Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-ndqjc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-03T23:08:50.343Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

Get access


A revision of 62 taxa of Eupithecia of Canada has been carried out. A generalized description of key characters for the identification of the Geometridae and the Eupithecia in adult, larval and pupal stages is given. Included is a key for the Eupithecia adults.A description is given of each species, supplemented by scanning electron microscope photographs of the terminal segment of the pupa and the head and antenna of the adult, with line drawings of male and female genitalia, colour photographs of the adults, and distribution maps. Special emphasis is given to descriptions of the antenna and its cuticle, to the everted vesica of the male genitalia, and to the pupa.Life histories are given for 45 of the taxa. In some cases specimens of Palaearctic and Nearctic species were examined together for the first time and as a result, changes in the taxonomy are made. Altogether, 27 taxonomic changes are made, eight new groups proposed, one group split into two, and two new species described.The species have been loosely rearranged according to the shape of the males eighth sternite.


On a révisé 62 taxons du genre Eupithecia du Canada. L'ouvrage présente une description générale des caracteres clés d'identification des Géométridés et du genre Eupithecia aux stades adulte, larvaire et pupal. Il comprend une clé d'identification des adultes de Eupithecia.

Il donne également une description de chaque espece, complétée par des photos au microscope electronique a balayage du segment terminal des pupes, ainsi que de la tete et des antennes des adultes, par des croquis des genitalia males et femelles, par des photos en couleurs des adultes et par des cartes de distribution. L'auteur met l'accent sur la description des antennes et de leur cuticule, ainsi que de la vesica renversée et de la pupe.

L'auteur présente les cycles biologiques pour 45 des 62 taxons. Dans certains cas, des spécimens d'especes paléarctiques et nearctiques ont été examinés ensemble pour la premiere fois de sorte que des modifications ont du etre apportées a la taxonomie, soit 27 au total. Huit nouveaux groupes ont été subdivisé, un groupe a été divisé en deux et deux nouvelles especes ont été décrites.

Les especes ont été plus ou moins regroupées selon la forme du huit sternite male.

Research Article
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1990

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Anonymous. 1981. An identification guide to the British Pugs. Lepidoptera, Geometridae. British Entomological and Natural History Society. 56 pp.Google Scholar
Barnes, W., and McDunnough, J.H.. 1912 a. Illustrations of rare and typical Lepidoptera. Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Am. No. 4. 1: 163.Google Scholar
Barnes, W., and McDunnough, J.H.. 1912 b. Notes on Taylor's types of Geometridae. Can. Ent. 44: 270275.Google Scholar
Barnes, W., and McDunnough, J.H.. 1916. Synonymic notes on North America Heterocera. Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Am. No. 3, 3: 153210.Google Scholar
Barnes, W., and McDunnough, J.H.. 1918. Lepidoptera of North America. Notes and new species. Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Am. No. 2, 4: 59208.Google Scholar
Bleszynski, S. 1965. Keys for the determination of the insects of Poland. Sect. 27. Lepidoptera. Part 46b. Geometridae. Hydriomeninae. Polish Entomological Society, pp. 193305. [In Polish.]Google Scholar
Bolte, K.B. 1978. A new species of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) from Alaska. Can. Ent. 110: 10191020.Google Scholar
Bruce, D. 1887. Food plants of Geometridae with other notes. Ent. Am. 3: 4750.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E. 1925. On some Eupithecia with asymmetrical genitalia. Lepidopterist 4: 4756.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E. 1927. New Geometrids. Lepidopterist 4: 7280.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E., and Swett, L.W.. 1922 a. Some new Geometrids. Lepidopterist 3: 144150.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E. 1922 b. New Geometrids. Lepidopterist 3: 157166.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E. 1922 c. Some new Geometridae. Lepidopterist 3: 167174.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E. 1922 d. Some new Geometridae. Lepidopterist 3: 183187.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E. 1923. New Geometrids. Lepidopterist 4: 1824.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E. 1924. Some new Eupithecias. Lepidopterist 4: 2528.Google Scholar
Cassino, S.E. 1925. Some new Geometridae. Lepidopterist 4: 4156.Google Scholar
Clerck, C.A. 1759. Icones Insectorum Rariorum cum nominibus eoram Holmiae V. 84 pp.Google Scholar
Cooke, N. 1881. Description of a Eupithecia new to the British List. Entomologist 14: 43.Google Scholar
Denis, M., and Schiffermüller, I.. 1776. Syst. Verz. Wien. 101.Google Scholar
Dietze, K. Von. 1875. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der arten der Gattung Eupithecia Curt. Stett. ent. Ztg. 36: 236256.Google Scholar
Dietze, K. Von. 1906. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Eupithecien. Dt. ent. Z. Iris 19: 206212.Google Scholar
Dietze, K. Von. 1910–1913. Biologie der Eupithecien Kommissionsverlag Von R. Friedlander und Sohn, Berlin N.W. 6. 172 pp.Google Scholar
Djakonov, A.M. 1926. Zur Kentnis der Geometriden Fauna des Minussinsk—Bezirks (Sibirien, Ienissej Gouv.). Jahrb. Martjanov. Staatsm. Minusinsk 4: 78 pp.Google Scholar
Dod, F.H.W. 1906. Preliminary list of the Macro-Lepidoptera of Alberta N.W.T. Can. Ent. 38: 8994.Google Scholar
Doubleday, H. 1856. List of the British Eupithecia with notes on some of the species. Zoologist 14: 51395144.Google Scholar
Doubleday, H. 1861. Notes on new or little known British Eupithecia; the descriptions of the larvae by H. Harpur Crewe. Zoologist 19: 75667569.Google Scholar
Duponchel, P.A.J. 1831. Histoire naturelle des Lépidoptères ou Papillons de France. Nocturnes. Paris.Google Scholar
Dyar, H.G. 1904. The Lepidoptera of the Kootenay District of British Columbia. Proc. U.S. Natn. Mus. 27: 888901.Google Scholar
Dyar, H.G. 1905. New North American Lepidoptera and synonymical notes. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 7: 2940.Google Scholar
Dyar, H.G. 1917. Miscellaneous new American Lepidoptera. Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 5: 6569.Google Scholar
Eriksson, H. 1980. Eupithecia. En fylogenetisk betraktelse. Husksjoasen. 68 pp. Published privately.Google Scholar
Ferguson, D.C. 1954. The Lepidoptera of Nova Scotia. Part 1 (Macrolepidoptera). Proc. Nova Scotian Inst. Sci. 23(3): 159375.Google Scholar
Ferguson, D.C. 1978. Noctuoidea (in part). Lymantriidae. In Dominick, R.B., et al. (Eds.), The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fascicle 22.2. E.W. Classey Ltd. and The Wedge Ent. Res. Found; London. Faringdon, England. 154 pp.Google Scholar
Fibiger, M. 1979. Eupithecia absinthiata Cl./goossensiata Mab., en eller to arter. Lepidoptera 3: 203206.Google Scholar
Forbes, W.T.M. 1948. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, 2. Mem. Cornell Univ. agric. Exp. Stn. 274: 160172.Google Scholar
Franklin, J. 1907. Notes on certain cranberry-bog insects. Ent. News 18: 1720.Google Scholar
Freyer, C.F. 1842. Neuere Beitrage zur Schmetterlingskunde. Augsburg tech. Ztg. 4: 1384.Google Scholar
Goeze, J.A.E. 1781. Entomologische Beitrage zu des Ritter Linné. Zwolften ausgabe des Natursystems. Ent. Beitr. 3(3): 439.Google Scholar
Grossbeck, J.A. 1907. Notes on Eupithecia, with descriptions of new species. Ent. News 18: 342350.Google Scholar
Grote, A.R. 1863. Additions to the catalogue of U.S. Lepidoptera, No. 3. Proc. ent. Soc. Philadelphia 2: 3032.Google Scholar
Guenée, A. 1852–1857. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Spécies général des Lépidoptères. Paris. 407 pp.Google Scholar
Gumppenberg, Carl von. 1888. Systema Geometrarum zonae temperatioris septentrionalis. Systematische Bearbeitung der Spanner der nordlichen gemassigten zone. Nova acta Acad. Caesar Carol. Leop. 52: 125255.Google Scholar
Hardwick, D.F. 1950. Preparation of slide mounts of Lepidopterous genitalia. Can. Ent. 82: 231235.Google Scholar
Harris, R.A. 1979. A glossary of surface sculpturing. Occ. Pap. Ent. No. 28. 31 pp.Google Scholar
Haworth, A.H. 1803–1828. Lepidoptera Britannica. London. 609 pp.Google Scholar
Heitzman, L.R., and Enns, W.R.. 1977. Descriptions of a new species of Eupithecia and the male of E. cocoata Pearsall (Geometridae). J. Res. Lep. 16(2): 7582.Google Scholar
Herrich-Schäffer, G.A.W. 1850–1858. Sammlung neuer oder wenig bekannter aussereuropaischer Schmetterlinge. Regensburg.Google Scholar
Hoffmeyer, S. 1952. De Danske Maalere. Universitetsforlaget 1 AARHUS. 167209 pp.Google Scholar
Hübner, J. 1796–1799. Sammlung Europaischer Schmetterlinge. Pl. 89, Fig. 456.Google Scholar
Hübner, J. 1809–1813. Sammlung Europaischer Schmetterlinge. Pl. 75, Fig. 387.Google Scholar
Hufnagel, . 1767. Fortsetzung der Tabelle von den Nachtvogeln, welche die zte Art verselben, nehmlich die Spannenmesser (Phalaenas Geometras Linnaci) enthalt. Berl. M. 4(6): 599626.Google Scholar
Hulst, G.D. 1880. Description of some new species of Geometridae. Bull. Brook ent. Soc. 3: 4145.Google Scholar
Hulst, G.D. 1896. A classification of the Geometrina of North America, with descriptions of new genera and species. Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 23: 245386.Google Scholar
Hulst, G.D. 1898. Descriptions of new genera and species of the Geometrina of North America. Can. Ent. 30: 113121.Google Scholar
Hulst, G.D. 1900 a. Some new species of Geometridae. Can. Ent. 32: 102107.Google Scholar
Hulst, G.D. 1900 b. In H.G. Dyar. Papers from the Harriman Alaska expedition. X.I. Entomological Results (6): Lepidoptera. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 2: 487501.Google Scholar
Hulst, G.D. 1900 c. New species of Lepidoptera. Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 8: 215225.Google Scholar
Inoue, H. 1958. Descriptions and records of some Japanese Geometridae (II). Tinea 4(2): 241257.Google Scholar
Inoue, H. 1963. Descriptions and records of some Japanese Geometridae (III). Tinea 6(1/2): 2939.Google Scholar
Inoue, H. 1965. Descriptions and records of some Japanese Geometridae (IV). Tinea 7(1): 102114.Google Scholar
Jones, J.R.J.L. 1951. An annotated check list of the Macro-lepidoptera of British Columbia. Occ. Pap. ent. Soc. Br. Columb. 1. 149 pp.Google Scholar
Juul, K. 1948. Nordens Eupithecier. Gravers Andersens Forlag. 145 pp.Google Scholar
Kaaber, S. 1980. Om artsretten for Eupithecia goossensiata Mab. og Eup. fraxinata Crewe. Lepidoptera 3: 307311.Google Scholar
Kelly, K.L. 1965. ISCC-NBS Color-Name Charts Illustrated with Centroid Colors. Supplement to Natn. Bur. Standards Circ. 553. Washington, DC. 40 pp.Google Scholar
Knaben, N. 1976. The Eupithecia group (Lep., Geometridae) in Norway. Zoo. Mus. Univ. Oslo 133: 4482.Google Scholar
Krogerus, H. 1954. Investigations on the Lepidoptera of Newfoundland 1. Macrolepidoptera. Acta zool. fenn. 82: 180.Google Scholar
Kubotsu, A., and Ueda, M.. 1980. A new conductive treatment of the specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy. J. Electron Microsc., Chiba Cy. 29(1): 4553.Google Scholar
Kuznetsov, N. Ya. 1915. Fauna of Russia and adjacent countries. Lepidoptera Vol. 1. Introduction. 305 pp. [Translated from Russian.]Google Scholar
Lafontaine, J.D. 1982. Biogeography of the Genus Euxoa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in North America. Can Ent. 114: 153.Google Scholar
Lempke, B.J. 1969. Catalogus der Nederlandse Macrolepidoptera (Vijftiende Supplement). Tijdsch. voor Ent. 112: 1580.Google Scholar
Mabille, P.M. 1869. Notices sur les Lépidoptères de la Corse avec la liste des Acidalides de ce pays la 2e partie de l'énumération monographique des Eupithécies de la corse, et la description de quatre Eupithecia nouvelles pour la faune Parisienne. Annls Soc. ent. Fr., Ser. 4, 9: 5380.Google Scholar
MacKay, M.R. 1951. Species of Eupithecia reared in the Forest Insect Survey in British Columbia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Can. Ent. 83: 7791.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1929. Synonymic notes on Canadian Eupithecia (Geomet., Lepid.). Can. Ent. 61: 5969.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1930 a. Eupithecia notes. Can. Ent. 72: 3540.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1930 b. The Lepidoptera of the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. Ent. 62: 107117.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1938. An apparently new Eupithecia from North America (Geometridae: Lepid.). Can. Ent. 70: 171173.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1940. Eupithecia notes. Can. Ent. 72: 3540.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1942. Notes on the early stages of two Eupithecia species (Lepidoptera). Can. Ent. 74: 202203.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1944. The palpata group of the genus Eupithecia with notes and descriptions (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Can. Ent. 76: 4556.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1945 (1946). New North American Eupithecia 1 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Can. Ent. 77: 168176.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1949. Revision of the North American species of the Genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Bull. Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 93: 533728.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1955. Notes on the larva of Eupithecia russeliata Swett (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 50: 53.Google Scholar
McGuffin, W.C. 1958. Larvae of the Nearctic Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Can. Ent. 90(8): 1104.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1972. Guide to the Geometridae of Canada (Lepidoptera). II. Subfamily Ennominae. I. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 86. 159 pp.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1977. Guide to the Geometridae of Canada (Lepidoptera). II. Subfamily Ennominae. II. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 101. 191 pp.Google Scholar
McDunnough, J.H. 1981. Guide to the Geometridae of Canada (Lepidoptera). II. Subfamily Ennominae. III. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 117. 153 pp.Google Scholar
Mikkola, K. 1982. Eupithecia expallidata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) new to Fennoscandia, with notes on the taxonomy of the E. absinthiata complex. Notul. ent. 62: 1323.Google Scholar
Milliere, M. 1874. De Lépidoptères nouveaux d'Europe. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 2: 241251.Google Scholar
Moeschier, H.B. 1860. Beitrage zur Lepidoperen-Fauna von Labrador. Wien. ent. Monatsschr. 4: 329381.Google Scholar
Moeschier, H.B. 1883. Beitrage zur Schmetterlings-Fauna von Labrador. Stettin, ent. Ztg. 44: 114127.Google Scholar
Montgomery, S.L. 1982. Biogeography of the moth genus Eupithecia in Oceania and the evolution of ambush predation in Hawaiian caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Ent. Gen. 8(1): 027034.Google Scholar
Mösher, E. 1916. A classification of the Lepidoptera based on characters of the pupa. Bull Ill. St. Lab. nat. Hist. 12(2): 13159.Google Scholar
Moeschier, H.B. 1917. Pupae of some Maine species of Notodontoidea. Bull. Maine agric. Exp. Stn. 259 pp.Google Scholar
Packard, A.S. 1867. View of the Lepidopterous fauna of Labrador. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 11: 3263.Google Scholar
Packard, A.S. 1871. Catalogue of the Phalaenidae of California. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 13: 381405.Google Scholar
Packard, A.S. 1873. Descriptions of new American Phalaenidae. Fifth Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. pp. 5281.Google Scholar
Packard, A.S. 1874. Catalogue of the Phalaenidae of California. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 16: 1340.Google Scholar
Packard, A.S. 1876. A monograph of the Geometrid moths or Phalaenidae of the United States. Rep. U.S. geol. Surv. Terr. 10: 1607.Google Scholar
Pearsall, R.F. 1908 a. Two new species of Eupithecia Curtis. Ent. News 19: 128131.Google Scholar
Pearsall, R.F. 1908 b. Eastern and Central Eupithecia. Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 16: 98103.Google Scholar
Pearsall, R.F. 1908 c. Eastern Eupithecia. Ent. News 19: 192195.Google Scholar
Pearsall, R.F. 1909. New Geometridae and notes (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 11: 119132.Google Scholar
Pearsall, R.F. 1910 a. Vagrant Eupithecias. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 12: 138145.Google Scholar
Pearsall, R.F. 1910 b. Eupithecias that appear to be undescribed. Ent. News 21: 157160.Google Scholar
Pearsall, R.F. 1912 a. Eupithecias that appear to be undescribed (Lepid.). Ent. News 23: 442443.Google Scholar
Pearsall, R.F. 1912 a. Geometridae as yet undescribed. Can. Ent. 44: 2831.Google Scholar
Petersen, W. 1909. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Gattung Eupithecia Curt. Iris 22: 203311.Google Scholar
Pierce, F.N. 1909. The Genitalia of the Group Noctuidae of the Lepidoptera of the British Islands. Liverpool. 88 pp.Google Scholar
Packard, A.S. 1914. Classification of the British Geometridae based on the structure of the male and female genitalia. Liverpool. 88 pp. Prentice R.M. (Compiler). 1963. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada recorded by the Forest Insect Survey. 3. Lasiocampidae, Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae. Can. Dep. For. Publ. 1013. 543 pp.Google Scholar
Prior, G. 1908. The Eupitheciini or “Pugs”. Proc. Brit. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 1822.Google Scholar
Prout, L.B. 1915. Spannerartige Nachtfalter, In Seitz, A. (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge des Palaarktischen Faunengebietes. 4. Alfred Kernen Verlag, Stuttgart. 479 pp.Google Scholar
Rindge, F.H. 1952. Taxonomic and life history notes on North American Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Am. Mus. Novit. 1569. 27 pp.Google Scholar
Rindge, F.H. 1956. Descriptions of and notes on North American Geometridae (Lepidoptera). Am. Mus. Novit. 1784. pp. 15.Google Scholar
Rindge, F.H. 1963. Notes on and descriptions of North American Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Am. Mus. Novit. 2147. 23 pp.Google Scholar
Ross, A.H., and Lindquist, O.H.. 1980. Insects of eastern larch, cedar and juniper. For. Tech. Rep. 28. Can. For. Serv., Dept. Envir. 100 pp.Google Scholar
Ross, D.A., and Evans, D.. 1956. Annotated list of forest insects of British Columbia. Part III, Eupithecia spp. (Geometridae). Proc. ent. Soc. Br. Columb. 52: 3638.Google Scholar
Schneider, D. 1964. Insect antennae. A. Rev. Ent. 9: 103122.Google Scholar
Schneider, D., and Kaissling, Karl-Ernst. 1957. Der Bau der Antenne des Seidenspinners Bombyx mori L. II. Sensillen, cuticulare Bildingen und innerer Bau. Zool. Jb. Abt. Anat. Ontog. Tiere. 76: 223250.Google Scholar
South, R. 1948. The moths of the British Isles. Warne, F., London, pp. 222254.Google Scholar
Staudinger, O. 1857. Reise nach Island zu entomologischen Zwecken unternommen. Stettin, ent. Ztg. 7: 209289.Google Scholar
Staudinger, O. 1861. I. Macrolepidoptera bearbeitet von O. Staudinger in Dresden. Stettin, ent. Ztg. 22: 342–104.Google Scholar
Staudinger, O. 1871. Catalog der Lepidopteren des Europaeischen Faunengebeits. I. Macrolepidoptera. Dresden. 426 pp.Google Scholar
Swett, L.W. 1907. Geometrid notes, with descriptions of new species. Can. Ent. 39: 377379.Google Scholar
Swett, L.W. 1908. Geometrid notes, with descriptions of new species. Can. Ent. 40: 245247.Google Scholar
Swett, L.W. 1911. Geometrid notes. A new Eupithecia. Can. Ent. 43: 255256.Google Scholar
Swett, L.W., and Cassino, S.E.. 1919. Some new Geometrids. Lepidopterist 3: 105110.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1906 a. On the species of Eupithecia occurring at Calgary, Alberta, with descriptions of four supposed to be new. Can. Ent. 38: 101104.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1906 b. Some new Geometridae from British Columbia. Can. Ent. 38: 389405.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1906 c. Eupithecia youngata. A Geometrid moth new to science. Ottawa Nat. 19: 225227.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1906 a. On some new species of Geometrid moths from Arizona and California. Ent. News 17: 188192.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1907 a. On some new species of Geometridae from western Canada. Trans. Soc. Can. 1: 199203.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1907 b. Description of Eupithecia fletcherata, a Geometrid moth from Ottawa, new to science. Ottawa Nat. 20: 200202.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1907 c. The Eupithecia of eastern North America. Can. Ent. 39: 276282.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1908. Notes on the Lepidoptera of Kaslo, B.C., with descriptions of seven new species. Can. Ent. 40: 5460.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1909. The Eupithecia of Eastern North America. No. 3. Can. Ent. 41: 425–28.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1910. Descriptions of new species of Eupithecia from eastern America. Can. Ent. 42: 7783.Google Scholar
Vojnits, A. 1974. New Eupithecia species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) from China. Studies on Palaearctic Eupithecia species. III. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 20(1–2): 219226.Google Scholar
Taylor, G.W. 1975. Geometridae: Eupithecini II. (Lepidoptera). Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 21(3–1): 447453.Google Scholar
Walker, F. 1862. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Heterocera in the British Museum. Pt. 24, pp. 1021–1280.Google Scholar
Wolff, N. 1964. The Lepidoptera of Greenland. Meddelelser om Gronland, 159: 3033.Google Scholar
Zetterstedt, J.W. 1839. Insecta Lapponica. Lepidoptera. pp. 8691014.Google Scholar