Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-2pzkn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-25T05:12:19.131Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Computing with spins and magnets

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 August 2014

Behtash Behin-Aein
GlobalFoundries, USA;
Jian-Ping Wang
University of Minnesota, USA;
Roland Wiesendanger
Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany;
Get access


The possible use of spin and magnets in place of charge and capacitors, respectively, to store and process information is well known. Magnetic tunnel junctions are being widely investigated and developed for magnetic random access memories. These are two terminal devices that change their resistance based on switchable magnetization of magnetic materials. They utilize the interaction between electron spin and magnets to read information from the magnets and write onto them. Such advances in memory devices could also translate into a new class of logic devices that offer the advantage of nonvolatile and reconfigurable information processing over transistors. Logic devices having a transistor-like gain and directionality could be used to build integrated circuits without the need for transistor-based amplifiers and clocks at every stage. We review device characteristics and basic logic gates that compute with spins and magnets from the mesoscopic to the atomic scale, as well as materials, integration, and fabrication challenges and methods.

Research Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Brataas, A., Kent, A.D., Ohno, H., Nat. Mater. 11, 372 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyle, A., Harms, J., Patil, S., Yao, X., Lilja, D. J., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 (15), 152504 (2010).Google Scholar
Meng, H., Wang, J., Wang, J.-P., IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 26 (6), 360 (2005).Google Scholar
Matsunaga, S., Hayakawa, J., Ikeda, S., Miura, K., Hasegawa, H., Endoh, T., Ohno, H., Hanyu, T., Appl. Phys. Express 1 (9), 091301 (2008).Google Scholar
Natsui, M., Suzuki, D., Sakimura, N., Nebashi, R., Tsuji, Y., Morioka, A., Sugibayashi, T., Miura, S., Honjo, H., Kinoshita, K., Ikeda, S., Endoh, T., Ohno, H., Hanyu, T., in 2013 IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers 94, 194 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiang, Y., Harms, J., Wang, J.-P., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 59 , 2917 (2012).Google Scholar
Yao, X., Harms, J., Lyle, A., Ebrahimi, F., Zhang, Y., Wang, J.-P., IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 11 (1), 120 (2012).Google Scholar
Kang, S.H., Lee, K., Acta Mater. 61 (3), 952 (2013).Google Scholar
Datta, S., Salahuddin, S., Behin-Aein, B., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 (25), 252411 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Datta, S., Diep, V.Q., Behin-Aein, B., in Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices, Chen, A., Hutchby, J., Zhirnov, V., Bourianoff, G., Eds. (Wiley, New York, 2014), chap. 2, in press (available at Scholar
Diep, V.Q., Sutton, B., Behin-Aein, B., Datta, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 222405 (2014).Google Scholar
Behin-Aein, B., Datta, D., Salahuddin, S., Datta, S., Nat. Nanotech. 5 (4), 266 (2010).Google Scholar
Srinivasan, S., Sarkar, A., Behin-Aein, B., Datta, S., IEEE Trans. Magn. 47 (10), 4026 (2011).Google Scholar
Behin-Aein, B., Sarkar, A., Srinivasan, S., Datta, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (12), 123510 (2011).Google Scholar
Sarkar, A., Srinivasan, S., Behin-Aein, B., Datta, S.. IEEE Int. Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Tech. Dig. 11.1 (2011).Google Scholar
Khajetoorians, A.A., Wiebe, J., Chilian, B., Wiesendanger, R., Science 332, 1062 (2011).Google Scholar
Wiesendanger, R., Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1495 (2009).Google Scholar
Wiesendanger, R., Güntherodt, H.-J., Güntherodt, G., Gambino, R.J., Ruf, R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 247 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiesendanger, R., Shvets, I.V., Bürgler, D., Tarrach, G., Güntherodt, H.-J., Coey, J.M.D., Gräser, S., Science 255, 583 (1992).Google Scholar
Heinze, S., Bode, M., Kubetzka, A., Pietzsch, O., Nie, X., Blügel, S., Wiesendanger, R., Science 288, 1805 (2000).Google Scholar
Serrate, D., Ferriani, P., Yoshida, Y., Hla, S.-W., Menzel, M., von Bergmann, K., Heinze, S., Kubetzka, A., Wiesendanger, R., Nat. Nanotech. 5, 350 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meier, F., Zhou, L., Wiebe, J., Wiesendanger, R., Science 320, 82 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou, L., Wiebe, J., Lounis, S., Vedmedenko, E., Meier, F., Blügel, S., Dederichs, P.H., Wiesendanger, R., Nat. Phys. 6, 187 (2010).Google Scholar
Khajetoorians, A.A., Wiebe, J., Lounis, S., Vedmedenko, E., Meier, F., Blügel, S., Dederichs, P.H., Wiesendanger, R., Nat. Phys. 8, 497 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khajetoorians, A.A., Lounis, S., Chilian, B., Costa, A.T., Zhou, L., Mills, D.L., Wiebe, J., Wiesendanger, R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037205 (2011).Google Scholar
Kubota, H., Fukushima, A., Yakushiji, K., Nagahama, T., Yuasa, S., Ando, K., Maehara, H., Nagamine, Y., Tsunekawa, K., Djayaprawira, D.D., Watanabe, N., Suzuki, Y., Nat. Phys. 4 (1), 37 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakayama, M., Kai, T., Shimomura, N., Amano, M., Kitagawa, E., Nagase, T., Yoshikawa, M., Kishi, T., Ikegawa, S., Yoda, H., J. Appl. Phys. 103 (7), 07A710 (2008).Google Scholar
Zhao, H., Glass, B., Amiri, P.K., Lyle, A., Zhang, Y., Chen, Y.-J., Rowlands, G., Upadhyaya, P., Zeng, Z., Katine, J.A., Langer, J., Galatsis, K., Jiang, H., Wang, K.L., Krivorotov, I.N., Wang, J.-P., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 (2), 25001 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meng, H., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (15), 152509 (2006).Google Scholar
Cowburn, R.P., Welland, M.E., Science 287 (5457), 1466 (2000).Google Scholar
Lyle, A., Harms, J., Klein, T., Lentsch, A., Martens, D., Klemm, A., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 (1), 012402 (2012).Google Scholar
Lyle, A., Harms, J., Klein, T., Lentsch, A., Klemm, A., Martens, D., Wang, J.-P., AIP Adv. 1 (4), 042177 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behin-Aein, B., Salahuddin, S., Datta, S., IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8 (4), 505 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, L.Q., Liu, L., Li, Y., Tseng, H.W., Ralph, D.C., Buhrman, R.A., Science 336 (6081), 555 (2012).Google Scholar
Liu, L., Lee, O.J., Gudmundsen, T.J., Ralph, D.C., Buhrman, R.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 096602 (2012).Google Scholar
Bhowmik, D., You, L., Salahuddin, S., Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 59 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heron, J.T., Trassin, M., Ashraf, K., Gajek, M., He, Q., Yang, S.Y., Nikonov, D.E., Chu, Y.-H., Salahuddin, S., Ramesh, R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (21), 217202 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khalili, P., Wang, K.L., SPIN 2 (3), 1240002 (2012).Google Scholar
Zhu, J., Katine, J.A., Rowlands, G.E., Chen, Y.-J., Duan, Z., Alzate, J.G., Upadhyaya, P., Langer, J., Amiri, P.K., Wang, K.L., Krivorotov, I.N., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (19), 197203 (2012).Google Scholar
Imre, A., Csaba, G., Orlov, L.J., Bernstein, G.H., Porod, W., Science 311 (5758), 205 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meng, H., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 (17), 172506 (2006).Google Scholar
Mangin, S., Ravelosona, D., Katine, J.A., Carey, M.J., Terris, B.D., Fullerton, E.E., Nat. Mater. 5 (3), 210 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, J., Shen, W., Bai, J., IEEE Trans. Magn. 41 (10), 3181 (2005).Google Scholar
Ikeda, S., Miura, K., Yamamoto, H., Mizunuma, K., Gan, H.D., Endo, M., Kanai, S., Hayakawa, J., Nat. Mater. 9 (9), 721 (2010).Google Scholar
Khalili, P., Zeng, Z.M., Langer, J., Zhao, H., Rowlands, G., Chen, Y.-J., Krivorotov, I.N., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (11), 112507 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, M.T., Bloemen, P.J.H., den Broeder, F.J.A., de Vries, J.J., Rep. Prog. Phys. 59 (11), 1409 (1996).Google Scholar
den Broeder, F.J.A., Donkersloot, H.C., Draaisma, H.J.G., de Jonge, W.J.M., J. Appl. Phys. 61 (8), 4317 (1987).Google Scholar
Carcia, P.F., Meinhaldt, A.D., Suna, A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 47 (2), 178 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daalderop, G., Kelly, P., den Broeder, F., Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (5), 682 (1992).Google Scholar
Mohanan, S., Herr, U., J. Appl. Phys. 102 (9), 93903 (2007).Google Scholar
Dou, J., Pechan, M.J., Shipton, E., Eibagi, N., Fullerton, E.E., J. Appl. Phys. 113 (17), 17C115 (2013).Google Scholar
Pal, S., Rana, B., Hellwig, O., Thomson, T., Barman, A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (8), 082501 (2011).Google Scholar
Kugler, Z., Drewello, V., Schäfers, M., Schmalhorst, J., Reiss, G., Thomas, A., J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 323 (2), 198 (2011).Google Scholar
Mizunuma, K., Ikeda, S., Yamamoto, H., Gan, H.D., Miura, K., Hasegawa, H., Hayakawa, J., Ito, K., Matsukura, F., Ohno, H., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49 (4S), 04DM04 (2010).Google Scholar
Worledge, D.C., Hu, G., Abraham, D.W., Sun, J.Z., Trouilloud, P.L., Nowak, J., Brown, S., Gaidis, M.C., O’Sullivan, E.J., Robertazzi, R.P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (2), 22501 (2011).Google Scholar
Lavrijsen, R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (13), 132502 (2011).Google Scholar
Devolder, T., Ducrot, P.-H., Adam, J.-P., Barisic, I., Vernier, N., Kim, J.-V., Ockert, B., Ravelosona, D., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 (2), 022407 (2013).Google Scholar
Jamali, M., Klemm, A., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 (25), 252409 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiele, J.-U., Folks, L., Toney, M.F., Weller, D.K., J. Appl. Phys. 84 (10), 5686 (1998).Google Scholar
Mizukami, S., Watanabe, D., Oogane, M., Ando, Y., Miura, Y., Shirai, M., Miyazaki, T., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (5), 052501 (2011).Google Scholar
Dai, B., Kato, T., Iwata, S., Tsunashima, S., IEEE Trans. Magn. 48 (11), 3223 (2012).Google Scholar
Sarkar, A., Nikonov, D.E., Young, I.A., Behin-Aein, B., Datta, S., IEEE Trans. Nanotech. 13 (1), 143 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, J.Z., Brown, S.L., Chen, W., Delenia, E.A., Gaidis, M.C., Harms, J., Hu, G., Jiang, X., Kilaru, R., Kula, W., Lauer, G., Liu, L.Q., Murthy, S., Nowak, J., O’Sullivan, E.J., Parkin, S.S.P., Robertazzi, R.P., Rice, P.M., Sandhu, G., Topuria, T., Worledge, D.C., Phys. Rev. B. 88, 104426 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, J.Z., Robertazzi, R.P., Nowak, J., Trouilloud, P.L., Hu, G., Abraham, D.W., Gaidis, M.C., Brown, S.L., O’Sullivan, E.J., Gallagher, W.J., Worledge, D.C., Phys. Rev. B 84, 064413 (2011).Google Scholar
Augustine, C., Panagopoulos, G., Behin-Aein, B., Srinivasan, S., Sarkar, A., Roy, K., IEEE NANOARCH Proceedings 129 (2011).Google Scholar
Behin-Aein, B., “All-Spin Logic Devices” US Patent 8558571 B2 (2012).Google Scholar