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Corps diplomatique: The body, British diplomacy, and independent Afghanistan, 1922–47*

  • MAXIMILIAN DREPHAL (a1)

Abstract

This article studies diplomatic history in its physical dimensions. Its point of departure is the interpretation of the term ‘corps diplomatique’ in a literal sense. The article introduces the concept of the diplomatic body as a diplomat's body and as a body with diplomatic functions and meanings. Based on material relating to the British Legation in Kabul from 1922 until 1947, the body's ubiquity in international relations is revealed through the themes of space, language, and medicine. The article first looks at the impact of Kabul's spatial conditions and the physical reactions it excited in British diplomats. It then considers the bodies of Afghanistan's ruling elite as objects of British attention, whose appearance was documented in diplomatic records. Descriptions of these bodies in diplomatic language expressed intimacy and consensus as well as estrangement in British–Afghan relations. In addition to the metaphorical use of the diplomatic body, the provision of healthcare through the Legation's medical unit addressed the needs of British and Afghan bodies alike. It was also employed to further diplomatic ends by extending colonial medicine to the Afghan population. The study of the Legation's physical practices ultimately reveals the diplomatic mission's colonial origins and character.

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*

This article came to life at the annual conference of the British Association for South Asian Studies in 2013. I am grateful to my co-panelists, Gavin Rand and Erica Wald, and to the attendants of the panel for their comments. I am also indebted to Siobhan Lambert-Hurley, Thoralf Klein, and Modern Asian Studies's anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions on the drafts.

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References

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1 No. XXIV, C. U. Aitchison (ed.), The Treaties, &c., Relating to Persia and Afghanistan, vol. 13, A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries, Government of India Central Publication Branch, Calcutta, 1933, pp. 288–92; Adamec, L. W., Afghanistan, 1900–1923: A Diplomatic History, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1967 ; Adamec, L. W., Afghanistan's Foreign Affairs to the Mid-Twentieth Century: Relations with the U.S.S.R., Germany, and Britain, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1974 .

2 Hopkins, B. D., The Making of Modern Afghanistan, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2008 .

3 Hamilton, K. and Langhorne, R., The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory, and Administration, 2dn edn, Routledge, London, 2011, p. 76 ; Neumann, I. B., Diplomatic Sites: A Critical Enquiry, C. Hurst & Co., London, 2013, p. 27 ; Satow, E., A Guide to Diplomatic Practice, vol. 1, Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1917, p. 3 .

4 For example, T. J. Lynch, ‘Is diplomatic history dying?’, OUPblog, 3 May 2013, http://blog.oup.com/2013/05/is-diplomatic-history-dying/ [accessed 13 January 2016].

5 Mcenaney, L., ‘Personal, political, and international: a reflection on diplomacy and methodology’, Diplomatic History, vol. 36, no. 4, September 2012, p. 772 .

6 Dean, R., ‘The personal and the political: gender and sexuality in diplomatic history’, Diplomatic History, vol. 36, no. 4, September 2012, p. 763 .

7 See, for instance, Finney, P. (ed.), Palgrave Advances in International History, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, 2005 ; Gienow-Hecht, J. C. E. and Schumacher, F. (eds), Culture and International History, Berghahn Books, New York, 2003 ; Hogan, M. J. and Paterson, T. G. (eds), Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004 ; Loth, W. and Osterhammel, J. (eds), Internationale Geschichte: Themen, Ergebnisse, Aussichten, Oldenbourg, München, 2000 .

8 Ballantyne, T. and Burton, A. M., ‘Introduction: bodies, empires, and world histories’, in Bodies in Contact: Rethinking Colonial Encounters in World History, Ballantyne, T. and Burton, A. M. (eds), Duke University Press, Durham, 2005, p. 12 .

9 For instance, I. B. Neumann, ‘The body of the diplomat’, European Journal of International Relations, vol. 14, no. 4, 2008, pp. 671–95. Rosenberg, E. S. and Fitzpatrick, S. (eds), Body and Nation: The Global Realm of U.S. Body Politics in the Twentieth Century, Duke University Press, Durham, 2014 .

10 Arnold, D., Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1993, p. 7 ; Collingham, E. M., Imperial Bodies: The Physical Experience of the Raj, c. 1800–1947, Polity Press, Cambridge, 2001 ; Mitchell, T., Colonising Egypt, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988, pp. 95127 ; Porter, R., Bodies Politic: Disease, Death and Doctors in Britain, 1650–1900, Reaktion, London, 2001 ; E. S. Rosenberg and S. Fitzpatrick, ‘Introduction’, in Rosenberg and Fitzpatrick, 2014, pp. 1–15.

11 The British Legation in Kabul and its members have figured sporadically in studies on British–Afghan relations, the Indo-Afghan borderland and Afghan history. For instance, Adamec, 1967; Adamec, 1974; Barfield, T. J., Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2010 ; Dupree, L., Afghanistan, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997 ; Ewans, M., Afghanistan: A New History, Curzon, Richmond, 2000 ; Fraser-Tytler, W. K., Afghanistan: A Study of Political Developments in Central and Southern Asia, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, London, 1953 ; Gregorian, V., The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization, 1880–1946, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1969 ; Haroon, S., Frontier of Faith: Islam, in the Indo-Afghan Borderland, Hurst, London, 2007 ; L. M. Jackman, ‘Afghanistan in British imperial strategy and diplomacy, 1919–1941’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1979; Marsh, B., Ramparts of Empire: British Imperialism and India's Afghan Frontier, 1918–1948, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2015 ; Olesen, A., Islam and Politics in Afghanistan, Curzon, Richmond, 1995, pp. 111–98; in Poullada, L. B., Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan, 1919–1929: King Amanullah's Failure to Modernize a Tribal Society, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1973 , the chapter on ‘External pressures: relations with Britain’ is an exception; Saikal, A., Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival, I. B. Tauris, London, 2012 .

12 Collingham, 2001, p. 1; Porter, R., ‘History of the body’, in New Perspectives on Historical Writing, Burke, P. (ed.), Polity, Cambridge, 1991, pp. 206–32; Woollacott, A., Gender and Empire, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2006, pp. 81103 .

13 Bose, P., Organizing Empire: Individualism, Collective Agency, and India, Duke University Press, Durham, 2003, pp. 179–88.

14 Ibid., pp. 169–221.

15 T. Ballantyne and A. M. Burton, ‘Postscript: bodies, genders, empires: reimagining world histories’, in Ballantyne and Burton, 2005, pp. 405–23; Canning, K., ‘The body as method? Reflections on the place of the body in gender history’, Gender and History, vol. 11, no. 3, November 1999, pp. 499513 ; Pratt, M. L., Imperial Eyes: Studies in Travel Writing and Transculturation, Routledge, London, 1992 .

16 Costigliola, F., ‘“Unceasing pressure for penetration”: gender, pathology, and emotion in George Kennan's formation of the Cold War’, The Journal of American History, vol. 83, no. 4, 1 March 1997, pp. 1309–39; A. J. Rotter, ‘Culture’, in Finney (ed.), 2005, pp. 267–99.

17 Coen, T. C., The Indian Political Service: A Study in Indirect Rule, Chatto & Windus, London, 1971 .

18 Onley, J., ‘The Raj reconsidered: British India's informal empire and spheres of influence in Asia and Africa’, Asian Affairs, vol. 40, no. 1, 2009, pp. 4462 .

19 Copy of telegram to Viceroy, 18 January 1922, FO 371/8076, N 1838/59/97, The National Archives, Kew (TNA).

20 Blunt, E., The I.C.S.: The Indian Civil Service, Faber & Faber, London, 1937 ; Coen, 1971; Onley, J., The Arabian Frontier of the British Raj: Merchants, Rulers, and the British in the Nineteenth-Century Gulf, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007, pp. 3843 ; Ramusack, B. N., The Indian Princes and Their States, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004, pp. 98105 ; Tripodi, C., Edge of Empire: The British Political Officer and Tribal Administration on the North-West Frontier, 1877–1947, Ashgate, Farnham, 2011, p. 22 .

21 Blyth, R. J., ‘Britain versus India in the Persian Gulf: the struggle for political control, c. 1928–48’, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. 28, no. 1, 2000, pp. 90111 ; Blyth, R., The Empire of the Raj: Eastern Africa and the Middle East, 1850–1947, Palgrave, Basingstoke, 2003 .

22 For the multiple notions of sovereignty in South Asia, see Hopkins, B. D., ‘The Frontier crimes regulation and Frontier governmentality’, The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 74, no. 2, May 2015, pp. 369–89; Marsden, M. and Hopkins, B. D., Fragments of the Afghan Frontier, Hurst & Company, London, 2011, pp. 2348 .

23 Satow, 1917, p. 1.

24 Arnold, 1993, pp. 7–8; see also Collingham, 2001, for a body history of British rule in India.

25 For example, Copland, I., The British Raj and the Indian Princes: Paramountcy in Western India, 1857–1930, Orient Longman, Bombay, 1982, pp. 70–5.

26 Ahmed, A. S., ‘An aspect of the colonial encounter in the North-West Frontier province’, Asian Affairs, vol. 9, no. 3, 1978, pp. 323–5; see also Mangan, J. A., The Games Ethic and Imperialism: Aspects of the Diffusion of an Ideal, Viking, Harmondsworth, 1986 ; Mangan, J. A., Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School: The Emergence and Consolidation of an Educational Ideology, 3rd edn, Frank Cass, London, 2000 .

27 See part B of Fraser-Tytler's application file, 28 March 1914, IOR/R/1/4/1006, The British Library, London (BL).

28 Kirk-Greene, A., ‘Badge of office: sport and His Excellency in the British Empire’, in The Cultural Bond: Sport, Empire, Society, Mangan, J. A. (ed.), Frank Cass, London, 1992, pp. 178200 .

29 Copland, I., ‘The other guardians: ideology and performance in the Indian Political Service’, in People, Princes and Paramount Power: Society and Politics in the Indian Princely States, Jeffrey, R. (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1978, pp. 286–7.

30 Note by W. M. Hailey, 13 October 1922, Foreign and Political Department, Government of India (F&P), 1922, 212-F, The National Archives of India (NAI).

31 Letter from Fraser-Tytler to his mother, 7 April 1923, GB165–0326, 1/1/1, no. 1, Middle East Centre Archive, Oxford (MECA); letter from Fraser-Tytler to his mother, 12 April 1923, GB165–0326, 1/1/1, nos. 2–4, MECA.

32 Adamec, 1967, pp. 39–64, 157–66; Wyatt, C., Afghanistan and the Defence of Empire: Diplomacy and Strategy during the Great Game, Tauris Academic Studies, London, 2011, pp. 4650, 114–39.

33 Onley, 2007, p. 17.

34 No. 298 from Humphrys, 20 May 1924, F&P, 1923, 1093(3)-A, NAI.

35 Rough note on the proposal for a British minister at Kabul by Pears, 24 November 1921, F&P, 1923, 68(20)-Est, NAI.

36 ‘Report on the Kabul Mission by Sir H. R. C. Dobbs, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E.’, 9 January 1922, p. 20, FO 402/1, no. 1, TNA.

37 Op. cit., F&P, 1923, 68(20)-Est, NAI.

38 Collingham, 2001, p. 165; Kennedy, D. K., The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the British Raj, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1996, pp. 175201 .

39 Memorandum no. 12 by Humphrys, 25 March 1922, F&P, 1922, 68(1)-E, NAI.

40 Humphrys to the Foreign Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign and Political Department, 25 March 1922, F&P, 1922, 212-F, NAI.

41 ‘Destruction of the second British Legation in Kabul’, 31 December 1926, GB165–0326, 9, MECA; ‘The Legation fire in Kabul: help from neighbours’, The Times, 31 December 1926.

42 Humphrys to Curzon, no. 6, 3 June 1922, F&P, 1922, 68(1)-E, NAI.

43 ‘Annual report on Afghanistan for 1930’, para. 100, FO 371/15550, N 760/760/97, TNA.

44 ‘Note on sanitation in connection with the new British Legation’, 26 July 1922, F&P, 1922, 212-F, no. 26, Appendix B, NAI. Emphasis added.

45 ‘Annual report on Afghanistan for 1933’, para. 159, FO 371/18259, N 2031/2031/97, TNA; ‘Account of medical affairs in Afghanistan’, 8 July 1942, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 167–181, BL.

46 Op. cit., F&P, 1922, 212-F, no. 26, Appendix B, NAI.

47 Ibid.

48 Op. cit., para. 159, FO 371/18259, N 2031/2031/97, TNA.

49 Arnold, 1993, p. 199; see also Arnold, D., ‘Cholera and colonialism in British India’, Past & Present, vol. 113, no. 1, 1 November 1986, pp. 118–51.

50 See also Ballantyne and Burton, 2005, p. 7.

51 Op. cit., F&P, 1923, 68(20)-Est, NAI. Emphasis added.

52 Memorandum by Loch, 14 January 1922, F&P, 1923, 1093(3)-A, NAI; op. cit., GB165–0326, 1/1/1, nos. 2–4, MECA: ‘It is a wonderful climate, cold & clear & still,. . . but I fancy it will be rather trying in the long winter months’. See also Redpath papers, no. 84, Mss Eur F226/24, BL: ‘As I was familiar with the history of Afghanistan and knew something of Afghan attitudes to the north west frontier, the idea of going to Kabul appealed to me. Its invigorating climate, compared with that of Calcutta, was an added attraction’.

53 ‘Medical affairs in Afghanistan’, p. 17, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 76–98, BL; Fraser-Tytler, 1953, p. 12.

54 Fraser-Tytler, 1953, pp. 285–96; Kennedy, D. K., ‘The perils of the midday sun: climatic anxieties in the colonial tropics’, in Imperialism and the Natural World, MacKenzie, J. MacDonald (ed.), Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1990, pp. 118–40.

55 See also Fowler, C., Chasing Tales Travel Writing, Journalism and the History of British Ideas about Afghanistan, Rodopi, Amsterdam, 2007, pp. 2734 .

56 Correspondence between Parkes and Hay, External Affairs Department, Government of India (EA), 1939, 55-F.O., NAI.

57 Op. cit., F&P, 1923, 68(20)-Est, NAI.

58 Kennedy, 1996, pp. 19–38.

59 Humphrys to Curzon, no. 3, Kabul, 25 March 1922, FO 371/8077, N 3667/59/97, TNA.

60 Letter from Fraser-Tytler to his mother, 31 January 1924, GB165–0326, 1/1/1, nos. 30–32, MECA.

61 ‘Kabul Legation diary’, p. 50, GB165–0326, 8, MECA.

62 Humphrys to Chamberlain, no. 4, 28 January 1929, para. 1, FO 371/13990, N 562/1/97, TNA.

63 Gould, B. J., The Jewel in the Lotus: Recollections of an Indian Political, Chatto and Windus, London, 1957, p. 104 .

64 Humphrys to Oliphant, no. 1, 9 January 1929, FO 371/13991, N 657/1/97, TNA.

65 Maconachie to Simon, no. 120, 28 September 1933, FO 402/16, part XVI, no. 25, N 7655/6691/97, TNA.

66 Adamec, 1974, p. 197.

67 Handwritten note, F&P, 1922, 98-F, NAI.

68 Humphrys to Bray, 7 August 1924, F&P, 1924, 60(1)-E, NAI.

69 Letter from Fraser-Tytler to his mother, 16 March 1940, GB165–0326, 1/1/11, nos. 26–29, MECA; Bray to Ross, 9 July 1923, IOR/R/1/4/1173, BL; see also Stoler, A. L., Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2002, pp. 12 .

70 Op. cit., p. 17, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 76–98, BL.

71 Kennedy, D. K., ‘Diagnosing the colonial dilemma: tropical neurasthenia and the alienated Briton’, in Decentring Empire: Britain, India, and the Transcolonial World, Ghosh, D. and Kennedy, D. K. (eds), Orient Longman, Hyderabad, 2006, pp. 157–81.

72 Cohn, B. S., ‘Representing authority in Victorian India’, in The Invention of Tradition, Hobsbawm, E. J. and Ranger, T. O. (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013, pp. 165209 ; Collingham, 2001, pp. 117–49.

73 Op. cit., FO 371/8077, N 3667/59/97, TNA.

74 Edwards, D. B., Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2002, pp. 79 .

75 Poullada, 1973, p. 252: ‘Lack of cultural empathy with Afghanistan, distaste for its nationalist policies, and personal antipathy toward Amanullah were all united in Sir Francis Humphrys, the man chosen to be the first British minister to independent Afghanistan’.

76 Baker, A., Wings over Kabul: The First Airlift, Kimber, London, 1975 .

77 Nadir Shah distributed government positions to his brothers. Hashim Khan was named Prime Minister, Shah Wali Khan Minister of War, Shah Mahmud Minister of the Interior.

78 Barfield, 2010, pp. 188–97, 206–10.

79 Tripodi, C., ‘“Politicals”, tribes and Musahibans: the Indian Political Service and Anglo-Afghan relations 1929–39’, The International History Review, vol. 34, no. 4, 2012, pp. 865–86.

80 Telegram no. 266 from Humphrys, 2 March 1929, FO 371/13994, N 1404/1/97, TNA.

81 Fraser-Tytler, W. K., ‘In memoriam’, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, vol. 49, no. 2, 1962, p. 119 .

82 See, among others: Barfield, 2010, p. 206; Saikal, 2012, p. 102; see Haroon, 2007, pp. 115–24 for the importance of the Indo-Afghan border tribes for Afghan politics.

83 Maconachie to Simon, no. 153, 29 November 1933, para. 5, FO 402/16, pt. XVI, no. 23, TNA.

84 Maconachie to Henderson, no. 6, 23 May 1930, FO 371/14786, N 4007/6/97, TNA.

85 Kantorowicz, E. H., The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1997 .

86 Fraser-Tytler, 1953, pp. 236, 124.

87 See comments on file cover, op. cit., FO 371/14786, N 4007/6/97, TNA.

88 Op. cit., para. 8, FO 402/16, pt. XVI, no. 23, TNA; Fletcher, A., Afghanistan: Highway of Conquest, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1965, p. 226 ; see also ‘Note of a conversation held on April 4 between His Majesty's Minister, Kabul, and Serdar Nadir Khan, Afghan Minister of War’, 12 April 1924, FO 371/10408, N 4076/3320/97, TNA.

89 Op. cit., paras 108–11, FO 371/15550, N 760/760/97, TNA; ‘Annual report on Afghanistan for 1931’, paras 140–147, FO 371/16278, N 969/969/97, TNA; ‘Annual report on Afghanistan for 1932’, paras 170–173, FO 371/17198, N 1626/1626/97, TNA; op. cit., para. 184, FO 371/18259, N 2031/2031/97, TNA; ‘Annual report on Afghanistan for 1935’, paras 189–192, FO 371/20321, N 1831/1831/97, TNA; ‘Annual report on Afghanistan for 1936’, paras 160–164, FO 371/21070, N 843/843/97, TNA; ‘Annual report on Afghanistan for 1937’, paras 115–119, FO 371/22254, N 768/768/97, TNA; ‘Annual report on Afghanistan for 1938’, paras 122–125, FO 371/23630, N 783/783/97, TNA.

90 Wylie to Eden, no. 59, 18 September 1941, FO 402/22, no. 5, TNA.

91 Letter from Fraser-Tytler to his mother, 21 August 1936, GB165–0326, 1/1/7, nos. 116–120, MECA.

92 ‘Note by Kerr Fraser-Tytler on the situation in Afghanistan’, 20 August 1941, p. 18, GB165–0326, 10, MECA.

93 Fraser-Tytler to Eden, no. 146, 21 October 1936, FO 402/17, no. 18, TNA; unofficial quarterly letter no. 8 from Fraser-Tytler, 1 April 1941, p. 2, IOR/L/PS/12/1765, nos. 3–6, BL; Wylie to Peterson, C-22/41, 12 June 1943, EA, 1943, 536-F, NAI.

94 ‘Political review of Afghanistan’, 11 February 1944, para. 9, FO 371/39964, N 951/951/97, TNA.

95 Squire to Eden, no. 59, 29 June 1945, para. 2, FO 371/45229, E 5095/5095/97, TNA; ‘Political review of events for the year 1946’, para. 6, FO 371/61480, E 1164/1164/97, TNA.

96 Humphrys to Cushendun, no. 107, 31 October 1928, para. 6, FO 402/9, no. 44, N 5527/4401/97, TNA; Rotter, 2005, pp. 269–70.

97 Quoted in Jacobsen, M., ‘The great game resumed: Afghanistan and the defense of India, 1919–1939’, in Rediscovering the British Empire, Ward, B. J. (ed.), Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, 2002, p. 92 .

98 ‘Fraser-Tytler to Metcalfe, no. 1263’, 9 February 1939, para. 6, FO 371/23628, N 908/144/97, TNA; Rosenberg and Fitzpatrick, 2014, p. 7.

99 Op. cit., no. 3, IOR/L/PS/12/1765, nos. 3–6, BL.

100 Hopkins, 2008, pp. 11–33.

101 These were the Minister, Counsellor, Secretary, Military Attaché and the Surgeon.

102 ‘Medical affairs in Afghanistan [1946]’, p. 9, EA, 1947, 13(13)-IA, NAI.

103 Letter from Fraser-Tytler to his mother, 27 December 1940, GB165–0326, 1/1/11, nos. 158–160, MECA; Death of Major Lilly, FO 371/10410, N 9210/9210/97, TNA.

104 In 1935, the Legation personnel accounted for 1,830 in comparison to a total of 26,467 cases in that year. In 1936, the Legation personnel accounted for 2,140 cases, while the Legation dispensary counted a total of 39,832 attendances. Op. cit., paras 168, 178, FO 371/20321, N 1831/1831/97, TNA; op. cit., paras 142, 147, FO 371/21070, N 843/843/97, TNA.

105 The literature on the interrelationship of the body, medicine, and colonialism is rich; the case of India is particularly well represented. For example, Arnold, 1993; Chakrabarti, P., Medicine and Empire, 1600–1960, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2014 ; Kumar, D. and Basu, R. S. (eds), Medical Encounters in British India, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013 ; Pati, B. and Harrison, M. (eds), Health, Medicine and Empire: Perspectives on Colonial India, Orient Longman, Hyderabad, 2001 ; Pati, B. and Harrison, M. (eds), The Social History of Health and Medicine in Colonial India, Routledge, Abingdon, 2009 ; Sehrawat, S., Colonial Medical Care in North India: Gender, State, and Society, c. 1840–1920, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013 .

106 ‘Report on the proposed buildings for His Britannic Majesty's Legation in Kabul’, 27 September 1922, p. 23, F&P, 1922, 212-F, no. 29, pp. 18–27, NAI,

107 Note by Howell, 9 October 1922, F&P, 1922, 212-F, NAI.

108 Note by Bray, 9 October 1922, F&P, 1922, 212-F, NAI. See also Chakrabarti, 2014, p. 108.

109 Fraser-Tytler to Collier, no. 339, 18 May 1938, para. 3, FO 371/22257, N 2911/2911/97, TNA.

110 Op. cit., pp. 9–10, EA, 1947, 13(13)-IA, NAI.

111 Op. cit., para. 188, FO 371/23630, N 783/783/97, TNA; ‘Legation Hospital and consulate dispensaries’, 30 October 1925, F&P, 1925, 256(2)-A, NAI; op. cit., no. 180, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, BL.

112 Humphrys, no. 373/4, 9 January 1926, F&P, 1925, 256(2)-A, NAI.

113 ‘Kabul Legation budget 1927–1928, Annexure 3’, 15 October 1926, F&P, 1926, 165-A, NAI.

114 Op. cit., para. 124, FO 371/16278, N 969/969/97, TNA.

115 ‘Summary of the course and tendency of events during the period May 15 to August 22, 1925’, para. 7, FO 371/10986, N 5349/533/97, TNA.

116 Op. cit., para. 34, FO 402/1, no. 1, TNA.

117 See also Barfield, 2010, p. 128.

118 Annual confidential report on George MacGregor Millar for 1922, 29 November 1922, IOR/L/MIL/14/15591, BL; ‘Kabul Legation diary’, p. 66, GB165–0326, 8, MECA; ‘Summary of the course and tendency of Afghan internal events during the period January 16, 1926, to October 15, 1926’, para. 3, FO 402/6, no. 46, N 5077/151/97, TNA.

119 ‘Summary of events in Afghanistan from August 17 to December 31, 1922’, FO 371/9292, N 920/920/97, TNA; Maconachie to Metcalfe, 27 July 1934, IOR/L/MIL/14/15451, BL.

120 Op. cit., para. 7, FO 371/10986, N 5349/533/97, TNA.

121 ‘Medical affairs in Afghanistan’, pp. 19–20, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 114–140, BL.

122 Humphrys to Bray, 23 July 1923, F&P, 1923, 657-F, NAI.

123 Op. cit., p. 14, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 167–181, BL; see also F&P, 1923, 657-F and EA, 1941, 392-F, NAI.

124 ‘Kabul Legation diary’, pp. 117–18, GB165–0326, 8, MECA.

125 ‘Summary of the course and tendency of events during the period April 1, 1926, to June 30, 1926’, para. 3, FO 402/6, no. 40, N 3909/151/97, TNA.

126 Op. cit., p. 13, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 114–140, BL; ‘Medical affairs in Afghanistan’, p. 14, EA, 1946, 435-F, NAI.

127 Wylie to Eden, no. 10, 2 March 1943, para. 8, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 108ff., BL; see also Gregorian, 1969, pp. 246–7, 311–14.

128 Op. cit., p. 1, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 167–181, BL; Prakash, G., ‘Introduction: after colonialism’, After Colonialism: Imperial Histories and Postcolonial Displacements, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995, p. 11 .

129 Arnold, 1993, p. 242.

130 Headrick, D. R., The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century, Oxford University Press, New York, 1981 . Headrick's approach has been discussed extensively; Arnold, D., ‘Introduction: disease, medicine and empire’, in Imperial Medicine and Indigenous Societies, Arnold, D. (ed.), Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1988, pp. 126 ; Arnold, 1993; B. Pati and M. Harrison, ‘Introduction: health, medicine and empire: perspectives on colonial India’, in Pati and Harrison, 2001, pp. 1–36. See also Chakrabarti, 2014, pp. 101–21.

131 ‘Summary of the course and tendency of events in Afghanistan during the period February 16 to May 15, 1925’, p. 4, FO 371/10986, N 3409/533/97, TNA.

132 Op. cit., p. 2, F&P, 1925, 256(2)-A, NAI.

133 Op. cit., p. 14, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 167–181, BL; Ronald Hyam offers an interesting insight, arguing that ‘the deep-seated hostility of the Afghan people towards the British may well have been due to their resentment of the undisciplined lust with which British soldiers fell upon the women of Kabul [in 1841]’. It is difficult, however, to establish whether this notion played a role in connection with the ban on women to attend the Legation dispensary. Hyam, R., Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1990, p. 2 ; op. cit., para. 141, FO 371/21070, N 843/843/97, TNA.

134 Op. cit., para. 6, IOR/L/PS/1733, nos. 108ff., BL.

135 Telegram no. 176 from Wylie, 11 September 1942, para. 4, IOR/L/PS/12/1934, BL.

136 Op. cit., para. 8, IOR/L/PS/1733, nos. 108ff., BL.

137 ‘Medical affairs in Afghanistan, 1947’, p. 23, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 15–23, BL; ‘Report on medical affairs, Afghanistan, 1948’, p. 11, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 3–12, BL.

138 Squire to Bevin, no. 12, 28 February 1946, para. 3, FO 371/52275, E 2578/66/97, TNA.

139 Squire to Bevin, no. 9, 27 January 1948, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, no. 14, BL.

140 Squire to Bevin, no. 23, 1 March 1947, EA, 1947, 13(13)-IA, NAI; op. cit., pp. 19–20, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 15–23, BL.

141 ‘Afghanistan: annual review for 1948’, para. 5, FO 371/75621, F 1967/1011/97, TNA.

142 Arnold, 1993, p. 294; Chakrabarti, 2014, p. 115.

143 Op. cit., pp. 19–20, IOR/L/PS/12/1733, nos. 15–23, BL.

144 See FO 983/36, TNA.

145 ‘Afghanistan: annual political review, 1949’, 2 January 1950, para. 6, FO 371/83035, TNA; ‘Afghanistan: annual political review, 1950’, para. 15, FO 371/92080, TNA.

146 There are occasional files that seem to have survived for their anecdotal and not for their political value: Ledwidge to Landymore, 23 March 1955, FO 371/117019, TNA.

147 Arnold and Kennedy offer diverging interpretations of the term; Arnold, 1993, pp. 61–115; Kennedy, 1996, p. 8.

148 Hopkins, 2008, p. 170.

* This article came to life at the annual conference of the British Association for South Asian Studies in 2013. I am grateful to my co-panelists, Gavin Rand and Erica Wald, and to the attendants of the panel for their comments. I am also indebted to Siobhan Lambert-Hurley, Thoralf Klein, and Modern Asian Studies's anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions on the drafts.

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