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Unlocking Expatriates’ Job Creativity: The Role of Cultural Learning, and Metacognitive and Motivational Cultural Intelligence

  • Xiao-Jun Xu (a1) and Xiao-Ping Chen (a2)
Abstract

In this article, we extend Amabile's componential theory of creativity to account for cross-cultural creativity by conceptualizing cultural learning as a crucial component in the creativity relevant process. We hypothesize a significant positive relationship between cultural learning and expatriates’ cross-cultural job creativity, and that this relationship will be enhanced by domain learning and the cultural distance between the host and home countries. Moreover, we propose that expatriates with higher metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence will engage in greater cultural learning, which in turn will be related to job creativity. Data from 219 expatriate-supervisor dyads of 36 Chinese multinational companies reveal that metacognitive CQ and motivational CQ are indeed positive antecedents to cultural learning, which in turn positively relates to cross-cultural job creativity, especially for high domain learning expatriates who work in a foreign culture not vastly different from home. Our findings make significant contributions to the existing literature on creativity and provide nuanced understanding of the relationship between cultural intelligence, cultural learning and cross-cultural job creativity. Our findings also have important implications for expatriate management.

摘要:

本文将文化学习看成是影响个体创造力的关键要素, 从而将Amabile的创造力要素理论拓展到跨文化创造力研究。我们假设文化学习对外派人员的跨文化工作创造力存在显著的正向影响作用, 而且这种影响作用会受他们的专业学习、以及母国和东道国之间的文化距离调节。我们进一步假设外派人员的元认知文化智商和动机性文化智商越高, 文化学习将越有效, 从而他们的工作创造力将越强。来自36家中资跨国公司的219对外派人员及其直接主管的调查数据证明:外派人员的元认知文化智商和动机性文化智商能够促进有效的文化学习, 进而提升跨文化工作创造力;尤其当外派人员在与母国文化差异不是很大的东道国学习了大量的专业知识后, 这种正向影响关系最强烈。我们的研究结果让我们对文化智商、文化学习和跨文化工作创造力之间的关系有了更细致的了解, 对创造力研究有一定的理论贡献。我们的研究结果对跨国公司外派人员管理也有一定的借鉴作用。

इस शोध पत्र में हमने अमाबिले के सृजनात्मकता के अवयवीय सिद्धांत का विस्तार किया है – हमने सांस्कृतिक ज्ञानार्जन को रचनात्मकता-परक प्रक्रिया के एक महत्त्वपूर्ण अंग के रूप में प्रस्तुत करते हुए परा-सांस्कृतिक रचनात्मकता को समझाया है. हमारी यह परिकल्पना है की सांस्कृतिक ज्ञानार्जन तथा प्रवासियों की परा-सांस्कृतिक कार्य रचनात्मकता के बीच महत्त्वपूर्ण सकारात्मक सम्बन्ध है और इस सम्बन्ध में प्रक्षेत्रीय ज्ञानार्जन तथा मेज़बान व स्व-देशीय सांस्कृतिक भेद से इज़ाफ़ा होगा. साथ ही हमारा यह भी प्रस्ताव है की अधिक वृहद् संज्ञानात्मक व अभिप्रेरक सांस्कृतिक प्रज्ञान वाले प्रवासी अधिक सांस्कृतिक ज्ञानार्जन करेंगे जो कार्य रचनात्मकता से सम्बद्ध है. चीन की 36 बहुराष्ट्रीय कंपनियों के 219 प्रवासी-पर्यवेक्षक युग्मों से प्राप्त आंकड़ों से यह सिद्ध होता है वृहद् संज्ञान व अभिप्रेरक सांस्कृतिक-लब्धि निस्संदेह सांस्कृतिक ज्ञानार्जन के सकारात्मक पूर्ववर्ती अवयव हैं जो परा-सांस्कृतिक कार्य रचनात्मकता, विशेष तौर पर उन उच्च प्रक्षेत्र का ज्ञानार्जन करने प्रवासियों जो स्व-देश से सीमित सांस्कृतिक भेद वाली मेज़बान संस्कृति में कार्यरत हैं, में सकारात्मक रूप से सम्बद्ध हैं. हमारे इस शोध का रचनात्मकता के सम्प्रति शोध में महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान है. हमने सांस्कृतिक प्रज्ञा, सांस्कृतिक ज्ञानार्जन व परा-सांस्कृतिक कार्य रचनात्मकता के बीच सूक्ष्म सम्बन्धों की समझ बताई है. हमारे परिणामों का प्रवासी कर्मचारी प्रबंधन क्षेत्र में महत्त्वपूर्ण प्रभाव होगा।

SUMÁRIO:

Neste artigo, estendemos a teoria de componentes da criatividade de Amabile para explicar a criatividade transcultural ao conceituar a aprendizagem cultural como um componente crucial no processo relevante de criatividade. Nós apresentamos a hipótese de uma relação positiva significativa entre a aprendizagem cultural e a criatividade intercultural no trabalho de expatriados, e que essa relação será aprimorada pelo aprendizado do domínio e pela distância cultural entre os países de origem e destino. Além disso, propomos que expatriados com maior inteligência cultural metacognitiva e motivacional se envolverão em uma maior aprendizagem cultural, o que, por sua vez, estará relacionado com a criatividade do trabalho. Dados de 219 díades supervisor-expatriado de 36 empresas multinacionais chinesas revelam que o CQ metacognitivo e o CQ motivacional são, de fato, antecedentes positivos para o aprendizado cultural, o que por sua vez se relaciona positivamente com a criatividade do trabalho intercultural, especialmente para expatriados de alto nível de aprendizado que trabalham em uma cultura estrangeira não muito diferente da casa. Nossas descobertas contribuem de forma significativa para a literatura existente sobre criatividade e proporcionam uma compreensão com nuances a respeito da relação entre inteligência cultural, aprendizagem cultural e criatividade no trabalho intercultural. Nossas descobertas também têm implicações importantes para a gestão de expatriados.

Аннотация:

В этой статье, мы расширяем рамки компонентной теории творчества, которая была создана Т. Амабиль, на межкультурную креативность через концептуализацию культурного обучения как важнейшего компонента в процессе творчества. Мы выдвигаем гипотезу о значительном положительном влиянии культурного обучения на творческий подход к работе у иностранных специалистов в межкультурном контексте, а также о том, что это влияние усиливается из-за позиционного обучения и культурной дистанции между принимающей страной и страной происхождения. Более того, мы предполагаем, что иностранные сотрудники с более высоким метакогнитивным и мотивационным культурным интеллектом будут более заинтересованы в культурном обучении, что, соответственно, будет влиять на творческий потенциал в работе. Изучая 219 взаимоотношений между иностранными сотрудниками и руководителями в 36 китайских многонациональных компаниях, мы делаем вывод о том, что метакогнитивный CQ и мотивационный CQ действительно являются положительными предпосылками для культурного обучения, что, в свою очередь, положительно соотносится с межкультурным творческим потенциалом в работе, особенно в случае высокопоставленных иностранных сотрудников, которые работают в чуждой культурной среде, которая незначительно отличается от родной. Наши выводы вносят значительный вклад в существующую литературу по креативности, а также помогают лучше понять, как взаимосвязаны культурный интеллект, культурное обучение и межкультурный творчествий потенциал в работе. Наши выводы также имеют важное значение для управления иностранными специалистами.

RESUMEN:

En este artículo, nosotros extendemos la teoría de componentes de creatividad de Amabile para dar cuenta de la creatividad intercultural al conceptualizar el aprendizaje cultural como un componente crucial en el proceso de creatividad relevante. Formulamos las hipótesis de una relación positiva significante entre el aprendizaje cultural y la creatividad laboral intercultural de los expatriados, y que esta relación se verá mejorada por el aprendizaje del dominio y la distancia cultural entre los países anfitriones y origen. Además, proponemos que los expatriados con mayor inteligencia cultural meta-cognitiva y motivacional se involucraran en un aprendizaje cultural mayor, lo cual a su vez estará relacionado a la creatividad laboral. Datos de 219 díadas de expatriados-supervisores de 36 empresas multinacionales chinas revelan que la inteligencia cultural (CQ) meta-cognitiva y la CQ motivacional son de hecho antecedentes positivos para el aprendizaje cultural, lo que a su vez se relaciona positivamente con la creatividad laboral intercultural, especialmente para los expatriados de alto dominio quienes trabajan en una cultura extranjera no muy diferente a la del país de origen. Nuestros hallazgos dan contribuciones significativas a la literatura existente sobre creatividad y proporcionan un entendimiento de la relación entre la inteligencia cultural, el aprendizaje cultural y la creatividad laboral intercultural. Nuestros hallazgos también tienen implicaciones importantes para la gestión de expatriados.

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Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Xiao-Jun Xu (xuxj@fudan.edu.cn)
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