Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-jp8mt Total loading time: 1.074 Render date: 2022-12-02T09:09:12.675Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

Nanopolymeric Therapeutics

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

Get access

Abstract

Polymers have been extensively utilized in the design of nanometer-sized delivery vehicles of chemotherapeutics for clinical cancer therapy. Polymeric nanoparticulate delivery vehicles, with chemotherapeutics being either conjugated or encapsulated, have been developed into a variety of different architectures, including polymer-drug conjugates with linear or branched polymers, micelles, and polymersomes. This review describes the progress that has been made in the field of polymeric nanomedicine that brings the science closer to clinical realization of nanopolymeric therapeutics for its application in cancer treatment.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1Wagner, V., Dullaart, A., Bock, A.K., Zweck, A., Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 1211 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2Ferrari, M., Nat. Rev. Cancer 5, 161 (2005).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3Duncan, R., Nat. Rev. Cancer 6, 688 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4Tong, R., Cheng, J., Polym. Rev. 47, 345 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5Moghimi, S.M., Hunter, A.C., Murray, J.C., FASEB J. 19, 311 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6Euliss, L.E., DuPont, J.A., Gratton, S., DeSimone, J., Chem. Soc. Rev. 35, 1095 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7Salem, A.K., Searson, P.C., Leong, K.W., Nat. Mater. 2, 668 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8Farokhzad, O.C., Langer, R., Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58, 1456 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9Alexis, F., Rhee, J.W., Richie, J.P., Radovic-Moreno, A.F., Langer, R., Farokhzad, O.C., Urol. Oncol.: Semin. Orig. Invest. 26, 74 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10Peer, D., Karp, J.M., Hong, S., Farokhzad, O.C., Margalit, R., Langer, R., Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 751 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11Pun, S.H., Tack, F., Bellocq, N.C., Cheng, J.J., Grubbs, B.H., Jensen, G.S., Davis, M.E., Brewster, M., Janicot, M., Janssens, B., Floren, W., Bakker, A., Cancer Biol. Ther. 3, 641 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12Torchilin, V.P., Lukyanov, A.N., Gao, Z.G., Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg, B., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 6039 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13Nishiyama, N., Kataoka, K., Pharmacol. Ther. 112, 630 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14Cheng, J.J., Zeidan, R., Mishra, S., Liu, A., Pun, S.H., Kulkarni, R.P., Jensen, G.S., Bellocq, N.C., Davis, M.E., J. Med. Chem. 49, 6522 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15Patri, A.K., Majoros, I.J., Baker, J.R., Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 466 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16Singer, J.W., Shaffer, S., Baker, B., Bernareggi, A., Stromatt, S., Nienstedt, D., Besman, M., Anticancer Drugs 16, 243 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17Lee, C.C., Gillies, E.R., Fox, M.E., Guillaudeu, S.J., Frechet, J.M.J., Dy, E.E., Szoka, F.C., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 16649 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18Yu, D.S., Peng, P., Dharap, S.S., Wang, Y., Mehlig, M., Chandna, P., Zhao, H., Filpula, D., Yang, K., Borowski, V., Borchard, G., Zhang, Z.H., Minko, T., J. Control. Release 110, 90 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19Geng, Y., Dalhaimer, P., Cai, S.S., Tsai, R., Tewari, M., Minko, T., Discher, D.E., Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 249 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20Veronese, F.M., Schiavon, O., Pasut, G., Mendichi, R., Andersson, L., Tsirk, A., Ford, J., Wu, G.F., Kneller, S., Davies, J., Duncan, R., Bioconjug. Chem. 16, 775 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21Ihre, H.R., De Jesus, O.L.P., Szoka, F.C., Frechet, J.M.J., Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 443 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22Zhang, Z.P., Feng, S.S., Biomaterials 27, 4025 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23Yoo, H.S., Park, T.G., J. Control. Release 96, 273 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24Alakhov, V., Klinski, E., Li, S.M., Pietrzynski, G., Venne, A., Batrakova, E., Bronitch, T., Kabanov, A., Colloids Surf., B 16, 113 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25Hawkins, M.J., Soon-Shiong, P., Desai, N., Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 60, 876 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26Vasey, P.A., Kaye, S.B., Morrison, R., Twelves, C., Wilson, P., Duncan, R., Thomson, A.H., Murray, L.S., Hilditch, T.E., Murray, T., Burtles, S., Fraier, D., Frigerio, E., Cassidy, J., Clin. Cancer Res. 5, 83 (1999).Google Scholar
27Nemunaitis, J., Cunningham, C., Senzer, N., Gray, M., Oldham, F., Pippen, J., Mennel, R., Eisenfeld, A., Cancer Invest. 23, 671 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28Matsumura, Y., Hamaguchi, T., Ura, T., Muro, K., Yamada, Y., Shimada, Y., Shirao, K., Okusaka, T., Ueno, H., Ikeda, M., Watanabe, N., Br. J. Cancer 91, 1775 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29Kim, T.Y., Kim, D.W., Chung, J.Y., Shin, S.G., Kim, S.C., Heo, D.S., Kim, N.K., Bang, Y.J., Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 3708 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30Ibrahim, N.K., Samuels, B., Page, R., Guthrie, T., Doval, D., Patel, K., Nair, M., Digumarti, R., Hortobagyi, G.N., Rao, S., Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 76, S131 (2002).Google Scholar
31Gradishar, W.J., Tjulandin, S., Davidson, N., Shaw, H., Desai, N., Bhar, P., Hawkins, M., O'Shaughnessy, J., J. Clin. Oncol. 23, 7794 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32Ringsdorf, H., J. Polym. Sci., Part C: Polym. Symp. 135 (1975).Google Scholar
33Duncan, R., Kopecek, J., Adv. Polym. Sci. 57, 51 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34Maeda, H., Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 46, 169 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35Haag, R., Kratz, F., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 1198 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36Qiu, L.Y., Bae, Y.H., Pharm. Res. 23, 1 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37Duncan, R., Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2, 347 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38Folkman, J., Long, D.M., J. Surg. Res. 4, 139 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39Langer, R., Folkman, J., Nature 263, 797 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
40Brem, H., Walter, K.A., Langer, R., Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 39, 2 (1993).Google Scholar
41Lavasanifar, A., Samuel, J., Kwon, G.S., Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 54, 169 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42Kakizawa, Y., Kataoka, K., Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 54, 203 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
43Discher, D.E., Eisenberg, A., Science 297, 967 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
44Discher, B.M., Won, Y.Y., Ege, D.S., Lee, J.C.M., Bates, F.S., Discher, D.E., Hammer, D.A., Science 284, 1143 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
45Discher, D.E., Ahmed, F., Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 323 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
46Maeda, H., Wu, J., Sawa, T., Matsumura, Y., Hori, K., J. Control. Release 65, 271 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47Bellomo, E.G., Wyrsta, M.D., Pakstis, L., Pochan, D.J., Deming, T.J., Nat. Mater. 3, 244 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48Tong, R., Cheng, J., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 4830 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49Minko, T., Paranjpe, P.V., Qiu, B., Lalloo, A., Won, R., Stein, S., Sinko, P.J., Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 50, 143 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
50Greenwald, R.B., Conover, C.D., Choe, Y.H., Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 17, 101 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
51Minko, T., Kopeckova, P., Kopecek, J., Pharm. Res. 16, 986 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
52Jelinkova, M., Rihova, B., Etrych, T., Strohalm, J., Ulbrich, K., Kubackova, K., Rozprimova, L., Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 3677s (2001).Google Scholar
53Calolfa, V.R., Zamai, M., Ghiglieri, A., Farao, M., vandeVen, M., Gratton, E., Castelli, M.G., Suarato, A., Geroni, A.C., Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 4490s (2000).Google Scholar
54Bhatt, R., Vries, P.D., Tulinsky, J., Bellamy, G., Baker, B., Singer, J.W., Klein, P., J. Med. Chem. 46, 190 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
55Li, C., Cancer Res. 58, 2404 (1998).Google Scholar
56Mitsui, I., Kumazawa, E., Hirota, Y., Aonuma, M., Sugimori, M., Ohsuki, S., Uoto, K., Ejima, A., Terasawa, H., Sato, K., Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 86, 776 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
57Ochi, Y., Shiose, Y., Kuga, H., Kumazawa, E., Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 55, 323 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
58Harada, M., Sakakibara, H., Yano, T., Suzuki, T., Okuno, S., J. Control. Release 69, 399 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
59Cheng, J., Khin, K.T., Davis, M.E., Mol. Pharm. 1, 183 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
60Cheng, J.J., Khin, K.T., Jensen, G.S., Liu, A.J., Davis, M.E., Bioconjug. Chem. 14, 1007 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
61Schluep, T., Hwang, J., Cheng, J.J., Heidel, J.D., Bartlett, D.W., Hollister, B., Davis, M.E., Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 1606 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
62Schluep, T., Cheng, J.J., Khin, K.T., Davis, M.E., Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 57, 654 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
63Fuloria, J., Abubakr, Y., Perez, R., Pike, M., Zalupski, M., J. Clin. Oncol. 23, 3114 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
64Bolling, C., Graefe, T., Lubbing, C., Jankevicius, F., Uktveris, S., Cesas, A., Meyer-Moldenhauer, W.H., Starkmann, H., Weigel, M., Burk, K., Hanauske, A.R., Invest. New Drug 24, 521 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
65Pendri, A., Conover, C.D., Greenwald, R.B., Anticancer Drug Des. 13, 387 (1998).Google Scholar
66Greenwald, R.B., Pendri, A., Conover, C., Gilbert, C., Yang, R., Xia, J., J. Med. Chem. 39, 1938 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
67Minko, T., Paranjpe, P.V., Qiu, B., Lalloo, A., Won, R., Stein, S., Sinko, P.J., Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 50, 143 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
68Conover, C.D., Greenwald, R.B., Pendri, A., Gilbert, C.W., Shum, K.L., Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 42, 407 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
69Rowinsky, E.K., Rizzo, J., Ochoa, L., Takimoto, C.H., Forouzesh, B., Schwartz, G., Hammond, L.A., Patnaik, A., Kwiatek, J., Goetz, A., Denis, L., McGuire, J., Tolcher, A.W., J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 148 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
70Greenwald, R.B., Choe, Y.H., McGuire, J., Conover, C.D., Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 55, 217 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
71Seymour, L., Duncan, R., Strohalm, J., Kopecek, J., J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 21, 1341 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
72Terwogt, J.M.M., Huinink, W.W.T., Schellens, J.H.M., Schot, M., Mandjes, I.A.M., Zurlo, M.G., Rocchetti, M., Rosing, H., Koopman, F.J., Beijnen, J.H., Anticancer Drugs 12, 315 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
73Bissett, D., Cassidy, J., de Bono, J.S., Muirhead, F., Main, M., Robson, L., Fraier, D., Magne, M.L., Pellizzoni, C., Porro, M.G., Spinelli, R., Speed, W., Twelves, C., Br. J. Cancer 91, 50 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
74Bouma, M., Nuijen, B., Stewart, D.R., Rice, J.R., Jansen, B.A.J., Reedijk, J., Bult, A., Beijnen, J.H., Anticancer Drugs 13, 915 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
75Singer, J.W., J. Control. Release 109, 120 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
76Singer, J.W., Baker, B., De Vries, P., Kumar, A., Shaffer, S., Vawter, E., Bolton, M., Garzone, P., Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 519, 81 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
77Sabbatini, P., Aghajanian, C., Dizon, D., Anderson, S., Dupont, J., Brown, J.V., Peters, W.A., Jacobs, A., Mehdi, A., Rivkin, S., Eisenfeld, A.J., Spriggs, D., J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 4523 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
78Lu, H., Cheng, J.J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 12562 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
79Lu, H., Cheng, J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 14114 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
80Deming, T.J., Nature 390, 386 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
81Dimitrov, I., Schlaad, H., Chem. Commun. 2944 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
82Cheng, J.J., Deming, T.J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 9457 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
83Davis, M.E., Brewster, M.E., Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 3, 1023 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
84Danhauserriedl, S., Hausmann, E., Schick, H.D., Bender, R., Dietzfelbinger, H., Rastetter, J., Hanauske, A.R., Invest. New Drugs 11, 187 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
85Burger, A.M., Hartung, G., Stehle, G., Sinn, H., Fiebig, H.H., Int. J. Cancer 92, 718 (2001).3.0.CO;2-D>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
86Stehle, G., Wunder, A., Sinn, H., Schrenk, H.H., Schutt, S., Frei, E., Hartung, G., Maier-Borst, W., Heene, D.L., Anticancer Drugs 8, 835 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
87Hartung, G., Stehle, G., Sinn, H., Wunder, A., Schrenk, H.H., Heeger, S., Kranzle, M., Edler, L., Frei, E., Fiebig, H.H., Heene, D.L., Maier-Borst, W., Queisser, W., Clin. Cancer Res. 5, 753 (1999).Google Scholar
88Kratz, F., Warnecke, A., Scheuermann, K., Stockmar, C., Schwab, J., Lazar, P., Druckes, P., Esser, N., Drevs, J., Rognan, D., Bissantz, C., Hinderling, C., Folkers, G., Fichtner, I., Unger, C., J. Med. Chem. 45, 5523 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
89Tomlinson, R., Klee, M., Garrett, S., Heller, J., Duncan, R., Brocchini, S., Macromolecules 35, 473 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
90Vicent, M.J., Tomlinson, R., Brocchini, S., Duncan, R., J. Drug Target. 12, 491 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
91Tomlinson, R., Heller, J., Brocchini, S., Duncan, R., Bioconjug. Chem. 14, 1096 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
92Drevs, J., Mross, K., Kratz, F., Medinger, M., Unger, C., J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 158s (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
93Kataoka, K., Harada, A., Nagasaki, Y., Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 47, 113 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
94Torchilin, V. P., Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 15, 63 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
95Huang, H.Y., Remsen, E.E., Kowalewski, T., Wooley, K.L., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 3805 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
96Liu, H.B., Jiang, A., Guo, J.A., Uhrich, K.E., J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 37, 703 (1999).3.0.CO;2-O>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
97Sengupta, S., Eavarone, D., Capila, I., Zhao, G.L., Watson, N., Kiziltepe, T., Sasisekharan, R., Nature 436, 568 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
98Yoo, H.S., Park, T.G., J. Control. Release 70, 63 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
99Kataoka, K., J. Control. Release 24, 119 (1993).Google Scholar
100Hamaguchi, T., Matsumura, Y., Suzuki, M., Shimizu, K., Goda, R., Nakamura, I., Nakatomi, I., Yokoyama, M., Kataoka, K., Kakizoe, T., Br. J. Cancer 92, 1240 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
101Nishiyama, N., Okazaki, S., Cabral, H., Miyamoto, M., Kato, Y., Sugiyama, Y., Nishio, K., Matsumura, Y., Kataoka, K., Cancer Res. 63, 8977 (2003).Google Scholar
102Cabral, H., Nishiyama, N., Okazaki, S., Koyama, H., Kataoka, K., J. Control. Release 101, 223 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
103Cabral, H., Nishiyama, N., Kataoka, K., J. Control. Release 121, 146 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
104Engin, K., Leeper, D.B., Cater, J.R., Thistlethwaite, A.J., Tupchong, L., Mcfarlane, J.D., Int. J. Hyperther. 11, 211 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
105Murphy, R.F., Powers, S., Cantor, C.R., J. Cell. Biol. 98, 1757 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
106Savic, R., Luo, L.B., Eisenberg, A., Maysinger, D., Science 300, 615 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
107Bae, Y., Fukushima, S., Harada, A., Kataoka, K., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 4640 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
108Bae, Y., Nishiyama, N., Fukushima, S., Koyama, H., Yasuhiro, M., Kataoka, K., Bioconjug. Chem. 16, 122 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
109Lee, E.S., Na, K., Bae, Y.H., J. Control. Release 91, 103 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
110Bae, Y., Nishiyama, N., Kataoka, K., Bioconjug. Chem. 18, 1131 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
111Yamamoto, Y., Nagasaki, Y., Kato, M., Kataoka, K., Colloids Surf., B 16, 135 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
112Israelachvili, J.N., Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 2nd Edition (Academic Press, London, 1991).Google Scholar
113Jain, S., Bates, F.S., Science 300, 460 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
114Won, Y.Y., Davis, H.T., Bates, F.S., Science 283, 960 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
115Photos, P.J., Bacakova, L., Discher, B., Bates, F.S., Discher, D.E., J. Control. Release 90, 323 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
116Geng, Y., Discher, D.E., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12780 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
117Ahmed, F., Pakunlu, R.I., Brannan, A., Bates, F., Minko, T., Discher, D.E., J. Control. Release 116, 150 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
118Ahmed, F., Discher, D.E., J. Control. Release 96, 37 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
119Ahmed, F., Pakunlu, R.I., Srinivas, G., Brannan, A., Bates, F., Klein, M.L., Minko, T., Discher, D.E., Mol. Pharm. 3, 340 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
120Kim, Y., Dalhaimer, P., Christian, D.A., Discher, D.E., Nanotechnology 16, S484 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
121Ghoroghchian, P.P., Frail, P.R., Susumu, K., Blessington, D., Brannan, A.K., Bates, F.S., Chance, B., Hammer, D.A., Therien, M.J., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 2922 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
122Levine, D.H., Ghoroghchian, P.P., Freudenberg, J., Zhang, G., Therien, M.J., Greene, M.I., Hammer, D.A., Murali, R., Methods 46, 25 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
123Cai, S.S., Vijayan, K., Cheng, D., Lima, E.M., Discher, D.E., Pharm. Res. 24, 2099 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
124Christian, D.A., Cai, S., Garbuzenko, O.B., Harada, T., Zajac, A.L., Minko, T., Discher, D.E., Mol. Pharm. DOI: 10.1021/mp900022m (2009). DOI: 10.1021/mp900022m (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
125Holowka, E.P., Pochan, D.J., Deming, T.J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12423 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
126Holowka, E.P., Sun, V.Z., Kamei, D.T., Deming, T.J., Nat. Mater. 6, 52 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
127Discher, B.M., Hammer, D.A., Bates, F.S., Discher, D.E., Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 5, 125 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
128Fasman, G., Prediction of Protein Structure and the Principles of Protein Conformation (Plenum, New York, 1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
129Yu, M., Nowak, A.P., Deming, T.J., Pochan, D.J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 12210 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
130Buhleier, E., Wehner, W., Vogtle, F., Synthesis (Stuttg.) 155 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
131Tomalia, D.A., Baker, H., Dewald, J., Hall, M., Kallos, G., Martin, S., Roeck, J., Ryder, J., Smith, P., Polym. J. 17, 117 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
132Aulenta, F., Hayes, W., Rannard, S., Eur. Polym. J. 39, 1741 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
133Hawker, C., Frechet, J.M.J., J. Chem. Soc.: Chem. Commun. 1010 (1990).Google Scholar
134Malik, N., Evagorou, E.G., Duncan, R., Anticancer Drugs 10, 767 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
135Kukowska-Latallo, J.F., Candido, K.A., Cao, Z.Y., Nigavekar, S.S., Majoros, I.J., Thomas, T.P., Balogh, L.P., Khan, M.K., Baker, J.R., Cancer Res. 65, 5317 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
136Lee, C.C., MacKay, J.A., Frechet, J.M.J., Szoka, F.C., Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 1517 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
137Kramer, M., Stumbe, J.F., Turk, H., Krause, S., Komp, A., Delineau, L., Prokhorova, S., Kautz, H., Haag, R., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41, 4252 (2002).3.0.CO;2-F>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
138Soppimath, K.S., Aminabhavi, T.M., Kulkarni, A.R., Rudzinski, W.E., J. Control. Release 70, 1 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
139Tong, R., Cheng, J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 4744 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
140Bagalkot, V., Farokhzad, O.C., Langer, R., Jon, S., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 8149 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
141Farokhzad, O.C., Khademhosseini, A., Jon, S., Hermmann, A., Cheng, J., Chin, C., Kiselyuk, A., Teply, B., Eng, G., Langer, R., Anal. Chem. 77, 5453 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
142Cheng, J., Teply, B.A., Sherifi, I., Sung, J., Luther, G., Gu, F.X., Levy-Nissenbaum, E., Radovic-Moreno, A.F., Langer, R., Farokhzad, O.C., Biomaterials 28, 869 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
143Farokhzad, O.C., Cheng, J., Teply, B.A., Sherifi, I., Jon, S., Kantoff, P.W., Richie, J.P., Langer, R., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 6315 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Nanopolymeric Therapeutics
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Nanopolymeric Therapeutics
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Nanopolymeric Therapeutics
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *