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‘The Viceroys are Disappearing from the Roundabouts in Delhi’: British symbols of power in post-colonial India

  • PAUL M. MCGARR (a1)

Abstract

In the aftermath of the Second World War, as post-colonial regimes in Africa and Asia hauled down imperial iconography, to the surprise and approval of many Western observers, India evidenced little interest in sweeping away remnants of its colonial heritage. From the late 1950s onwards, however, calls for the removal of British imperial statuary from India's public spaces came to represent an increasingly important component in a broader dialogue between central and state governments, political parties, the media, and the wider public on the legacy of British colonialism in the subcontinent. This article examines the responses of the ruling Congress Party and the British government, between 1947 and 1970, to escalating pressure from within India to replace British statuary with monuments celebrating Indian nationalism. In doing so, it highlights the significant scope that existed for non-state actors in India and the United Kingdom with a stake in the cultural politics of decolonization to disrupt the smooth running of bilateral relations, and, in Britain's case, to undermine increasingly tenuous claims of continued global relevance. Post-war British governments believed that the United Kingdom's relationship with India could be leveraged, at least in part, to offset the nation's waning international prestige. In fact, as the fate of British statuary in India makes clear, this proved to be at least as problematic and flawed a strategy in the two decades after 1947 as it had been in those before.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

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1 Leonard to Martin, 24 August 1965, DO 170/54, The United Kingdom National Archives, Kew [hereafter, TNA]. See also, The Times, 14 August 1965; and Davies, Philip. (1987). Splendours of the Raj: British Architecture in India, 1660–1947, Penguin, London, pp. 233234.

2 The Indian Express, 14 August 1965.

3 See, for example, Cohen, William. (1989). Symbols of Power: Statues in Nineteenth Century Provincial France, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 31:5, pp. 491512; Aldrich, Robert. (2005). Vestiges of the Colonial Empire in France: Monuments, Museums and Colonial Memories, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke; and, Demissie, Fassil. (2012). Colonial Architecture and Urbanism in Africa: Intertwined and Contested Histories, Ashgate, Farnham.

4 See, Alley, Kelly D. (1997). Gandhiji on the Central Vista: A Postcolonial Refiguring, Modern Asian Studies, 31:4, pp. 967994; Morris, Jan. (1983). Stones of Empire: The Buildings of the Raj, Oxford University Press, Oxford; Irving, Robert Grant. (1981). Indian Summer: Lutyens, Baker, and Imperial Delhi, Yale University Press, New Haven; Metcalf, Thomas. (1989). An Imperial Vision: Indian Architecture and Britain's Raj, Oxford University Press, New Delhi; and Buettner, Elizabeth. (2006). Cemeteries, Public Memory and Raj Nostalgia in Postcolonial Britain and India, History & Memory, 18:1, pp. 542.

5 Steggles, Mary Ann. (2000). Statues of the Raj, British Association for Cemeteries in South Asia, London, pp. vii–1.

6 Johnson, David A. (2008). A British Empire for the Twentieth Century: The Inauguration of New Delhi, 1931, Urban History, 35:3, p. 462.

7 Baker, Herbert, ‘The New Delhi: Eastern and Western Architecture: A Problem of Style’, The Times, 3 October 1912, p. 7.

8 NotablyWalkowitz, Daniel J. Walkowitz, Daniel J. and Knauer, Lisa Maya (eds). (2005). Memory and the Impact of Political Transformation in Public Space, Duke University Press, Durham.

9 For additional insight into the concept of an ‘imagined’ community, see, Anderson, Benedict. (1983). Imagined Communities—Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Verso, London.

10 Steggles, Statues of the Raj, p. 23.

11 O’Brien to Martin, ‘Statues’, 11 May 1966, DO 170/54, TNA.

12 See, for example, Moore, Robin. (1983). Escape from Empire: The Attlee Government and the Indian Problem, Oxford University Press, Oxford; and Moon, Penderel (ed.). (1973). Wavell: The Viceroy's Journal, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

13 ‘The Future of Anglo-American Relations’, 5 January 1960, PREM 11/2986, TNA.

14 ‘Statement of Policy on U.S. policy Toward South Asia’, National Security Council Report, NSC 5701, 10 January 1957, R[ecord] G[roup] 59, Lot 63 D 351, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland [hereafter, NARA].

15 Bowles, Chester. (1960). The ‘China Problem’ Reconsidered, Foreign Affairs, 30:3, p. 477.

16 Merrill, Dennis. (1990). Bread and the Ballot: The United States and India's Economic Development, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, p. 175.

17 Bartlett to Jones, 9 July 1959, RG59, Lot 62 D43, Box 24, Folder India Economic 1959 2 of 2, NARA.

18 Wilson cited in Redding, Saunders. (1954). An American in India: A Personal Report on the Indian Dilemma and the Nature of Her Conflicts, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, New York, p. 41.

19 ‘Impressions of My Commonwealth Tour’, Douglas-Home, 15 November 1955, CAB 129/78, TNA.

20 Martin to Gore Booth, 29 August 1961, DO 133/145, TNA.

21 ‘Presidential meeting on Sino-Indian conflict’, 19 November 1962, in Smith, Louis J. (1996). Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1963, Vol. XIX, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp. 395396.

22 ‘Sino-Indian War’, 19 November 1962, Meetings Recordings, Tape No. 62, John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts [hereafter, JFKL].

23 ‘Current Political Scene in the United Kingdom’, 13 December 1962, NSF, Box 238, Folder 2, JFKL.

24 Bowles, Chester. (1954). Ambassador's Report, Harper & Brothers, New York, pp. 5556.

25 ‘Prime Minister's Commonwealth Tour’, 4 June 1958, C. (58), 120, CAB 129/93, TNA.

26 Macmillan, Harold. (1971). Riding the Storm, 1956–1959, Macmillan, London, p. 385.

27 Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1965). The White House Years: Waging Peace, 1956–1961, Doubleday & Co, New York, pp. 501502.

28 ‘The Statue of the Queen-Empress, Bombay’, The Times, 9 December 1898; ‘General Neill's Statue in Madras: Attempts at Defacement’, The Times, 9 September 1927; ‘The Neill Statue in Madras’, The Times, 4 December 1937.

29 Wythers to Simmons, 11 December 1961, DO 133/150, TNA.

30 ‘Renaming of Calcutta Street’, Amrita Bazar Patrika, Calcutta, 15 August 1947; ‘New Delhi Dropping British Road Names’, The New York Times, 14 August 1955.

31 Symon to Patrick, 21 September 1948, DO 142/255, TNA.

32 ‘Bombay Fortnightly Political Report’, No. 3, 16 November to 30 November 1947, DO 142/255, TNA.

33 For valuable insights into the significance of the memorial in British and Indian popular memory, see Heathom, Stephen. (2008). Angel of Empire: The Cawnpore Memorial Well as a British Site of Imperial Remembrance, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, 8:3, http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_colonialism_and_colonial_history/v008/8.3heathorn.html, [accessed 2 November 2014].

34 ‘The Cawnpore Memorial Well’, 19 September 1947, DO 142/255, TNA.

35 Shone to CRO, 26 September 1947, DO 142/255, TNA. See also, ‘Memorandum to Sir Paul Patrick’, 7 August 1947, DO 142/255, TNA.

36 ‘Union Jack at Lucknow Residency Hauled Down’, The Statesman, Calcutta, 29 August 1947.

37 ‘Pax Victoria’, Daily Mail, 13 August 1947, p. 2.

38 Bowles, Ambassador's Report, pp. 55–56.

39 Allen, Charles. (1975). Plain Tales from the Raj: Images of India in the Twentieth Century, Andre Deutsch, London, p. 256.

40 Bowles, Ambassador's Report, p. 56.

41 ‘Departing Britons’, The Statesman, Calcutta, 5 and 12 September 1947.

42 ‘Obituary broadcast made by Lord Mountbatten’, May 1964, MB1/J304 (folder 3 of 3) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Mountbatten papers, Hartley Library, University of Southampton [hereafter MBP].

43 Hasan, Mushirul. (2005). Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Second Series, Volume Thirty-Six, 1 December 1956–21 February 1957, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, pp. 507508.

44 Nanda, B. R. (1996). Nehru and the British, Modern Asian Studies, 30:2, pp. 469479; Henderson to Dr. A. R. Field, 7 June 1978, Box 8, India Misc folder, Loy W. Henderson Papers, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress; Galbraith, John Kenneth. (1981). A Life in Our Times, Andre Deutsch, London, p. 408.

45 Sutherland to Private Secretary to the Secretary of State, 2 December 1969, FCO 37/442, TNA.

46 Calcutta Weekly Report No. 50, 24 December 1948, POL 12718/48, DO 142/155, TNA.

47 Bullock to Chisholm, 6 December 1949, DO 143/256, TNA.

48 ‘Statues of Viceroys to Remain in New Delhi’, The Statesman, New Delhi, 5 April 1950.

49 ‘British Monuments in India and Pakistan’, 18 October 1948, DO 142/155, TNA.

50 Garner to Antrobus, 26 May 1952, DO 35/2137, TNA.

51 The British considered that such action would encompass the removal of a statue either ‘to the accompaniment of a ceremony of a derogatory nature’, or ‘to a contemptuous new site’, or to its being ‘wantonly demolished’. Symon to Patrick, 21 September 1948, DO 142/255, TNA.

52 Smith, Howard, Removal of Statues of Kitchener and Gordon, 9 January 1957, FO371/126017; Khartoum to FO, No. 1524 Confidential, 9 December 1958, FO371/131754; both TNA. See also, ‘Kitchener and Gordon Statues Shrouded: Plans for Removal in Darkness’, The Times, 12 December 1958, p. 10.

53 ‘Lawrence's Statue Removed from Lahore High Court Building’, Dawn, Karachi, 28 August 1950; ‘Victoria's Statue Removed to Lahore Museum’, Pakistan Times, Lahore, 22 July 1951.

54 Stanley to Gordon, 30 July 1951, DO 35/2137, TNA.

55 ‘Sanctuary for Old Statues’, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, 27 July 1951. See also, ‘Removal of Statues of National Museums’. E. No. 2733, Press Information Department, Government of Pakistan, Karachi, 28 July 1951, DO 35/2137, TNA.

56 ‘Statues of British Personalities; Street Names’, February 1961, Mss Eur E367/14, Alexander Symon Papers, India Office Private Papers, British Library.

57 Alley, ‘Gandhiji on the Central Vista’, p. 973.

58 ‘Lok Sabha Questions on Statues of British Rulers’, 23 September and 8 December 1954, DO 35/7797, TNA.

59 Walker to Costley-White, 22 April 1955, DO 35/7797, TNA.

60 ‘Lok Sabha Questions on Statues of Foreign Rulers’, 18 July 1956, DO 35/7797, TNA.

61 Rob to Costley-White, ‘British Monuments in India’, 9 August 1956, DO 35/7797, TNA.

62 Ibid.

63 King to Sudbury, 18 May 1955, DO 35/5450, TNA.

64 Hailsham, Lord, handwritten note, undated, GBR/0014/HLSM/2/10/26, Lord Hailsham Papers, Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge [hereafter LHP]. See also, Pandit to Hailsham, 1 August 1961, GBR/0014/HLSM/2/10/26, LHP.

65 Mountfield to Isserlis, 26 September 1961, GBR/0014/HLSM/2/10/26, LHP.

66 ‘Extract from House of Lords Official Report, 13 June 1955’; and Leadbetter to Baxter, 11 June 1955, DO 35/5450, TNA.

67 King to Cautrey, 14 May 1955, DO 35/5450, TNA.

68 ‘Future of India Office Library’, The Times, 14 May 1955, p. 7.

69 ‘Extract from House of Lords Official Report’, 13 June 1955, DO 35/5450, TNA.

70 ‘India Office Library: Note received from the Indian Government on the 10th February 1956’, DO 35/5450, TNA.

71 ‘India Office Library’, 27 June and 6 July 1955, DO 35/5450, TNA. See also, Nehru, Jawaharlal, note to Commonwealth Secretary, 25 October 1955 in Sharad Prasad, H. Y. and. Damodaran, A. K. (2002). Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Second Series, Volume Thirty, 1 September–17 November 1955, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, pp. 455–457.

72 Lord Home to Acting UK High Commissioner, ‘India Office Library’, No. 1422, 9 July 1955, DO 35/5450, TNA.

73 ‘Delhi Campaign Renewed for India Office Library’, The Times, 21 October 1955, p. 8.

74 Leadbetter to Baxter, 11 June 1955, DO 35/5450, TNA.

75 ‘India Office Library’, The Times, 12 November 1955, p. 7.

76 MacDonald to Home, ‘India Office Library’, 29 February 1956, 42/3/1–2, GB 033 MAC, Malcolm MacDonald Papers Palace Green Library, University of Durham [hereafter MMP].

77 MacDonald to Home, 19 June 1956, 42/3/7–11, MMP.

78 Cabinet Memorandum, ‘Indian Office Library’, C. (60) 73 Conclusions, 26 April 1960, CAB 129/101, TNA.

79 ‘Judges will Rule on Indian House of Treasures’, The Daily Mail, 25 November 1965, p. 2.

80 Savarkar, V. D. (1947). The Indian War of Independence, 1857, Phoenix Publications, Bombay.

81 MacDonald to Home, ‘Centenary of the Indian Mutiny’, No. 38 Confidential, 22 June 1957, DO 201/8, TNA.

82 Majumdar, R. C. (1957). The Sepoy Mutiny and the Revolt of 1857, Oriental Press Private Ltd, Calcutta; Chaudhuri, S. B. (1957). Civil Rebellion in the Indian Mutinies: 1857–1859, World Press Private, Calcutta; Sen, S. N. (1957). Eighteen Fifty-Seven, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, New Delhi. A synthesis of some of the best recent scholarship on the events of 1857 is contained in Pati, Biswamoy. (2007). The 1857 Rebellion, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

83 P. K. Ghosh, ‘Statues in India’, The Manchester Guardian, 23 May 1957, p. 6.

84 Rob to Cockram, ‘Mutiny Centenary’, 1 February 1957, DO 35/9144, TNA.

85 Alley, ‘Gandhiji on the Central Vista’, p. 973.

86 ‘Extract of proceedings of the Lok Sabha’, 13 May 1957, DO 133/150, TNA.

87 New Delhi to CRO, No. 650, ‘British Statues in India’, 7 June 1957, DO 35/9041, TNA. The two statues were found new homes in the United Kingdom in the late 1950s. Nicholson's statue went to the Royal School, Dungannon, in Northern Ireland, where he had been a pupil. Taylor's was brought back to Englefield Green in Surrey, to the former site of the Royal Indian Engineering College, of which he had been president. Nicholson's statue was subsequently unveiled in April 1960 to much fanfare by none-other than India's last viceroy, Lord Mountbatten. Unveiling of General John Nicholson's statue, Dungannon Royal School, Northern Ireland, 13 April 1960, MB1/M27, MBP.

88 MacDonald, ‘The Centenary of the Indian Mutiny—Part II’, Despatch no. 55, 1 October 1957, DO 35/9042, TNA. The text of Prasad's speech was reproduced in India's major daily newspapers. See, for example, ‘President's Message on Revolt of 1857’, The Indian Express, Delhi, 15 August 1957; ‘President's Message to The Nation’, The Bombay Chronicle, 15 August 1957.

89 MacDonald to Home, ‘India: General Elections, 1957’, 30 April 1947, DO 35/6137, TNA.

90 ‘Memorials to 1857 Martyrs: Reports of Celebrations From Towns’, National Herald, Lucknow, 14 May 1957.

91 ‘29 Arrested on Monday at Bara Banki’, National Herald, Lucknow, 14 May 1957.

92 MacDonald to Home, ‘Centenary of the Indian Mutiny’, No. 38 Confidential, 22 June 1957, DO 201/8 Correspondence respecting Commonwealth Relations Volume VIII, 1957, TNA.

93 One report stated that 37 British statues had been taken down in Uttar Pradesh alone. ‘British Statues in India Seeking New Homes’, Reuters report, 15 December 1958, DO 133/150, TNA.

94 Laithwaite to Muir, 28 August 1957, WORK 20/259, TNA.

95 The Times, 16 July 1957. In contrast, The Manchester Guardian noted wryly that the removal of British statues in Uttar Pradesh had confronted the state government with the further problem of identifying generally acceptable national heroes with which to replace them, as the landmarks represented by statues were something that people did not want to do without. The Manchester Guardian, 28 August 1957. See also, ‘Empty Pedestals of Monarchs Now Stare Vacantly at Citizens’, National Herald, Lucknow, 28 February 1960.

96 See, for example, ‘British Statues in India to Disappear’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 May 1957; and, ‘India is Removing British Statues’, The Age, Melbourne, 30 May 1957, p. 2.

97 Hailey to Mountbatten, undated, MSS Eur F173/171, India Office Private Papers, British Library.

98 Hailey to Laithwaite, 21 August and 4 December 1957, MSS Eur F173/171, India Office Private Papers, British Library.

99 CRO to New Delhi, No, 1539, 13 August 1957, WORK 20/259, TNA.

100 Rob to Gibson, 10 October 1957, and enclosed note from Pant to MacDonald, 19 September 1957, DO 35/9042, TNA.

101 ‘British Statues in India Seeking New Homes’, Reuters report, 15 December 1958, DO 133/150, TNA.

102 See, for example, ‘CPI Report Attacks Govt. “Vacillation” On Anti-Colonial Issues’, and, ‘Lohia Says India Has Betrayed Colonial People’, National Herald, Lucknow, 17 April and 1 March 1961.

103 Belcher to Hampshire, 21 December 1961, DO 196/1, TNA.

104 ‘Shivaji Statue Likely to Replace British Relic’, Indian Express, Bombay, 29 July 1959; Times of India, Delhi, 5 March 1960; Haley to Hailey, 12 August 1962, MSS Eur F173/171, India Office Private Papers, British Library.

105 ‘Report of the State Committee appointed to examine the Question of the Retention in Public Places of Statues of the British Period and other Relics’, September 1961, DO 133/150, TNA.

106 The Statesman, Calcutta, 5 May 1960; The Times of India, 17 June 1961.

107 Gore-Booth to Bishop, 12 January 1961; and CRO to Delhi, No. 627, ‘Victoria Memorial Building in Calcutta’, 6 February 1961, DO 133/150, TNA.

108 James to Martin, ‘The Victoria Memorial’, 23 March 1961, DO 133/150, TNA.

109 ‘Note for Sir A. Snelling, Sir P. Gore-Booth's Proposal for a history of “The British Period in India”’, 7 June 1962, DO 191/151, TNA.

110 Sutton to Costely-White, 26 June 1962, DO 133/160, TNA.

111 Furness, ‘The History of the British in India’, 26 April 1963; and Furness to Croom Johnson, 17 May 1963, DO 133/160, TNA

112 Mansergh, P. N. S. (1970–1983). The Transfer of Power, 1942–7: Constitutional Relations between Britain and India, 12 volumes, HMSO, London.

113 Furness to Sutton, 6 July 1963, DO 133/160, TNA.

114 ‘Surfeit of Statues’, The Times, 12 May 1964.

115 ‘Africans see Statue Removed’, The Guardian, 7 November 1963, p. 1.

116 ‘Mr. Nehru's Health’, 5 February 1964, DO 196/311, TNA.

117 ‘Dr. Woodward on Nehru's health’, 10 January 1964, Records Relating to Indian Political Affairs, 1964–1966, Box 5, National Records and Archives Administration, College Park, Maryland.

118 MacDonald to Kilmuir, 6 October 1958, DO 35/8649, TNA.

119 The Indian Express, 13 April 1964.

120 Frank, Katherine. (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi, HarperCollins, London, p. 274.

121 The New York Times, 28 May 1964.

122 Goldsmith to Kerr, 30 April 1964, DO 174/54, TNA.

123 ‘Victory for the Iconoclasts’, The Times 11 May 1964.

124 Emery to Pickard, 22 July 1964, DO 170/54, TNA.

125 O’Brien to Emery, 18 July 1964, DO 170/54, TNA.

126 Gore-Booth to Garner, 19 November 1964, DO 170/54, TNA.

127 The Statesman, New Delhi, 11 July 1965.

128 O’Brien to Martin, 14 July 1965, DO 170/54, TNA.

129 Prem Krishen (Indian Ministry of Works and Housing) to Gore-Booth, 26 February 1965, DO 170/54, TNA; Martin to Pickard, 18 February 1965, DO 170/54, TNA.

130 See, for example, ‘Overthrow of the Monarchy’, The Observer, 19 December 1965; ‘Vandals Decapitate British Statues’, The Times, 11 August 1965; and Allinson to Martin, 24 August 1965, DO 170/54, TNA.

131 ‘India Clings to Raj Relics’, The Scotsman, 3 February 1966.

132 The Times, 17 November 1964.

133 ‘Premier Pledges Support for India’, The Guardian, 11 June 1965.

134 Craig to Brighty, ‘Gandhi Memorial’, 13 March 1968, FCO 50/191, TNA.

135 ‘Mr. Wilson Puts Case on Britain's Defence Role’, The Times, 16 June 1966.

136 ‘Nelson Column in Dublin Blasted’, The New York Times, 8 March 1966.

137 ‘Statue of George V and Other British Figures Troubles Indians’, The New York Times, 31 July 1966. For a more detailed examination of the debate surrounding the replacement of George V's statue with a figure of Gandhi, see Alley, ‘Gandhiji on the Central Vista’, pp. 967–994.

138 ‘British Statues Vandalized in India’, Press Courier, 11 July 1973, p. 13. See also ‘India Hauls Defaced British Statues Away’, Los Angeles Times, 15 September 1966, p. 21.

139 O’Brien to Martin, 11 May 1966, DO 170/54, TNA.

140 Barrow to Best, 22 October 1968; Burns to Best, 31 October 1968; Burns to Jasper, 17 December 1968, FCO 37/441, TNA.

141 Best to Burns, 20 November 1968, FCO 37/441, TNA.

142 Marlow to Lavers, 13 October 1969, FCO 37/443, TNA.

143 Davies, Splendours of the Raj, p. 245; See also, Linstrum, Derek. (1995), The Sacred Past: Lord Curzon and the Indian Monuments, South Asian Studies, 11:1, pp. 117; and Rose, Kenneth. (1969). Superior Person: A Portrait of Curzon and his Circle in Late Victorian England, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London.

144 O’Brien to Martin, 18 February 1965, DO 170/54, TNA.

145 Steggles, Statues of the Raj, p. 24.

146 ‘Briefs for the Prince of Wales visit to India November–December 1980’, FCO 37/2336, TNA.

147 O’Neil to Schaffer, 17 October 1967, RG59, Lot file 71D385 Box 4 Folder Political Affairs & Relations India 1967 Madras, NARA.

148 ‘The Iconoclasts’, The Manchester Guardian, 28 August 1957, p. 6.

149 Gopalan, S. (1998). Honouring National Leaders: Statues and Portraits in Parliament Complex, Lok Sabha Secretariat, New Delhi, pp. 921.

150 Jaoul, Nicolas. (2006). Learning the Use of Symbolic Means: Dalits, Ambedkar Statues and the State in Uttar Pradesh, Contributions to Indian Sociology, 40:2, pp. 175207.

151 ‘Statue of Ambedkar desecrated in UP’, Times of India, 27 July 2013.

152 Hall to Christopher, ‘Tamil Nadu Politics and the DMK’, 22 January 1976, FCO 37/1796, TNA.

153 ‘New Heads as Raj Loses Face’, The Guardian, 8 October 1977, p. 5.

154 Pyatt to State Department, 22 May 2007, Ref. 07NEWDELHI2433_a, ‘Biography: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati: The New Queen in Town’, http://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/07NEWDELHI2433_a.html, [accessed 4 November 2014].

155 ‘Mayawati's Statue Damaged in Lucknow, 3 held’, Hindustan Times, Lucknow, 26 July 2012.

156 Cannadine, David. (1995). The Empire Strikes Back, Past and Present, 147:1, pp. 180194.

157 Miles to Male, ‘Law and order in Calcutta’, 14 December 1972, FCO 37/1178, TNA; ‘British Rulers’ Statues to be Reinstated’, The Statesman, 14 December 1972.

158 ‘Swadeshi in Name, Colonial in Aesthetics’, The Statesman, Calcutta, 12 January 2001; ‘Communists Revive Symbols of British Rule’, The Times, 7 February 2000.

159 ‘More Ups and Downs in Store for the Stony-faced Heroes of British Empire’, Scotland on Sunday, 22 October 2000.

160 ‘Coronation Park's Past Glory to be Revived’, The Hindustan Times, 24 November 2007.

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