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Ruth Reynolds, Solidarity Activism, and the Struggle against U.S. Colonialism in Puerto Rico

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 August 2019


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Forum: Puerto Rico and the United States at Critical Junctures
Copyright © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Cambridge University Press 

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1 Election of Governor, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Territorial and Insular Possessions of the Committee on Public Lands House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress First Session on H.R. 3309, A Bill to Amend the Organic Act of Puerto Rico, May 19, 1947, Printed for the use of the Committee on Public Lands, Committee Hearing no. 13 (Washington, DC, 1947), 43.

2 “Statement of Position of The American League for Puerto Rico's Independence,” [1945] folder 2, box 18, series IV, The Ruth M. Reynolds Papers, Archives of the Puerto Rican Diaspora, Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños, Hunter College, CUNY, New York [hereafter RR Papers].

3 Election of Governor, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Territorial and Insular Possessions of the Committee on Public Lands, 43.

4 Both the New York Times and The Hill, for instance, cited the following poll: “Morning Consult National Tracking Poll #170016, September 22–24, 2017,”; Kyle Dropp and Brendan Nyhan, “Nearly Half of Americans Don't Know Puerto Ricans Are Fellow Citizens,” New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017,; Rafael Bernal, “Poll: Nearly Half in U.S. Unaware that Puerto Ricans Are Citizens,” The Hill, Sept. 26, 2017, (accessed May 30, 2019).

5 Ruth Reynolds interview by Blanca Vázquez, June 21, 1985, tape 4, folder 2, box 45, series IX, RR Papers.

6 Mollin, Marian, Radical Pacifism in Modern America: Egalitarianism and Protest (Philadelphia, 2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 Reynolds interview, June 21, 1985, tape 5, folder 2, box 45, series IX, RR Papers; “Ruth Reynolds Remembers 1950: North-Americans Must Act to Free Puerto Rico,” Puerto Rico, Si!: Factsheets on the colonial domination of Puerto Rico, prepared by the Committee for Puerto Rican Decolonization, Puerto Rico: (1) About folder, Ralph T. Templin Collection, United Methodist Church Archives—General Commission on Archives and History, Madison, NJ [hereafter Ralph T. Templin Collection]; Fontanez, S. Soto, Mision a la Puerta: Una Historia del Trabajo Bautista Hispano en Nueva York (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1982), 5060Google Scholar; Dunlap, David W., From Abyssinian to Zion: A Guide to Manhattan's Houses of Worship (New York, 2004), 175CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

8 José (Ché) Paralitici, “Imprisonment and Colonial Domination, 1898–1958,” in Puerto Rico under Colonial Rule: Political Persecution and the Quest for Human Rights, ed. Bosque-Pérez, Ramón and Javier, José Colón Morera (Albany, NY, 2006), 6780Google Scholar, here 73; Rafael Cancel Miranda, “Julio Pinto Gandía,” Claridad, July 3, 2008 (no longer online); “Ruth Reynolds Remembers 1950,” Ralph T. Templin Collection; Reynolds interview, June 21, 1985, tapes 4 and 5, folder 2, box 45, series IX, RR Papers.

9 See Margaret Power's contribution in this forum for a discussion of the Communist Party USA's role in Albizu Campos's relocation from Atlanta to New York. Rosado, Marisa, Las Llamas de la Aurora: Acercamiento a una Biografía de Pedro Albizu Campos (San Juan, PR, 2008), 259–60Google Scholar, 296–309.

10 Reynolds interview, June 26, 1985, tape 7, folder 3, box 45, series IX, RR Papers.

11 “Memorandum para el Jefe de la Policia Insular,” Sept. 30, 1950, carpeta 1340, folder 4, box 48, series X, RR Papers.

12 Ramón Bosque-Pérez, “Political Persecution against Puerto Rican Anti-Colonial Activists in the Twentieth Century,” in Puerto Rico under Colonial Rule, ed. Bosque-Pérez and Colón Morera, 13–47, 15–24.

13 Bruno, Miñi Seijo, La Insurrección Nacionalista en Puerto Rico 1950 (San Juan, PR, 1997)Google Scholar.

14 Reynolds interview, Sept. 18, 1985, tape 47B, folder 3, box 46, series IX, RR Papers; Reynolds interview, Oct. 1, 1985, tape 51, folder 5, box 46, series IX, RR Papers; “The Case of Ruth M. Reynolds,” folder 1, box 1, series I, RR Papers; Indictment, The People of Puerto Rico v. Ruth Reynolds et al., folder 3, box 1641, Puerto Rico v. Reynolds, Ruth, American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Legal Case Files Series, MC001.02.04, Public Policy Papers, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library, Princeton, NJ [hereafter ACLU Papers]; Ruth Reynolds Defense Committee letter, signed by Julius Eichel [no date], folder 3, box 1641, ACLU Papers; “Puerto Rican Supreme Court Reverses ‘Little Smith Act’ Conviction of Ruth Reynolds,” folder 4, box 1641, ACLU Papers.

15 The Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations (Jack K. McFall) to the Director, Bureau of the Budget (Frederick Lawton), Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952–1954, United Nations Affairs, Volume III, ed. Ralph R. Goodwin, document 901, (accessed May 15, 2019).

16 Muñoz, Humberto García, “Puerto Rico and the United States: The United Nations Role, 1953–1975,” Revista Jurídica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 53, no. 1 (1984): 1–265Google Scholar.

17 Reynolds, Ruth M., Campus in Bondage: A 1948 Microcosm of Puerto Rico in Bondage (New York, 1989), xvxviGoogle Scholar.

18 Pérez, Nélida, “Two Reading Rooms and the Librarian's Office: The Evolution of the Centro Library and Archives,” Centro Journal 21, no. 2 (Fall 2009): 199218Google Scholar; Hernández, Pedro Juan, “The Evolution of Centro's Archives of the Puerto Rican Diaspora, 1973–2012,” Latino(a) Research Review 1–2 (2011–2012): 85100Google Scholar; Thomas, Lorrin and Santiago, Aldo A. Lauria, Rethinking the Struggle for Puerto Rican Rights (New York, 2019), 104Google Scholar.

19 Reynolds, Campus in Bondage, xvi.

20 Rafael Bernabe and Manuel Rodríguez Banchs, “Solidarity Without Erasure: Responding to Trump on Puerto Rico,” CounterPunch, Apr. 9, 2019, (accessed May 30, 2019).