Syngnathus rostellatus is a nearshore pipefish species whose distributional range extends along the European Atlantic coast between Bergen (NO) and the Bay of Biscay (ES). Several recent articles suggest that this species has experienced a major range expansion of more than 4000 km into the eastern Mediterranean, but a critical review of these studies indicates that the majority of these reports are based on specimen misidentifications. Considering a reliable report of S. rostellatus from the Mediterranean coast near Gibraltar, it appears that the current distribution of this species is restricted to the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the southern Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
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