我们还发现, 这个测量模型可以解释谈判中人们使用的规范性策略。

प्रस्तुत अध्ययन में हम गरिमा, इज़्ज़त (face), व प्रतिष्ठा आधारित तीन प्रकार की संस्कृतियों में विभेद करने के लिए एक आदर्श का विकास व पुष्टि की है (ल्यूंग व कोहेन, 2011). हमारा लक्ष्य इस नवीन प्रतिदर्श के लिए अनुभवजन्य साक्ष्य प्रस्तुत करना और फिर इस आदर्श को संधिक्रम जैसी अन्योन्याश्रित सामाजिक अन्तःक्रिया में सांस्कृतिक अंतर समझने के लिए करना है. अपने दोनों अध्ययनों में हमने इस आदर्श की तत्व, संरचना, भविष्यपरक वैधता, व मापन की अविविधता स्थापित की है. प्रथम अध्ययन में हमने आदर्श की त्रि-आयामी संरचना को प्रस्तुत किया है और गरिमा, इज़्ज़त, व प्रतिष्ठा की सांस्कृतिक संरचना के नियम-प्रतिरूपों में स्थित किया है. दूसरे अध्ययन में जिसमें 26 संस्कृतियों के प्रतिदर्शों का प्रयोग किया गया है, हमने दिखाया है की यह आदर्श गरिमा, इज़्ज़त (face) व प्रतिष्ठा रूपरेखा के अनुसार व्यक्तियों में तीन सांस्कृतिक क्षेत्रों के आधार पर विभेद करता है. विशेष तौर पर हमने face व प्रतिष्ठा सम्बद्ध संस्कृतियों में विभेद प्रस्तुत किया है, जिनका अन्य सांस्कृतिक रूपरेखाओं में विभेद नहीं किया गया है (उदाहरणतः हॉफ़स्टेड, 1980). हमने यह भी दिखाया है कि यह मापन आदर्श संधिक्रम रणनीति में प्रयुक्त मानकों में अंतर दिखाता है.

SUMÁRIO:

Neste trabalho, desenvolvemos e validamos um modelo que mede normas que distinguem três tipos de cultura: dignidade, face e honra (Leung & Cohen, 2011).

Nossa motivação é produzir evidências empíricas para este novo modelo de cultura e usar o modelo para explicar diferenças culturais nas interações sociais interdependentes, como a negociação. Em dois estudos, estabelecemos a validade do conteúdo, validade de construto, validade preditiva e invariância de medição deste modelo de medição. No Estudo 1, apresentamos a estrutura de três fatores do modelo e definimos os construtos de dignidade, face e honra em uma rede nomológica de construtos culturais. No Estudo 2, que utiliza uma amostra de participantes de 26 culturas, mostramos que o modelo de medição discrimina entre pessoas das três regiões culturais correspondentes ao modelo de dignidade, face e honra. Em particular, relatamos diferenças entre culturas de face e de honra, que não se distinguem em outros modelos culturais (por exemplo, Hofstede, 1980). Também mostramos que o modelo de medição contabiliza diferenças culturais nas normas para o uso da estratégia de negociação.

Аннотация:

В этой работе мы разрабатываем и тестируем модель для измерения норм, которые свойственны трем типам культуры: достоинство, лицо и честь (Leung & Cohen, 2011). Наша цель заключается в том, чтобы подготовить эмпирические данные для этой новой культурной концепции, а также использовать её для объяснения культурных различий в контексте социальных взаимодействий, таких как переговоры. В двух исследованиях устанавливаются контентная и конструктная валидность, прогностическая достоверность и инвариантность этой измерительной модели. В первом исследовании мы представляем структуру модели из трех факторов и определяем понятия достоинства, лица и чести в номологической сети культурных понятий. Во втором исследовании, которое основано на выборке участников из 26 культур, мы показываем, что данная модель выявляет различия среди людей из трех культурных регионов, которые соответствуют понятиям достоинства, лица и чести. В частности, мы обнаружили отличия между культурами лица и чести, которые не различаются в других культурных моделях (см., напр.: Hofstede 1980). Мы также показываем, что данная измерительная модель учитывает культурные нормативные различия в стратегии переговоров.

RESUMEN:

En este trabajo desarrollamos y validamos un modelo para la medición de normas que distingue tres tipos de cultura: dignidad, rostro, y honor (Leung & Cohen, 2011). Nuestra motivación es producir evidencias empíricas para este nuevo marco cultural y usar el marco para explicar las diferencias culturales en interacciones sociales interdependientes como la negociación. En dos estudios, establecimos la validez del contenido, la validez del constructo, la validez predictiva, y la invarianza de la medida de este modelo de medición. En el Estudio 1, presentamos la estructura de tres factores del modelo y situamos los constructos de dignidad, rostro y honor en una red nomológica de constructos culturales. En el Estudio 2, en el cual usamos una amplia muestra de participantes de 26 culturas, mostramos que el modelo de medición discrimina entre personas de tres regiones culturales correspondiente al modelo de dignidad, rostro, y honor. En particular, reportamos las diferencias entre las culturas de rostro y honor, las cuales no se distinguen en otros marcos culturales (e.g., Hofstede 1980). También mostramos que el modelo de medición explica las diferencias culturales en las normas para el uso de la estrategia de negociación.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Jingjing Yao (j.yao@ieseg.fr)
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