Al-Laham, A., & Amburgey, T. L. 2005. Knowledge sourcing in foreign direct investments: An empirical examination of target profiles. MIR: Management International Review: 247–275.
Ambos, T. C., & Birkinshaw, J. 2010. Headquarters’ attention and its effect on subsidiary performance. Management International Review, 50(4): 449–469.
Anand, J., & Delios, A. 2002. Absolute and relative resources as determinants of international acquisitions. Strategic Management Journal, 23(2): 119–134.
Andersson, U., Björkman, I., & Forsgren, M. 2005. Managing subsidiary knowledge creation: The effect of control mechanisms on subsidiary local embeddedness. International Business Review, 14(5): 521–538.
Andersson, U., Forsgren, M., & Holm, U. 2002. The strategic impact of external networks: Subsidiary performance and competence development in the multinational corporation. Strategic Management Journal, 23(11): 979–996.
Andersson, U., Forsgren, M., & Pedersen, T. 2001. Subsidiary performance in multinational corporations: The importance of technology embeddedness. International Business Review, 10(1): 3–23.
Bengtsson, M., & Kock, S. 2000. ‘Coopetition' in business networks–To cooperate and compete simultaneously. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(5): 411–426.
Bertrand, O., & Lumineau, F. 2016. Partners in crime: The effects of diversity on the longevity of cartels. Academy of Management Journal, 59(3): 983–1008.
Beugelsdijk, S. 2007. The regional environment and a firm's innovative performance: A plea for a multilevel interactionist approach. Economic Geography, 83(2): 181–199.
Birkinshaw, J., & Fry, N. 1998. Subsidiary initiatives to develop new markets. Sloan Management Review, 39(3): 51–61.
Birkinshaw, J. 2001. Strategies for managing internal competition. California Management Review, 44(1): 21–38.
Birkinshaw, J., Hood, N., & Young, S. 2005. Subsidiary entrepreneurship, internal and external competitive forces, and subsidiary performance. International Business Review, 14(2): 227–248.
Björkman, I., Barner-Rasmussen, W., & Li, L. 2004. Managing knowledge transfer in MNCs: The impact of headquarters control mechanisms. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(5): 443–455.
Brandenburger, A. M., Nalebuff, B. J., & Brandenberger, A. 1996. Co-opetition. New York: Currency Doubleday Google Scholar.
Breusch, T. S., & Pagan, A. R. 1979. A simple test for heteroscedasticity and random coefficient variation. Econometrica, 47(5): 1287–1294.
Buckley, P. J. 2009. The impact of the global factory on economic development. Journal of World Business, 44(2): 131–143.
Chang, B.-J. 2012. Strategies of post-entry foreign expansion: Speed-up or slow-down? International Business Research, 5(8): 123.
Chang, S. J. 1995. International expansion strategy of Japanese firms: Capability building through sequential entry. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2): 383–407.
Chin, K.-S., Chan, B. L., & Lam, P.-K. 2008. Identifying and prioritizing critical success factors for coopetition strategy. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 108(4): 437–454.
Chung, C. C., Lu, J. W., & Beamish, P. W. 2008. Multinational networks during times of economic crisis versus stability. Management International Review, 48(3): 279–296.
Chung, C. C., Lee, S.-H., Beamish, P. W., & Isobe, T. 2010. Subsidiary expansion/contraction during times of economic crisis. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(3): 500–516.
Ciabuschi, F., Dellestrand, H., & Martín, O. M. 2011. Internal embeddedness, headquarters involvement, and innovation importance in multinational enterprises. Journal of Management Studies, 48(7): 1612–1639.
Contractor, F. J., Kundu, S. K., & Hsu, C.-C. 2003. A three-stage theory of international expansion: The link between multinationality and performance in the service sector. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(1): 5–18.
Delios, A., & Beamish, P. W. 2001. Survival and profitability: The roles of experience and intangible assets in foreign subsidiary performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5): 1028–1038.
Delios, A., & Ensign, P. C. 2000. A subnational analysis of Japanese direct investment in Canada. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 17(1): 38–51.
Dellestrand, H., & Kappen, P. 2012. The effects of spatial and contextual factors on headquarters resource allocation to MNE subsidiaries. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(3): 219–243.
Demirbag, M., Apaydin, M., & Tatoglu, E. 2011. Survival of Japanese subsidiaries in the Middle East and North Africa. Journal of World Business, 46(4): 411–425.
Demirbag, M., Tatoglu, E., & Glaister, K. W. 2010. Institutional and transaction cost determinants of Turkish MNEs' location choice. International Marketing Review, 27(3): 272–294.
Dess, G. G., & Beard, D. W. 1984. Dimensions of organizational task environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29(1): 52–73.
Dhanaraj, C., & Beamish, P. W. 2009. Institutional environment and subsidiary survival. Management International Review, 49(3): 291–312.
Dicken, P., & Malmberg, A. 2001. Firms in territories: A relational perspective. Economic Geography, 77(4): 345–363.
Dow, D., & Karunaratna, A. 2006. Developing a multidimensional instrument to measure psychic distance stimuli. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(5): 578–602.
Dowling, M. J., Roering, W. D., Carlin, B. A., & Wisnieski, J. 1996. Multifaceted relationships under coopetition: Description and theory. Journal of Management Inquiry, 5(2): 155–167.
Dunning, J. H. 1993. Multinational enterprises and the global economy. Wokingham, Berkshire: Addison-Wesley.
Dunning, J. H. 1994. Reevaluating the benefits of foreign direct investment. University of Reading, Department of Economics.
Dunning, J. H. 1998. Location and the multinational enterprise: A neglected factor? Journal of International Business Studies, 29(1): 45–66.
Emerson, R. M. 1962. Power-dependence relations. American Sociological Review, 27(1): 31–41.
Fang, Y., Wade, M., Delios, A., & Beamish, P. W. 2013. An exploration of multinational enterprise knowledge resources and foreign subsidiary performance. Journal of World Business, 48(1): 30–38.
Fauli-Oller, R., & Giralt, M. 1995. Competition and cooperation within a multidivisional firm. Journal of Industrial Economics, 43(1): 77–99.
Fey, C. F., & Björkman, I. 2001. The effect of human resource management practices on MNC subsidiary performance in Russia. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(1): 59–75.
Florida, R. 1997. The globalization of R&D: Results of a survey of foreign-affiliated R&D laboratories in the USA. Research Policy, 26(1): 85–103.
Forsgren, M., Holm, U., & Johanson, J. 2005. Managing the embedded multinational : A business network view. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Gaur, A. S., & Lu, J. W. 2007. Ownership strategies and survival of foreign subsidiaries: Impacts of institutional distance and experience. Journal of Management, 33(1): 84–110.
Ghemawat, P. 2001. Distance still matters. Harvard Business Review, 79(8): 137–147.
Ghoshal, S., & Bartlett, C. A. 1990. The multinational corporation as an interorganizational network. Academy of Management Review, 15(4): 603–626.
Gnyawali, D. R., & Madhavan, R. 2001. Cooperative networks and competitive dynamics: A structural embeddedness perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(3): 431–445.
Gnyawali, D. R., He, J., & Madhavan, R. 2006. Impact of co-opetition on firm competitive behavior: An empirical examination. Journal of Management, 32(4): 507–530.
Granovetter, M. S. 1985. Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3): 481–510.
Guler, I., & Guillén, M. F. 2010. Institutions and the internationalization of US venture capital firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(2): 185–205.
Haunschild, P. R., & Miner, A. S. 1997. Modes of interorganizational imitation: The effects of outcome salience and uncertainty. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(3): 472–500.
Hausman, J. A. 1978. Specification tests in econometrics. Econometrica, 46(6): 1251–1271.
Holm, U., Johanson, J., & Thilenius, P. 1995. Headquarters’ knowledge of subsidiary network contexts in the multinational corporation. International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(1–2): 97–119.
Jarillo, J. C., & Martíanez, J. I. 1990. Different roles for subsidiaries: The case of multinational corporations in Spain. Strategic Management Journal, 11(7): 501–512.
Kalnins, A. 2004. Divisional multimarket contact within and between multiunit organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 47(1): 117–128.
Keats, B. W., & Hitt, M. A. 1988. A causal model of linkages among environmental dimensions, macro organizational characteristics, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 31(3): 570–598.
Kim, Y.-C., Lu, J. W., & Rhee, M. 2012. Learning from age difference: Interorganizational learning and survival in Japanese foreign subsidiaries. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(8): 719–745.
Kogut, B., & Chang, S. J. 1991. Technological capabilities and Japanese foreign direct investment in the United States. Review of Economics and Statistics, 73(3): 401–413.
Kogut, B., & Kulatilaka, N. 1994. Operating flexibility, global manufacturing, and the option value of a multinational network. Management Science, 40(1): 123–139.
Kogut, B., & Zander, U. 1993. Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation. Journal of International Business Studies, 24(4): 625–645.
Lado, A. A., Boyd, N. G., & Hanlon, S. C. 1997. Competition, cooperation, and the search for economic rents: A syncretic model. Academy of Management Review, 22(1): 110–141.
Levy, M., Loebbecke, C., & Powell, P. 2003. SMEs, co-opetition and knowledge sharing: The role of information systems. European Journal of Information Systems, 12(1): 3–17.
Lieberman, M. B., & Asaba, S. 2006. Why do firms imitate each other? Academy of Management Review, 31(2): 366–385.
Luo, Y. 2003. Market-seeking MNEs in an emerging market: How parent–subsidiary links shape overseas success. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(3): 290–309.
Luo, Y. 2004. A coopetition perspective of MNC–host government relations. Journal of International Management, 10(4): 431–451.
Luo, Y. 2005. Toward coopetition within a multinational enterprise: A perspective from foreign subsidiaries. Journal of World Business, 40(1): 71–90.
Makino, S., Lau, C.-M., & Yeh, R.-S. 2002. Asset-exploitation versus asset-seeking: Implications for location choice of foreign direct investment from newly industrialized economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(3): 403–421.
Malhotra, D., & Lumineau, F. 2011. Trust and collaboration in the aftermath of conflict: The effects of contract structure. Academy of Management Journal, 54(5): 981–998.
McCann, P., & Mudambi, R. 2005. Analytical differences in the economics of geography: The case of the multinational firm. Environment and Planning A, 37(10): 1857–1876.
Meyer, K. E., Mudambi, R., & Narula, R. 2011. Multinational enterprises and local contexts: The opportunities and challenges of multiple embeddedness. Journal of Management Studies, 48(2): 235–252.
Miller, S. R., & Eden, L. 2006. Local density and foreign subsidiary performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2): 341–355.
Miller, S. R., Thomas, D. E., Eden, L., & Hitt, M. 2008. Knee deep in the big muddy: The survival of emerging market firms in developed markets. Management International Review, 48(6): 645–666.
Mitchell, W., Shaver, J. M., & Yeung, B. 1994. Foreign entrant survival and foreign market share: Canadian companies' experience in United States medical sector markets. Strategic Management Journal, 15(7): 555–567.
Moschieri, C. 2011. The implementation and structuring of divestitures: The unit's perspective. Strategic Management Journal, 32(4): 368–401.
Nohria, N., & Ghoshal, S. 1997. The differentiated network: Organizing multinational corporations for value creation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Novicevic, M. M., & Harvey, M. 2004. Export-import relationships in a global organization: A relational contracting analysis of subsidiary behavior. International Marketing Review, 21(4/5): 378–392.
O'Donnell, S. W. 2000. Managing foreign subsidiaries: Agents of headquarters, or an interdependent network? Strategic Management Journal, 21(5): 525–548.
Park, S. H., & Russo, M. V. 1996. When competition eclipses cooperation: An event history analysis of joint venture failure. Management Science, 42(6): 875–890.
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. 1978. The external control of organizations: Resource dependence perspective (First ed.). New York: Harper and Row Publishers.
Phelps, N. A., & Fuller, C. 2000. Multinationals, intracorporate competition, and regional development. Economic Geography, 76(3): 224–243.
Prajogo, D. I., & Sohal, A. S. 2004. Transitioning from total quality management to total innovation management: An Australian case. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 21(8): 861–875.
Rangan, S., & Sengul, M. 2009. The influence of macro structure on the foreign market performance of transnational firms: The value of IGO connections, export dependence, and immigration links. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(2): 229–267.
Rawung, F. H., Wuryaningrat, N. F., & Elvinita, L. E. 2015. The influence of transformational and transactional leadership on knowledge sharing: An empirical study on small and medium businesses. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 20(1): 123–145.
Schipper, K. 2005. The introduction of International Accounting Standards in Europe: Implications for international convergence. European Accounting Review, 14(1): 101–126.
Shaver, J. M., Mitchell, W., & Yeung, B. 1997. The effect of own-firm and other-firm experience on foreign direct investment survival in the United States, 1987–92. Strategic Management Journal, 18(10): 811–824.
Song, J. 2002. Firm capabilities and technology ladders: Sequential foreign direct investments of Japanese electronics firms in East Asia. Strategic Management Journal, 23(3): 191–210.
Soppe, B., Lechner, C., & Dowling, M. 2014. Vertical coopetition in entrepreneurial firms: Theory and practice. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 21(4): 548–564.
Sutcliffe, K. M., & Huber, G. P. 1998. Firm and industry as determinants of executive perceptions of the environment. Strategic Management Journal, 19(8): 793–807.
Tsai, W. 2002. Social structure of ‘coopetition’ within a multiunit organization: Coordination, competition, and intraorganizational knowledge sharing. Organization Science, 13(2): 179–190.
Tsang, E. W., & Yip, P. S. 2007. Economic distance and the survival of foreign direct investments. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5): 1156–1168.
Venaik, S., Midgley, D. F., & Devinney, T. M. 2005. Dual paths to performance: The impact of global pressures on MNC subsidiary conduct and performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(6): 655–675.
Vermeulen, F., & Barkema, H. 2002. Pace, rhythm, and scope: Process dependence in building a profitable multinational corporation. Strategic Management Journal, 23(7): 637–653.
Weber, K., Davis, G. F., & Lounsbury, M. 2009. Policy as myth and ceremony? The global spread of stock exchanges, 1980–2005. Academy of Management Journal, 52(6): 1319–1347.
Xia, J. 2011. Mutual dependence, partner substitutability, and repeated partnership: The survival of cross-border alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 32(3): 229–253.
Yu, J., Zhou, L.-A., & Zhu, G. 2016. Strategic interaction in political competition: Evidence from spatial effects across Chinese cities. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 57: 23–37.
Zaheer, S. 1995. Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2): 341–363.
Zhang, K. H., & Markusen, J. R. 1999. Vertical multinationals and host-country characteristics. Journal of Development Economics, 59(2): 233–252.
Zhang, Y., Li, Y., & Li, H. 2014. FDI spillovers over time in an emerging market: The roles of entry tenure and barriers to imitation. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3): 698–722.