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Dilemmas of World-Wide Thinking: Popular Geographies and the Problem of Empire in Wendell Willkie's Search for One World

  • Samuel Zipp

Abstract

This essay explores the internationalist vision of Wendell Willkie during World War II, especially as illustrated in his 1943 bestseller, One World. Willkie proposed three mid-century popular geographies of the globe—ways of seeing the relationship between the United States and the world in the context of the expanding ambit of American power and influence. Willkie offered a universal view of the planet, one that envisioned a new kind of global space free of borders; a depiction of imperial power contested, which critiqued the racial thinking that underpinned conquest abroad and discrimination at home; and a view of imperial power obscured, which left unmapped the actual contours of already existing American empire, a dilemma revealed by the omission of the Puerto Rico stop on his 1942 world tour from One World. Willkie's widely debated vision revealed the conflicted state of American opinion about U.S. empire during the war.

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Copyright

Footnotes

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I'd like to thank the anonymous reviewers for MAH, as well as Brooke Blower, Sarah Phillips, and the editorial assistants for their comments and interventions. This piece has seen several forms and many audiences. I thank, for their comments or questions: in Berlin, Alex Starre, Frank Kelleter, and Christian Lammert; in Amsterdam, George Blaustein, Babs Boter, and Renee de Groot; in Munich, Andrew Preston, Michael Kimmage, Angus Burgin, Uwe Lübken, Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson, Mary Nolan, Daniel Geary, Casey Blake, Brendon O'Connor, and Emily Levine; in Washington, Chris Nichols, Andy Seal, Dara Orenstein, Andrew Johnstone, and Michaela Hoenicke Moore; in Irvine, Hadji Bakara, Paul Murphy, Justin Reynolds, and Andrew McNally; in San Francisco, Paul Kramer, Adriane Lentz-Smith, and Chris Nichols; in San Juan, Sandhya Shukla and Brooke Blower. And elsewhere, too: Jenifer Van Vleck, Andrew Friedman, Naoko Shibusawa, Daniel Immerwahr, Michael Kramer, and Melani McAlister.

Footnotes

References

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1 Wendell Willkie, One World [OW] (New York, 1943; 1966), 2.

2 On Willkie's middlebrow internationalism, see Zipp, Samuel, “When Wendell Willkie Went Visiting: Between Interdependency and Exceptionalism in the Public Feeling for One World,” American Literary History 26, no. 3 (Fall 2014): 484510. On countervailing internationalist tendencies during the interwar period, tacking between unilateral and cooperative modes, see Dawley, Alan, Changing the World: American Progressives in War and Revolution (Princeton, NJ, 2003); Rodgers, Daniel T., Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (Cambridge, MA, 1998); and Blower, Brooke L., Becoming Americans in Paris: Transatlantic Politics and Culture Between the World Wars (New York, 2011).

3 Willkie, OW, 202. On the concept and content of isolationism, see Blower, Brooke L., “From Isolationism to Neutrality: A New Framework for Understanding American Political Culture, 1919–1941,” Diplomatic History 38, no. 2 (Apr. 2014): 345–76; and Nichols, Christopher McKnight, Promise and Peril: America at the Dawn of a Global Age (Cambridge, MA, 2011).

4 Willkie, OW, 190.

5 See, for instance, Divine, Robert A., Second Chance: The Triumph of Internationalism in America During World War II (New York, 1967); and Blum, John Morton, V Was for Victory: Politics and American Culture During World War II (New York, 1976), 262–9.

6 Beidler, Philip, “Remembering Wendell Willkie's One World,” Canadian Review of American Studies 24, no. 2 (Spring 1994): 87104. See also Jones, Howard, “One World: An American Perspective,” in Wendell Willkie: Hoosier Internationalist, ed. Madison, James H. (Bloomington, IN, 1992), 103–24; and Lewis, David Levering, “The Implausible Wendell Willkie,” in Profiles in Leadership: Historians on the Elusive Quality of Greatness, ed. Isaacson, Walter (New York, 2010), 229–60.

7 Manela, Erez, The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism (New York, 2007). On Wilson and race, see also Lentz-Smith, Adriane, Freedom Struggles: African Americans and World War I (Cambridge, MA, 2009).

8 See Bhagavan, Manu, India and the Quest for One World: The Peacemakers (New Delhi, 2012).

9 See Borgwardt, Elizabeth, A New Deal for the World: America's Vision for Human Rights (Cambridge, MA, 2005); and Johnstone, Andrew, Against Immediate Evil: American Internationalists and the Four Freedoms on the Eve of World War II (Ithaca, NY, 2014).

10 See, for instance, Rosenberg, Emily S., Spreading the American Dream: American Economic and Cultural Expansion, 1890–1945 (New York, 1982); Rosenberg, Emily S., Financial Missionaries to the World: The Politics and Culture of Dollar Diplomacy, 1900–1930 (Cambridge, MA, 1999); and Tyrrell, Ian, Reforming the World: The Creation of America's Moral Empire (Princeton, NJ, 2010). For a survey of the literature on American empire, see Kramer, Paul A., “Power and Connection: Imperial Histories of the United States in the World,” American Historical Review 116, no. 5 (Dec. 2011): 1348–91.

11 See, for instance, Thompson, John A., A Sense of Power: The Roots of America's Global Role (Ithaca, NY, 2015); Husain, Aiyaz, Mapping the End of Empire: American and British Strategic Visions in the Postwar World (Cambridge, MA, 2014); Baker, Andrew, Constructing a Post-War Order: The Rise of U.S. Hegemony and the Origins of the Cold War (London, 2011); Sullivan, Christopher D. O’, Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning, and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937–1943 (New York, 2008); Costigliola, Frank, Roosevelt's Lost Alliances: How Personal Politics Helped Start the Cold War (Princeton, NJ, 2012); Hearden, Patrick J., Architects of Globalism: Building a New World Order During World War II (Fayetteville, AR, 2002); and Kimball, Warren F., The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman (Princeton, NJ, 1991). Much official progressive internationalist sentiment collected in the Office of War Information (OWI). In fact, Joseph Barnes and Gardner Cowles, both friends of Willkie's and OWI officials, traveled with him. On the OWI, see Hart, Justin, Empire of Ideas: The Origins of Public Diplomacy and the Transformation of U.S. Foreign Policy (New York, 2013).

12 Rosenboim, Or, The Emergence of Globalism: Visions of World Order in Britain and the United States, 1939–1950 (Princeton, NJ, 2017). Rosenboim treats Willkie as an advocate for seeing the world as unified (4–5). As I suggest here, that is only one of the geographies at play in his work.

13 For the dilemmas of progressive internationalism, see Sluga, Glenda, Internationalism in the Age of Nationalism (Philadelphia, 2013); Mazower, Mark, Governing the World: The History of an Idea (New York, 2012); and Rosenberg, Emily S., ed., A World Connecting, 1870–1945 (Cambridge, MA, 2012).

14 Willkie, OW, 180, 187.

15 For the details of Willkie's life, see the three most useful biographies: Barnes, Joseph, Willkie: The Events He Was Part Of—The Ideas He Fought For (New York, 1952); Barnard, Ellsworth, Wendell Willkie: Fighter for Freedom (Marquette, MI, 1966); and Neal, Steve, Dark Horse: A Biography of Wendell Willkie (Garden City, NY, 1984). See also popular histories of the 1940 election and the early war years: Peters, Charles, Five Days in Philadelphia: 1940, Wendell Willkie, and the Political Convention That Freed FDR to Win World War II (New York, 2005); Fullilove, Michael, Rendezvous with Destiny: How Franklin D. Roosevelt and Five Extraordinary Men Took America into the War and into the World (New York, 2013) 153–98; Dunn, Susan, 1940: FDR, Willkie, Lindbergh, Hitler—the Election Amid the Storm (New Haven, CT, 2013).

16 On the speech, the New York Times quoted “broadcasting officials” as estimating that 36,320,000 people heard Willkie's speech. See “Quick Aid Is Urged,” New York Times, Oct. 27, 1942, 1. On the publishing history of One World, see Barnes, Willkie, 315–6; Divine, Second Chance, 105; Simon and Schuster, Press Release, Apr. 24, 1943, and Howard Cook, “Publisher's Plans,” New York Herald Tribune Book News, Apr. 16, 1943, both in folder “Miscellaneous,” box 115, Wendell Willkie Papers, Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN [hereafter Willkie Papers]. More 1943 Simon and Schuster press releases and ads are in the folders “Promotional Material” and “Miscellaneous,” box 115, Willkie Papers. See also Leon Shimkin to Gardner Cowles, Apr. 29, 1943, folder “Willkie, Wendell-One World,” Gardner Cowles, Jr. Papers, Cowles Library, Drake University, Des Moines, IA [hereafter Gardner Cowles, Jr. Papers]. The estimate of 4 million readers was made by the pollster George Gallup in conversation with Gardner Cowles, Jr., the publisher of Look magazine and an OWI official who was Willkie's friend and companion on the trip. See Gardner Cowles, Jr., “Memo: Influence of Willkie's Book on Voters,” July 23, 1943, folder “Willkie, Wendell-One World,” Gardner Cowles, Jr. Papers.

17 Willkie, OW, 19.

18 Winichakul quoted in Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections of the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. (London, 1991), 173. See also Schulten, Susan, The Geographical Imagination in America, 1880–1950 (Chicago, 2001), 241; and for the importance of “mental maps” in U.S. and British geopolitical thinking in these years, see Husain, Mapping the End of Empire.

19 See several classic takes from a vast literature on the “making” of space: Lefebvre, Henri, “Space: Social Product and Use Value,” in State, Space, World: Selected Essays, ed. Brenner, Neil and Elden, Stuart, trans. Moore, Gerald, Brenner, Neil, and Elden, Stuart (Minneapolis, 2009), 185–95; and Soja, Edward W., Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory (New York, 1989).

20 Willkie, OW, 202.

21 “Willkie Demands Global Thinking,” New York Times, Nov. 7, 1942, 7.

22 Henrikson, Alan K., “FDR and the ‘World-Wide Arena,’” in FDR's World: War, Peace, and Legacies, eds. Woolner, David B., Kimball, Warren F., and Reynolds, David (New York, 2008), 3562, here 44. See also Levine, Lawrence W. and Levine, Cornelia R., The People and the President: America's Conversation with FDR (Boston, 2002), 413–9. On airplane-fueled globalism, see Van Vleck, Jenifer, Empire of the Air: Aviation and the American Ascendancy (Cambridge, MA, 2013); and Baker, Constructing a Post-War Order.

23 See Schulten, Geographical Imagination in America, 1–14, 204–38. See also Henrikson, Alan K., “The Map as an ‘Idea’: The Role of Cartographic Imagery During the Second World War,” American Cartographer 2, no. 1 (Apr. 1975): 1953; and Smith, Neil, American Empire: Roosevelt's Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization (Berkeley, CA, 2003). The most complete account of the geography of air age globalism is Barney, Timothy, Mapping the Cold War: Cartography and the Framing of America's International Power (Chapel Hill, NC, 2015), 2560. See also Rankin, William, After the Map: Cartography, Navigation, and the Transformation of Territory in the Twentieth Century (Chicago, 2016), 7080.

24 Barney, Mapping the Cold War, 36–60; Schulten, Geographical Imagination in America, 214–38; Henrikson, “FDR and the ‘World-Wide Arena,’” 37–9; Henrikson, “Map as an ‘Idea,’” 20–40; and Harrison, Richard Edes, Look at the World: The Fortune Atlas for World Strategy (New York, 1944). Airline ads are reproduced in Henrikson, “Map as an ‘Idea,’” 40, and in Fousek, John, To Lead The Free World: American Nationalism and the Cultural Roots of the Cold War (Chapel Hill, NC, 2000). See also Van Vleck, Empire of the Air, 89–130.

25 See Airways to Peace: An Exhibition of Geography for the Future,” Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art 11, no. 1 (Aug. 1943): 324, Wheeler quoted on 24. Richard Edes Harrison served as a consultant for the show. See also Van Vleck, Empire of the Air, 116–7; and Turner, Fred, The Democratic Surround: Multimedia and American Liberalism from World War II to the Psychedelic Sixties (Chicago, 2013), 3–5, 82, 102–13.

26 See “Airways to Peace,” 3, 20; and Willkie, OW, 203.

27 Wendell L. Willkie, “The Next Step Toward the World We Want,” Speech Given at the New York Herald Tribune Forum, Nov. 17, 1943, 5–6, box 18, Irita Van Doren Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC [hereafter Van Doren Papers].

28 Willkie, OW, 203.

29 Monroe Wheeler to Russell Davenport, May 28, 1943; Davenport to Willkie, May 31, 1943; Wheeler to Willkie, June 1, 1943, and the draft plans for the exhibit, all in folder 1943, July–Aug., Museum of Modern Art exhibit, in box 109, Willkie Papers.

30 See Barney, Mapping the Cold War.

31 Willkie, OW, 157–8.

32 See Katz, Cindi, “Lost and Found: The Imagined Geographies of American Studies,” Prospects no. 30 (2005): 1725, here 18. See also Smith, American Empire.

33 Henry R. Luce, “The American Century,” Life, Feb. 7, 1941, 61–65. Among the many commentaries on this influential piece, see the roundtable in Diplomatic History 23, no. 2 (Spring 1999): 157370, which includes a reprint of the original Luce article; Bacevich, Andrew J., ed. The Short American Century: A Postmortem (Cambridge, MA, 2012); and two cultural histories of the idea's influence: White, Donald W., The American Century: The Rise and Decline of America as a World Power (New Haven, CT, 1999); and Zunz, Olivier, Why the American Century? (Chicago, 1998).

34 Willkie, OW, 110.

35 Anne O'Hare McCormick, “Abroad: A Discoverer of the New World in the East,” New York Times, Oct. 28, 1942, 22.

36 Willkie, OW, 37.

37 Wendell Willkie, “Common Aspirations,” July 20, 1942, in folder “1942, July 20. NAACP Conference (Los Angeles),” in box 108, Willkie Papers.

38 For concerns about Willkie's supposed naïve adventurism, see, for instance, Alistair Cooke, “He May Be ‘A Better Woodrow Wilson,’ But—To-day Willkie Is the Victim of Cheap Cynicism,” London Daily Herald, Oct. 31, 1942, clipping in W. J. Gallman to Secretary of State, Re: British Press Comment on Utterances of Mr. Wendell Willkie, Dec. 12, 1942, no. L/4, in box 3859, 811.44, Willkie, Wendell, Record Group 59, State Department Files, National Archives, College Park, MD [hereafter NACP]; and Arthur Krock, “Interest in Willkie Keen,” New York Times, Oct. 14, 1942, 3. Many established diplomats saw Willkie as a threat, particularly when local leaders took his visit as a chance to comment about the ambiguity of the Allies’ commitment to decolonization. See, for instance, C. E. Gauss to Secretary of State, “Confidential Comment by the Ambassador,” Enclosure 15 in Gauss to State, Oct. 8, 1942, no. 124, in box 17, 032, Willkie, Wendell: 1940–44, Record Group 59, State Department Files, NACP. See also Barnes, Willkie, 296–9; and Neal, Dark Horse, 236–44 and 251–62. For analysis of the U.S. approach to decolonization, see Von Eschen, Penny M., Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937–1957 (Ithaca, NY, 1997), 25–8, 70, 100–1; Borgwardt, A New Deal for the World, 1–11, 34–45, 82–6, 186; Blum, V Was for Victory, 257–60; Louis, William Roger, Imperialism at Bay: The United States and the Decolonization of the British Empire, 1941–1945 (New York, 1978); and Dallek, Robert, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945 (New York, 1995), 359–60.

39 Nance, Susan, How the Arabian Nights Inspired the American Dream, 1790–1935 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2009); Hoganson, Kristin L., Consumers’ Imperium: The Global Production of American Domesticity, 1865–1920 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2007); Lears, T. J. Jackson, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880–1920 (Chicago, 1994).

40 “The World Is Our Business,” New York Times, Oct. 18, 1942, E8. On the wartime consensus, see Wall, Wendy L., Inventing the “American Way”: The Politics of Consensus from the New Deal to the Civil Rights Movement (New York, 2008), 33, 94, 281.

41 Willkie, OW, 18, 47, 206.

42 G. A. Marzoog to Willkie, Sept. 3, 1942, folder “Jan.Sept., 1942, Official,” in box 95, Willkie Papers. Or, as a Chinese student put it, “we are fighting for the holy cause of liberty.” He hoped that the Atlantic Charter would deliver the more just postwar world that Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points had failed to achieve. See Wong Pong Hai to Willkie, Sept. 28, 1942, folder “Wendell Willkie, World Tour, China, 1942,” in box 14, Irita Van Doren Papers.

43 Anonymous to Willkie, n.d., c. Sept. 12, 1942, folder “Jan.–Sept., 1942, Official,” in box 95, Willkie Papers.

44 Salman al-Shaikh Daoud, “The Envoy of the American People; The Arab's Share of Freedom and Independence,” Al-Hawadith, Sept. 13, 1942, translation in W. S. Farrell to Secretary of State, Sept. 24, 1942, enclosure no. 8, 3–4, no. 105 in box 17, 032, Willkie, Wendell: 1940–44, Record Group 59, State Department Files, NACP.

45 Edmund Stevens, quoted in “What Foreign Correspondents Think of Willkie,” Look, Oct. 5, 1943, 32.

46 Willkie, OW, 184–5, 204.

47 Willkie, OW, 35.

48 Ibid., 182. For one of many published versions of the speech, see “The Text of the Willkie Statement on the War,” New York Times, Oct. 7, 1942, 10.

49 Willkie, quoted in “Willkie Demands Global Thinking,” New York Times, Nov. 7, 1942, 7. Churchill, quoted in “Imperialist Order,” Washington Post, Nov. 20, 1942, 10.

50 Willkie, OW, 190.

51 Willkie, OW, 191.

52 Henry Wallace was the only other progressive political figure who approached Willkie's reach in this period. Unlike him, Willkie had no direct connection to the labor-left side of the black freedom movement, with such leaders as W. E. B. Du Bois or A. Philip Randolph, who had long championed an internationalist vision. But he knew Walter White, the head of the NAACP, from whom he learned much about the connection between domestic racism and empire abroad. White and Willkie worked together on campaigns for better roles for African Americans in Hollywood, as well as for federal anti-lynching laws, an end to the poll tax, and on responses to the Detroit Race Riot of 1943. They had even planned to write a book together before Willkie's untimely death. See Neal, Dark Horse, 273–6, 322; and White, Walter, A Man Called White: The Autobiography of Walter White (1948; Athens, GA, 1995), 198205. On black international politics in the World War II era, see, for instance, Anderson, Carol, Bourgeois Radicals: The NAACP and the Struggle for Colonial Liberation, 1941–1960 (New York, 2015); Von Eschen, Race Against Empire; Porter, Eric, The Problem of the Future World: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Race Concept at Midcentury (Durham, NC, 2010); Anderson, Carol, Eyes Off the Prize: The United Nations and the African American Struggle for Human Rights, 1944–1955 (New York, 2003); and Plummer, Brenda Gayle, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935–1960 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1996).

53 Bright, Charles and Geyer, Michael, “Where in the World Is America? The History of the United States in the Global Age,” in Rethinking American History in a Global Age, ed. Bender, Thomas (Berkeley, CA, 2002), 6399, here 90.

54 “Text of the Willkie Statement on the War,” 10.

55 See Max Lerner, “Willkie's World,” PM, Apr. 8, 1943, 2; Earl Browder, “The Education of Wendell Willkie,” Daily Worker, Apr. 18, 1943, 6–7; and Walton Hamilton, “Wendell Willkie Learns to Listen,” Progressive, May 10, 1943, 5. Many on the left were suspicious of Willkie due to his attacks on the New Deal, and even as he moved left in the early 1940s they remained wary, regarding him as beholden to big business.

56 The literature on U.S. empire in the first half of the twentieth century is vast. I have particularly benefited from Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream; Von Eschen, Race Against Empire; Bender, Thomas, A Nation Among Nations: America's Place in World History (New York, 2006), 182245; Smith, American Empire; Immerman, Richard H., Empire for Liberty: A History of American Imperialism from Benjamin Franklin to Paul Wolfowitz (Princeton, NJ, 2010), 128–79; Kramer, “Power and Connection”; and Immerwahr, Daniel, “The Greater United States: Territory and Empire in U.S. History,” Diplomatic History 40, no. 3 (June 2016): 373–91. For comparative studies of American empire in the context of international imperial history, see Maier, Charles S., Among Empires: American Ascendancy and Its Predecessors (Cambridge, MA, 2006); and Go, Julian, Patterns of Empire: The British and American Empires, 1688 to the Present (New York, 2011).

57 See Willkie, OW, 111, for Willkie's remarks about the treaty ports. He first made them to a Chinese audience, but they were widely reported during the trip. See, for instance, Chinese News Service, Voice of China (China News by Shortwave Radio), Oct. 9, 1942, 2, folder “Wendell Willkie, World Tour 1942, China,” in box 15, Van Doren Papers; “Willkie Pleads for Offensives on Every Front,” Chicago Tribune, Oct. 4, 1942, 14; and Harrison Forman, “Offensive in Asia Urged by Willkie,” New York Times, Oct. 4, 1942, 6. On “dollar diplomacy,” see “Up to People to Define Purposes, Says Willkie,” Los Angeles Times, Nov. 26, 1942, 6; and on the “good neighbor” policy, see “Scores Foreign Policy,” New York Times, Dec. 2, 1942, 2. On the history of “dollar diplomacy,” see Rosenberg, Financial Missionaries to the World.

58 Willkie, OW, 190.

59 Ibid., 159–60.

60 It is important to note that Willkie's route simultaneously revealed and concealed particular geographies in other ways as well. He confronted his American audience with the “renaissance of the East” and the geography of a world emerging from empire, but was constrained by the particular imperatives of the war. His path was carefully routed around India—at Roosevelt's request—in order to appease the British, and featured no stops in the “Pacific theater”—where American power had, since the beginning of the century and before, been assiduously applied. See Bhagavan, India and the Quest for One World, 25–7.

61 See, for instance, Kaplan, Amy and Pease, Donald, eds., Cultures of United States Imperialism (Durham, NC, 1994); Kaplan, Amy, The Anarchy of Empire in the Making of U.S. Culture (Cambridge, MA, 2002); Stoler, Ann Laura, ed., Haunted By Empire: Geographies of Intimacy in North American History (Durham, NC, 2006).

62 See Ayala, César J. and Bernabe, Rafael, Puerto Rico in the American Century: A History Since 1898 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2007), 26–8; Merleaux, April, Sugar and Civilization: American Empire and the Cultural Politics of Sweetness (Chapel Hill, NC, 2015), 3640.

63 Ann Laura Stoler, “Tense and Tender Ties: The Politics of Comparison in North American History and (Post) Colonial Studies,” in Haunted By Empire, ed. Stoler, 23–67. On the intimate dimensions of U.S. empire in Puerto Rico see Briggs, Laura, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico (Berkeley, CA, 2002). Willkie supported Puerto Rican statehood, but appears to have remained silent about independence. See “Willkie for Puerto Rico Statehood,” New York Times, Nov. 4, 1940, 13.

64 Ayala, César J., American Sugar Kingdom: The Plantation Economy of the Spanish Caribbean, 1898–1934 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1999), 113–14, 226; Merleaux, Sugar and Civilization, 40; Ayala and Bernabe, Puerto Rico in the American Century, 18–20, 38–41; Beruff, Jorge Rodríguez, Strategy as Politics: Puerto Rico on the Eve of the Second World War (San Juan, PR, 2007), 167–76.

65 Merleaux, Sugar and Civilization, 18.

66 Beruff, Strategy as Politics, 170; Ayala and Bernabe, Puerto Rico in the American Century, 35–9, 63–4.

67 See Barnes, Willkie, 28; Neal, Dark Horse, 12; Barnard, Wendell Willkie, 42–3. In fact, the One World trip was at least Willkie's third visit to Puerto Rico. He also stopped there for four hours on his way back from his trip to Britain in early 1941. See “Willkie Due Home on Clipper Today,” New York Times, Feb. 9, 1941, 1.

68 Beruff, Strategy as Politics, 303–38; Ayala and Bernabe, Puerto Rico in the American Century, 95–116, 136–53; Ayala, César J. and Bolívar, José L., Battleship Vieques: Puerto Rico from World War II to the Korean War (Princeton, NJ, 2011), 5.

69 See Ayala and Bolívar, Battleship Vieques, 3–69; and Beruff, Strategy as Politics, 350–63. Willkie's trip—beyond the Caribbean and into Africa, all the way to Khartoum, in the Sudan—followed air routes pioneered by not only the military, but also their American partner, Pan American Airways. See Van Vleck, Empire of the Air, 144.

70 Willkie, OW, 185.

71 See John Robert Badger, “World View: Number One U.S. Colony,” Chicago Defender, Sept. 4, 1943, 15; and Badger, “World View: Threat to the West Indies,” Chicago Defender, Dec. 5, 1942, 15. Willkie enjoyed wide support from African Americans, even when their opposition to U.S. empire went beyond his. See, for instance, the positive account of his anti-discrimination message to a mass rally at Madison Square Garden, where other speakers called for self-determination for “India, the West Indies, and Puerto Rico,” in “Unity Is Demanded at Freedom Rally,” New York Times, June 8, 1943, 9.

72 For several (among many) recent accounts of the debates surrounding the history of globalization, as well as globalization's place in American history, see Hunt, Lynn, Writing History in the Global Era (New York, 2014) and the essays in Bender, Rethinking American History in a Global Age.

73 On this long transformation, see Rankin, After the Map, 5–16.

74 Hunt, Writing History in the Global Era, 69. On national internationalism, see Mazower, Governing the World; and Sluga, Internationalism in the Age of Nationalism. On the view of the planet as a whole and environmental “globalist consciousness,” see Heise, Ursula K., Sense of Place and Sense of Planet: The Environmental Imagination of the Global (New York, 2008), 3–4, 22–8; and Pemberton, Jo-Anne, Global Metaphors: Modernity and the Quest for One World (London, 2001). See Hunt, Writing History in the Global Era, 44–77, for a critique of the position that globalization should be seen as a primarily economic phenomenon.

75 Said, Edward W., Culture and Imperialism (New York, 1994), xxi.

I'd like to thank the anonymous reviewers for MAH, as well as Brooke Blower, Sarah Phillips, and the editorial assistants for their comments and interventions. This piece has seen several forms and many audiences. I thank, for their comments or questions: in Berlin, Alex Starre, Frank Kelleter, and Christian Lammert; in Amsterdam, George Blaustein, Babs Boter, and Renee de Groot; in Munich, Andrew Preston, Michael Kimmage, Angus Burgin, Uwe Lübken, Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson, Mary Nolan, Daniel Geary, Casey Blake, Brendon O'Connor, and Emily Levine; in Washington, Chris Nichols, Andy Seal, Dara Orenstein, Andrew Johnstone, and Michaela Hoenicke Moore; in Irvine, Hadji Bakara, Paul Murphy, Justin Reynolds, and Andrew McNally; in San Francisco, Paul Kramer, Adriane Lentz-Smith, and Chris Nichols; in San Juan, Sandhya Shukla and Brooke Blower. And elsewhere, too: Jenifer Van Vleck, Andrew Friedman, Naoko Shibusawa, Daniel Immerwahr, Michael Kramer, and Melani McAlister.

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