Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Booth, Anne 2016. Women, Work and the Family: Is Southeast Asia Different?. Economic History of Developing Regions, Vol. 31, Issue. 1, p. 167.


    de Beer, Hans 2016. The biological standard of living in Suriname, c. 1870–1975. Economics & Human Biology, Vol. 22, p. 140.


    De Zwart, Pim and Van Zanden, Jan Luiten 2015. Labor, wages, and living standards in Java, 1680–1914. European Review of Economic History, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 215.


    ×

Measuring Living Standards in Different Colonial Systems: Some Evidence from South East Asia, 1900–1942

  • ANNE BOOTH (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X12000145
  • Published online: 30 March 2012
Abstract
Abstract

This paper investigates the evidence on living standards in colonial economies, with particular reference to South East Asia in the decades from 1900 to 1942. Various measures are investigated, including availability of basic needs, demographic indicators, especially mortality rates, anthropometric measures and wage data. The paper concludes that in spite of the growth in GDP which occurred in most parts of the region between 1900 and 1940, improvements in living standards were modest, and by the late 1930s most colonies had low educational enrolments and high mortality rates. The Philippines had probably the highest living standards in the region, using educational indicators, mortality rates and per capita GDP estimates. But even in the Philippines rice availability per capita was low, and nutritional levels among some segments of the population were also below acceptable standards.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Robert C. Allen , Tommy Bengtsson and Martin Dribe (Eds) (2005), Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Sue Bowden , Chiripanhua Blessing and Paul Mosley (2008), Measuring and Explaining Poverty in Six African Countries: A Long-Period Approach, Journal of International Development, 20: 10491079

Peter Lindert (2004), Growing Public, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Pierre van der Eng , (2000), Food for Growth: Trends in Indonesia's Food Supply, 1880–1995, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 30 (4), 591616, especially Table 6

Ann Stoler (1978), Garden Use and Household Economy in Rural Java, Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 14 (2), 85–10

Gustav Ranis , Frances Stewart and Emma Samman (2006), Human Development: beyond the Human Development Index, Journal of Human Development, 7 (3): 323358

Ralph Shlomowitz , and Lance Brennan (1992), Mortality and Indian Labour in Malaya, 1877–1933, Indian Economic and Social History Review, 29 (1), 5775

Peter Boomgaard (2003), Smallpox, vaccination, and the Pax Neerlandica Indonesia, 1550–1930, Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land en Volkenkunde 159: 590617

Simon Szreter and Graham Mooney (1998), Urbanization, Mortality, and the Standard of Living Debate: New Estimates of the Expectation of Life at Birth in Nineteenth-Century British Cities, Economic History Review, 51 (1): 84112

Angus Maddison (2005), Measuring and Interpreting World Economic Performance 1500–2001, Review of Income and Wealth, Series 51 (1), 135, p. 24

N. F. R. Crafts (1997), ‘The human development index and changes in standards of living: some historical comparisons’, European Review of Economic History, 1, 299322

Nicholas Crafts (2002), ‘The human development index, 1870–1999: Some revised estimates’, European Review of Economic History, 6, 395405

Richard Hooley (2005), American economic policy in the Philippines, 1902–1940: Exploring a dark age in colonial statistics, Journal of Asian Economics, 16, 464488

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Modern Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0026-749X
  • EISSN: 1469-8099
  • URL: /core/journals/modern-asian-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×