Skip to main content

The Structure of Labor Markets in the US and China: Social Capital and Guanxi

  • Nancy DiTomaso (a1) and Yanjie Bian (a2) (a3)

Despite the major cultural and political differences between the United States and China, in both countries access to jobs is supposed to be guided by fair and equitable procedures. In the US, there is a presumption of an open labor market in which potential employees compete on the basis of their qualifications, where the fairness of decisions is guided by anti-discrimination laws and normative organizational policies. In China, although there is a history of close relationships that guide the exchange of favors, following the 1949 revolution, Communist Party leaders were given the authority to allocate positions in ways that were supposed to eliminate special privileges of class and background. Yet recent research has suggested that social connections are an important part of getting a job in both the US and China for two-thirds to three-quarters of job seekers. In the US context, such connections are described as social capital. In the Chinese context, connections are defined as guanxi. In this article, we review research on labor market processes in both the US and China to address three important questions: (a) How can we understand the similar functioning of labor markets in such distinct cultural and political systems as the US and China? (b) What are the mechanisms or processes by which people find jobs in the US and China, and how are people able to access these mechanisms or processes in the context of constraining social structures and legal environments? and (c) What are the theoretical implications of the ‘generalized particularism’ that seems to shape labor markets in both the US and China.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Yanjie Bian (
Hide All
Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S.-W. 2002. Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27 (1): 1740.
Aigner, D. J., & Cain, G. C. 1977. Statistical theories of discrimination in labor markets. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 30 (2): 175–87.
Alexander, K., Entwisle, D. R., & Olson, L. 2014. The long shadow: Family background, disadvantaged urban youth, and the transition to adulthood. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Arrow, K. 1998. What has economics to say about racial discrimination. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12 (2): 91100.
Baker, W. E. 1994. Networking smart: How to build relationships for personal and organizational success. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Baker, W. E. 2000. Achieving success through social capital: Tapping the hidden resources in your personal and business networks. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bayer, P., Ross, S. L., & Topa, G. 2008. Place of work and place of residence: Informal hiring networks and labor market outcomes. Journal of Political Economy, 116 (6): 11501196.
Becker, G. S. 1964. Human capital. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Becker, G. S. 1985. Human capital, effort, and the sexual division of labor. Journal of Labor Economics, 3 (1): S33–S59.
Ben-Porath, Y. 1967. The production of human capital and the life cycle of earnings. Journal of Political Economy, 75 (4): 352365. doi: 10.2307/1828596.
Bendrick, M. Jr., Jackson, C.W., Reinoso, V. A., & Hodges, L. 1991. Discrimination against Latino job applicants: A controlled experiment. Human Resource Management, 30 (4): 469484.
Bian, Y. 1994. Guanxi and the allocation of urban jobs in China. The China Quarterly, 140(December): 971999.
Bian, Y. 1997. Bringing strong ties back in: Indirect ties, network bridges, and job searches in China. American Sociological Review, 62 (3): 366385.
Bian, Y. 2002. Chinese social stratification and social mobility. Annual Review of Sociology, 28(August): 91116.
Bian, Y. 2006. Guanxi. In Beckert, J. & Zafirovski, M. (Eds.), International encyclopedia of economic sociology: 312314. London, UK: Routledge.
Bian, Y. In press. The prevalence and the increasing significance of guanxi. The China Quarterly.
Bian, Y., & Ang, S. 1997. Guanxi networks and job mobility in China and Singapore. Social Forces, 75 (3): 9811005.
Bian, Y., & Huang, X. 2015. Beyond the strength of social ties: Job search networks and entry-level wage in urban China. American Behavioral Scientist, 59 (1): 961976.
Bian, Y., & Huang, X. 2016. The guanxi influence on occupational attainment in urban China. Chinese Journal of Sociology, 1 (3): 307332.
Bian, Y., & Logan, J. R. 1996. Market transition and the persistence of power: The changing stratification system in urban China. American Sociological Review, 61 (5): 739758.
Bian, Y., Huang, X., & Zhang, L. 2015. Information and favoritism: The network effect on wage income in China. Social Networks, 40(January): 129138.
Bian, Y., Shu, X., & Logan, J. R. 2001. Communist party membership and regime dynamics in China. Social Forces, 79 (3): 805841.
Bielby, W. T., & Baron, J. N. 1986. Men and women at work: Sex segregation and statistical discrimination. American Journal of Sociology, 91 (4): 759799.
Blau, P. M., Ruan, D., & Ardelt, M. 1991. Interpersonal choice and networks in China. Social Forces, 69 (4): 10371062.
Boisot, M., & Child, J. 1996. From fiefs to clans and network capitalism: Explaining China's emerging economic order. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41 (4): 600628.
Bourdieu, P. 1986. The forms of capital. In Richardson, J. (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education: 241258. New York: Greenwood.
Brewer, M. B., & Chen, Y.-R. 2007. Where (who) are collectives in collectivism? Toward conceptual clarification of individualism and collectivism. Psychological Review, 114 (1): 133151.
Bridges, W. P., & Nelson, R. L. 1989. Markets in hierarchies: Organizational and market influences on gender inequality in a state pay system. The American Journal of Sociology, 95 (3): 616658.
Brown, M., Setren, E., & Topa, G. 2016. Do informal referrals lead to better matches? Evidence from a firm's employee referral system. Journal of Labor Economics, 34 (1): 161209.
Browne, I., & Misra, J. 2003. The intersection of gender and race in the labor market. Annual Review of Sociology, 29(August): 487513.
Burks, S. V., Cowgill, B., Hoffman, M., & Housman, M. 2015. The value of hiring through employee referrals. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130 (2): 805839.
Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burt, R. S. 1997. The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42 (2): 339365.
Burt, R. S. 1998. The gender of social capital. Rationality and Society, 10 (1): 536.
Burt, R. S. 2000. The network structure of social capital. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22: 345423.
Burt, R. S. 2001. Structural holes versus network closure as social capital. In Lin, N., Cook, K., & Burt, R. S. (Eds.), Social capital: Theory and research: 3156. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Burt, R. S., & Burzynska, K. 2017. Chinese entrepreneurs, social networks, and guanxi. Management and Organization Review, 13 (2): 221260.
Burt, R. S., & Opper, S. 2017. Early network events in the later success of Chinese entrepreneurs. Management and Organization Review, 13 (3): 497537.
Campbell, K. E. 1988. Gender differences in job-related networks. Work & Occupations, 15 (2): 179200.
Cao, Y., & Nee, V. G. 2000. Comment: Controversies and evidence in the market transition debate. American Journal of Sociology, 105 (4): 11751189.
Castilla, E. J. 2005. Social networks and employee performance in a call center. American Journal of Sociology, 110 (5): 12431284.
Castilla, E. J. 2008. Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers. American Journal of Sociology, 113 (6):14791526.
Chang, K.-C. 2011. A path to understanding guanxi in China's transitional economy: Variations on network behavior. Sociological Theory, 29 (4): 315339.
Chen, C. C., & Chen, X.-P. 2008. Negative externalities of close guanxi within organizations. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 26 (1): 3753.
Chen, C. C., Chen, X.-P., & Huang, S. 2013. Chinese guanxi: An integrative review and new directions for future research. Management and Organization Review, 9 (1): 167207.
Chen, X.-P., & Chen, C. C. 2004. On the intricacies of the Chinese guanxi: A process model of guanxi development. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 21 (3): 305324.
Chen, Y., & Volker, B. 2016. Social capital and homophily both matter for labor market outcomes–evidence from replication and extension. Social Networks, 45: 1831.
Cingano, F., & Rosolia, A. 2012. People I know: Job search and social networks. Journal of Labor Economics, 30 (2): 291332.
Coleman, J. S. 1988. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94: 95120.
Cook, K. S., Emerson, R. M., Gillmore, M. R., & Yamagishi, T. 1983. The distribution of power in exchange networks: Theory and experimental results. American Journal of Sociology, 89 (2): 275305.
Cotton, J. 1988. Discrimination and favoritism in the US labor market: The cost to a wage earner of being female and black and the benefit of being male and white. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 47 (1): 1528.
Coverdill, J. E. 1998. Personal contacts and post-hire job outcomes: Theoretical and empirical notes on the significance of matching methods. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 16: 247269.
Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. 2008. Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the bias map. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 40: 61137.
Darity, W. Jr., & Gordon Nembhard, J. 2000. Racial and ethnic economic inequality: The international record. The American Economic Review, 90 (2): 308311.
Darity, W. Jr., Dietrich, J., & Guilkey, D. K. 2001. Persistent advantage or disadvantage?: Evidence in support of the intergenerational drag hypothesis. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 60 (2): 435470.
DeGraaf, N. D., & Flap, H. D. 1998. With a little help from my friends: Social resources as an explanation of occupational status and income in West Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States. Social Forces, 67 (2): 452472.
de Janasz, S. C., Sullivan, S. E., Whiting, V., & Biech, E. 2003. Mentor networks and career success: Lessons for turbulent times. The Academy of Management Executive, 17 (4): 7893.
DiTomaso, N. 2013. The American non-dilemma: Racial inequality without racism. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
DiTomaso, N. 2015. Racism and discrimination versus advantage and favoritism: Bias for versus bias against. Research in Organizational Behavior, 35: 5777.
DiTomaso, N., Post, C., & Parks-Yancy, R. 2007. Workforce diversity and inequality: Power, status, and numbers. Annual Review of Sociology, 33 (1): 473501. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc. 33.040406.131805.
Elliott, J. R. 1999. Social isolation and labor market insulation: Networks and neighborhood effects on less-educated urban workers. The Sociological Quarterly, 40 (2): 199216.
Fagenson, E. A. 1989. The mentor advantage: Perceived career/job experiences of proteges versus non-proteges. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10 (4): 309320.
Fairlie, R. W., & Kletzer, L. G. 1998. Jobs lost, jobs regained: An analysis of black/white differences in job displacement in the 1980s. Industrial Relations, 37 (4): 460477.
Falcon, L. M., & Melendez, E. 2001. Racial and ethnic differences in job searching in urban centers. In O'Connor, A. O., Tilly, C., & Bobo, L. D. (Eds.), Urban inequality: Evidence from four cities: 341371. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Fei, X. 1992 [1949].From the soil, the foundations of Chinese society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Fernandez, R. M., Castilla, E. J., & Moore, P. 2000. Social capital at work: Networks and employment at a phone center. American Journal of Sociology, 105 (5): 12881356.
Fried, M. H. 1953. Fabric of Chinese society: A study of the social life in a Chinese county seat. New York: Octagon Books.
Galenianos, M. 2014. Hiring through referrals. Journal of Economic Theory, 152: 304323.
Gelfand, M. J., Erez, M., & Aycan, Z. 2007. Cross-cultural organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58: 479514.
Gerber, T., & Mayorova, O. 2010. Getting personal: Networks, institutions, and stratification in the Russian labor market, 1985–2001. American Journal of Sociology, 116 (3): 855904.
Gold, T. 1985. After comradeship: Personal relations in China since the cultural revolution. China Quarterly, 104(December): 657675.
Granovetter, M. 1973. The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78 (6): 13601380.
Granovetter, M. 1995. Getting a job: A study of contacts and careers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Guthrie, D. 1998. The declining significance of guanxi in China's economic transition. The China Quarterly, 154(June): 254282.
Hall, E. T. 1959. The silent language. New York: Doubleday.
Hanser, A. 2002. Youth job searches in urban China: The use of social connections in a changing labor market. In Gold, T., Guthrie, D., & Wank, D. (Eds.), Social connections in China: 137161. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hellerstein, J. K., McInerney, M., & Neumark, D. 2011. Neighbors and coworkers: The importance of residential labor market networks. Journal of Labor Economics, 29 (4): 659695.
Hewlett, S. A. 2013. Forget a mentor, find a sponsor: The new way to fast-track your career. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.
Hofstede, G. 1984. Culture's consequences: International difference in work related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. 1997. Culture and organizations: Software of the mind: Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Holzer, H. 1994. Black employment problems: New evidence, old questions. Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, 13 (4): 699722.
Huang, X. 2008. Guanxi networks and job searches in China's emerging labour market: A qualitative investigation. Work, Employment, and Society, 22 (3): 467484.
Huo, Y. P., Huang, H. J., & Napier, N. K. 2002. Divergence or convergence: A cross-national comparison of personnel selection practices. Human Resource Management, 41 (1): 3144.
Hwang, K.-k. 1987. Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 92 (4): 944974.
Ibarra, H. 1992. Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structures and access in an advertising firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37 (3): 422438.
Ibarra, H. 1995. Race, opportunity, and diversity of social circles in managerial networks. The Academy of Management Journal, 38 (3): 673703.
Jackman, M. R. 1994. The velvet glove: Paternalism and conflict in gender, class, and race relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jacobs, J. B. 1979. A preliminary model of particularistic ties in Chinese political alliances: Kan-Ching and Kuan-Hsi in a rural Taiwanese township. The China Quarterly, 78(June): 237273.
King, A. Y.-c. 1985. The individual and group in Confucianism: A relational perspective. In Munro, D. J. (Ed.), Individualism and holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist values. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan.
Kipnis, A. 1997. Producing guanxi: Sentiment, self, and subculture in a north China village. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Kitayama, S. 2002. Culture and basic psychological processes: Toward a system view of culture. Psychological Bulletin, 128 (1): 8996.
Korpi, T. 2001. Good friends in bad times? Social networks and job search among the unemployed in Sweden. Acta Sociologica, 44 (2): 157170.
Liang, S. 1986 [1949].The essential meanings of Chinese culture. Hong Kong: Zheng Zhong Press.
Liang, Z., Appleton, S., & Song, L. 2016. Informal employment in China: Trends, patterns and determinants of entry. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Unpublished Discussion Paper No. 10139.
Lin, N. 1982. Social resources and instrumental action. In Marsden, P. V. & Lin, N. (Eds.), Social structure and network analysis: 131145. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Lin, N. 1995. Local market socialism: Local corporation in action in rural China. Theory and Society, 24 (3): 301354.
Lin, N. 1999a. Social networks and status attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 25: 467487.
Lin, N. 1999b. Building a network theory of social capital. Connections, 22 (1): 2851.
Lin, N. 2001a. Guanxi: A conceptual analysis. In So, A., Lin, N., & Poston, D. (Eds.), The Chinese triange of mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: Comparative institutional analysis. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Lin, N. 2001b. Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lin, N. 2011. Capitalism in China: A centrally managed capitalism (CMC) and its future. Management and Organization Review, 7 (1): 6396.
Lin, N., & Bian, Y. 1991. Getting ahead in urban China. American Journal of Sociology, 97 (3): 657688.
Lin, N., Ensel, W. M., & Vaughn, J. C. 1981. Social resources and strength of ties: Structural factors in occupational status attainment. American Sociological Review, 8 (1): 393405.
Lin, N., Fu, Y.-c., & Chen, C.-j. J. 2013. Social capital and its institutional contingency: A study of the United States, China and Taiwan. Abingdon-on-Thames, UK: Routledge.
Lo, M.-C., & Otis, E. M. 2003. Guanxi civility: Processes, potentials, and contingencies. Politcs & Society, 31 (1): 131162.
Logan, J. R., & Molotch, H. L. 1987. Urban fortunes: The political economy of place. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Loury, L. D. 2006. Some contacts are more equal than others: Informal networks, job tenure, and wages. Journal of Labor Economics, 24 (2): 299318.
Lunding, F. S., Clements, C. E., & Perkins, D. S. 1979. Everyone who makes it has a mentor. Harvard Business Review, 56: 89101.
Luo, Y., Huang, Y., & Wang, S. 2012. Guanxi and organizational performance: A meta-analysis. Management and Organization Review, 8 (1): 139172.
Ma, R., Huang, Y.-C., & Shenkar, O. 2011. Social networks and opportunity recognition: A cultural comparison between Taiwan and the United States. Strategic Management Journal, 32 (11): 11831205.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. 1991. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98 (2): 224253.
Marsden, P. V., & Hurlbert, J. S. 1988. Social resources and mobility outcomes: A replication and extension. Social Forces, 66 (4): 10381059.
Massey, D. S. 2007. Categorically unequal: The American stratification system. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. 1993. American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McDonald, S., Lin, N., & Ao, D. 2009. Networks of opportunity: Gender, race, and job leads. Social Problems, 56 (3): 385402.
McGuire, G. M. 2000. Gender, race, ethnicity, and networks: The factors affecting the status of employees' network members. Work & Occupations, 27 (4): 500523.
McPherson, J. M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. 2001. Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27: 415444.
Mills, C. W. 1997. The racial contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mincer, J. 1974. Schooling, experience, and earnings. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mincer, J. 1997. The production of human capital and the life cycle of earnings: Variations on a theme. Journal of Labor Economics, 15 (1): S26–S47. doi: 10.2307/2535400.
Mizruchi, M. S., & Brewster Stearns, L. 2002. Getting deals done: The use of social networks in bank decision making. American Sociological Review, 66 (5): 647672.
Nee, V. 1989. A theory of market transition: From redistribution to markets in state socialism. American Sociological Review, 54 (5): 663681.
Nee, V. 1991. Social inequalities in reforming state socialism: Between redistribution and markets in China. American Sociological Review, 56 (3): 267282.
Nee, V. 1992. Organizational dynamics of market transition: Hybrid forms, property rights, and mixed economy in China. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37 (1): 127.
Nee, V. 1996. The emergence of a market society: Changing mechanisms of stratification in China. American Journal of Sociology, 101 (4): 908949.
Nee, V., & Cao, Y. 1999. Path dependent societal transformation: Stratification in hybrid mixed economies. Theory and Society, 28 (6): 799834.
Nee, V., & Matthews, R. 1996. Market transition and societal transformation in reforming state socialism. Annual Review of Sociology, 22: 401435.
Nee, V., & Opper, S. 2010. Political capital in a market economy. Social Forces, 88 (5): 21052132.
Nisbett, R. E. 2003. The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerners think differently . . . and why. New York: The Free Press.
Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. 2001. Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108 (2): 291311.
Obukhova, E. 2012. Motivation vs. relevance: Using strong ties to find a job in China. Social Science Research, 41 (3): 470480.
Oi, J. C. 1999. Rural China takes off: Institutional foundations of economic reform. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Parish, W. L., & Michelson, E. 1996. Politics and markets: Dual transformations. American Journal of Sociology, 101 (4): 10421059.
Portes, A. 1998. Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24 (1): 124.
Putnam, R. 2000. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Qi, Xiaoying. 2013. Guanxi, social capital theory and beyond: Toward a globalized social science. The British Journal of Sociology, 64 (2): 308324.
Reskin, B. 2000. Getting it right: Sex and race inequality in work organizations. Annual Review of Sociology, 26: 707709.
Rona-Tas, A. 1994. The first shall be last: Entrepreneurship and communist cadres in the transition from socialism. American Journal of Sociology, 100 (1): 4069.
Royster, D. A. 2003. Race and the invisible hand: How white networks exclude black men from blue-collar jobs. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Schmutte, I. M. 2016a. Labor markets with endogenous job referral networks: Theory and empirical evidence. Labour Economics, 42:3042.
Schmutte, I. M. 2016b. How do social networks affect labor markets. IZA World of Labor, 304.
Schneider, M., Teske, P., Roch, C., & Marschall, C. 1997. Networks to nowhere: Segregation and stratification in networks of information about schools. American Political Science Review, 41 (4): 12011223.
Seidel, M.-D., Polzer, J. T., & Stewart, K. J. 2000. Friends in high places: The effects of social networks on discrimination in salary negotiations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45 (1): 124
Sharone, O. 2014. Social capital activation and job searching: Embedding the use of weak ties in the American institutional context. Work and Occupations, 41 (4): 409439.
Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. 1999. Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smith-Lovin, L., & Miller McPherson, J. 1993. You are who you know: A network approach to gender. 223–51 In England, P. (Ed.), Theory on gender – Feminism on theory, social institutions and social change: 223251. Hawthorne: Aldine de Gruyere.
Smith, J. A., Smith-Lovin, L., & Miller McPherson, J. 2014. Social distance in the United States: Sex, race, religion, age, and education homophily among confidants, 1985 to 2004. American Sociological Review, 79 (3): 432456.
Smith, R. A. 2002. Race, gender, and authority in the workplace: Theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28: 509542.
Son, J., & Lin, N. 2012. Network diversity, contact diversity, and status attainment. Social Networks, 34 (4): 601613.
Stainback, K., & Tomaskovic-Devey, D. 2012. Documenting desegregation: Racial and gender segregation in private-sector employment since the Civil Rights Act. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Thomas, D. A. 2001. The truth about mentoring minorities: Race matters. Harvard Business Review, 79 (4): 99107.
Tian, F. F., & Lin, N. 2016. Weak ties, strong ties, and job mobility in urban China, 1978–2008. Social Networks, 44(January):117129.
Tilly, C. 1998. Durable inequality. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Triandis, H. C. 1995. Individualism and collectivisim. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Tsui, A. S., & Farh, J.-L. L. 1997. Where guanxi matters: Relational demography and guanxi in the Chinese context. Work and Occupations, 24 (1): 5679.
Tsui, A. S., Nifadkar, S. S., & Ou, A. Y. 2007. Cross-national, cross-cultural organizational behavior research: Advances, gaps, and recommendations. Journal of Management, 33 (3): 426478.
Uzzi, B. 1999. Embeddedness in the making of financial capital: How social relations and networks benefit firms seeking financing. American Sociological Review, 64 (4): 481505.
Vogel, E. F. 1965. From friendship to comradeship: The change in personal relations in communist China. The China Quarterly, 21(January–March): 4660.
Walder, A. G. 1986. Communist neo-traditionalism: Work and authority in Chinese industry. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Walder, A. G. 1996. Markets and inequality in transitional economies: Toward testable theories. American Journal of Sociology, 101 (4): 10601073.
Walder, A. G. 2003. Elite opportunity in transitional economies. American Sociological Review, 68 (6): 899916.
Walder, A. G., Luo, T., & Wang, D. 2013. Social stratification in transitional economies: Property rights and the structure of markets. Theory and Society, 42 (6): 561588.
Waldinger, R. 1997. Social capital or social closure? Immigrant networks in the labor market. Paper presented at the Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies, Los Angeles.
Weber, M. 1968. Economy and society. Translated by G. Roth & C. Wittich. New York: Bedminister Press.
Whyte, M. K., & Parish, W. L. 1984. Urban life in China. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Wu, X., & Treiman, D. J. 2004. The household registration system and social stratification in China, 1955–1996. Demography, 41 (2): 363383.
Yakubovic, Y. 2005. Weak ties, information, and influence: How workers find jobs in a local Russian labor market. American Sociological Review, 70 (3): 408421.
Yang, M. M.-h. 1994. Gifts, favors, and banquets: The art of social relationships in China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Yang, M. M.-h. 2002. The resilience of guanxi and its new deployments: A critique of some new guanxi scholarship. The China Quarterly, 170(June): 459476.
Zhao, W. 2013. Social networks, job search and income disparity in a transitional economy. Research in the Sociology of Work, 24: 104124.
Zhou, X. 2000. Economic transformation and income inequality in urban China: Evidence from panel data. American Journal of Sociology, 105 (4): 11351174.
Zhou, X., Li, Q., Zhao, W., & Cai, H. 2003. Embeddedness and contractual relationships in China's transitional economy. American Sociological Review, 68 (1): 75102.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Management and Organization Review
  • ISSN: 1740-8776
  • EISSN: 1740-8784
  • URL: /core/journals/management-and-organization-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 35 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 230 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 28th March 2018 - 21st April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.