The groups of symmetries of three-dimensional lattices have been known for some time. They consist of finite rotation groups, the crystal classes, and infinite discrete motion groups, which include both rotations and translations. The general theory of the corresponding groups in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces has also been developed. This theory includes a demonstration that in Euclidean space of n dimensions the number of motion groups is finite, and leads to a method† for calculating the motion groups, the first step being to determine the crystal classes. The explicit calculation of the various groups by the general method is not simple, and has so far been confined to the case of two and three dimensions. In the special case of the crystal classes in four dimensions, however, we may make use of the results of a paper by Goursat‡. In this paper Goursat sets up a correspondence between the finite rotation groups in four-dimensional Euclidean space, and a set of groups each of which is formed by associating two of Klein's groups of linear non-homogeneous substitutions in one variable. Using this result he is able to evaluate explicitly all the proper and improper finite four-dimensional rotation groups which include the element −I, where I is the four-rowed unit matrix.
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