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Mechanical exfoliation is performed to fabricate ultrathin SnS layers, and chemical/thermal stability of SnS layers is discussed in comparison with GeS, toward piezoelectric nanogenerator application. Both SnS and GeS are difficult to be exfoliated under 10 nm using tape exfoliation due to strong interlayer ionic bonding by lone pair electrons in Sn or Ge atoms. Au-mediated exfoliation enables to fabricate larger-scale ultrathin SnS and GeS layers thinner than 10 nm owing to strong semi-covalent bonding between Au and S atoms, but GeS surface immediately degrades during Au etching in an oxidative KI/I2 solution. Although the surface of SnS after the Au-mediated exfoliation reveals several-nm oxide layer of SnOx, the surface morphology retains the flatness unlike the case of GeS. The SnS layers are more robust than GeS against the thermal annealing as well as the chemical treatment, suggesting that SnOx works as a passivation layer for SnS. Self-passivated SnS monolayer can be obtained by a controlled post-oxidation.
The lead free double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 is an upcoming alternative to lead based perovskites as absorber material in perovskite solar cells. So far, the majority of investigations on this interesting material have focused on polycrystalline powders and single crystals. We present vapor and solution based approaches for the preparation of Cs2AgBiBr6 thin films. Sequential vapor deposition processes starting from different precursors are shown and their weaknesses are discussed. Single source evaporation of Cs2AgBiBr6 and sequential deposition of Cs3Bi2Br9 and AgBr result in the formation of the double perovskite phase. Additionally, we show the possibility of the preparation of planar Cs2AgBiBr6 thin films by spin coating.
In this work, a planar heterojunction superstrate n-i-p device based on Zn(O,S) electron transport layer and CsPbI2Br absorber material at 1.93 eV bandgap is presented. The CsPbI2Br films are deposited using a 2-step atmospheric solution deposition process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). Best device with an efficiency of 12.34 % and 11.94% in reverse and forward scans respectively and stabilized power output of 12.14 mW/cm2 has been demonstrated via atmospheric solution processing with minimal hysteresis between forward and reverse scans. The devices show voltage dependent current collection as well as light-dark crossover in forward bias. Light soaking tests at 65 °C and 1-sun at Voc, resulted in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor degradation. Electroluminescence (EL) after 100 hours of light soaking shows a reduction in overall EL intensity as well a shift in emission to lower wavelength. The devices exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of about 0.14 %/°C. It is found that Zn(O,S) is a viable alternative electron transport layer to replace TiO2. By replacing methylammonium cation with cesium and addition of Br has improved the stability of the perovskite phase.