Skip to main content
×
Home

Cathodoluminescence microscopy: Optical imaging and spectroscopy with deep-subwavelength resolution

  • Toon Coenen (a1), Benjamin J.M. Brenny (a2), Ernst Jan Vesseur (a3) and Albert Polman (a4)
Abstract
Abstract

This article describes a new microscope, based on angle-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging spectroscopy, which enables optical imaging and spectroscopy at deep-subwavelength spatial resolution. We used a free electron beam in a scanning electron microscope as a direct excitation source for polarizable materials, and we collected the emitted coherent visible/infrared CL radiation using a specially designed optical collection system that is integrated in the electron microscope. We have demonstrated the use of this new technique for the excitation of plasmons in single metal nanoparticles, surface plasmon polaritons at metal surfaces, resonant Mie modes in dielectric nanostructures, and cavity modes and Bloch modes in photonic crystals. Using angle-resolved detection, we are able to derive the nature of localized modes and the dispersion of propagation modes in dielectric and plasmonic geometries. An outlook about new directions and applications of CL imaging spectroscopy is also provided.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1.Betzig E., Trautman J.K., Science 257, 189 (1992).
2.Klar T.A., Hell S.W., Opt. Lett. 24, 954 (1999).
3.Betzig E., Patterson G.H., Sougrat R., Lindwasser O.W., Olenych S., Bonifacino J.S., Davidson M.W., Lippincott-Schwartz J., Hess H.F., Science 313, 1642 (2006).
4.Rust M., Bates M., Zhuang X., Nat. Methods 3, 793 (2006).
5.García de Abajo F.J., Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209 (2010).
6.Jacobi B.G., Holt D.B., Cathodoluminescence of Inorganic Solids (Plenum, New York, 1990).
7.Zonnevylle A.C., van Tol R.F.C., Liv N., Narvaez A.C., Effting A.P.J., Kruit P., Hoogenboom J.P., J. Microsc. 252, 58 (2013).
8.García de Abajo F.J., Kociak M., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106804 (2008).
9.Coenen T., Vesseur E.J.R., Polman A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 143103 (2011).
10.Yamamoto N., Ohtani S., García de Abajo F.J., Nano Lett. 11, 91 (2011).
11.Brenny B.J.M., Coenen T., Polman A., J. Appl. Phys. 115, 244307 (2014).
12.Mertens H., Biteen J.S., Atwater H.A., Polman A., Nano Lett. 6, 2622 (2006).
13.Huang K.C.Y., Seo M.K., Sarmiento T., Huo Y., Harris J.S., Brongersma M.L., Nat. Photonics 8, 244 (2014).
14.Novotny L., van Hulst N., Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
15.Stuart H.R., Hall D.G., Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2327 (1996).
16.Catchpole K.R., Polman A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).
17.Ayala-Orozco C., Urban C., Knight M.W., Urban A.S., Neumann O., Bishnoi S.W., Mukherjee S., Goodman A.M., Charron H., Mitchell T., Shea M., Roy R., Nanda S., Schiff R., Halas N.J., Joshi A., ACS Nano 8, 6372 (2014).
18.van de Groep J, Spinelli P., Polman A., Nano Lett. 12, 3138 (2012).
19.Garnett E.C., Cai W., Cha J.J., Mahmood F., Connor S.T., Cristoforo M.G., Cui Y., McGehee M.D., Brongersma M.L., Nat. Mater. 11, 241 (2012).
20.Coenen T., Vesseur E.J.R., Polman A., Koenderink A.F., Nano Lett. 11, 3779 (2011).
21.Coenen T., Bernal Arango F., Koenderink A.F., Polman A., Nat. Commun. 5, 3250 (2014).
22.Coenen T., Polman A., ACS Nano 8, 7350 (2014).
23.Schoen D.T., Coenen T., García de Abajo F.J., Brongersma M.L., Polman A., Nano Lett. 13, 188 (2013).
24.Vesseur E.J.R., Coenen T., Caglayan H., Engheta N., Polman A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 013902 (2013).
25.Coenen T., Vesseur E.J.R., Polman A., ACS Nano 6, 1742 (2012).
26.Verhagen E., Spasenović M., Polman A., Kuipers L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
27.Oulton R.F., Sorger V.J., Zentgraf T., Ma R.M., Gladden C., Dai L., Bartal G., Zhang X., Nature 461, 629 (2009).
28.Okamoto K., Niki I., Shvartser A., Narukawa Y., Mukai T., Scherer A., Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
29.Atwater H.A., Polman A., Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
30.Wu C., Khanikaev A.B., Adato R., Arju N., Yanik A.A., Altug H., Shvets G., Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
31.Coenen T., van de Groep J., Polman A., ACS Nano 7, 1689 (2013).
32.Armani D.K., Kippenberg T.J., Spillane S.M., Vahala K.J., Nature 421, 925 (2003).
33.Spinelli P., Verschuuren M.A., Polman A., Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
34.Sapienza R., Coenen T., Renger J., Kuttge M., van Hulst N.F., Polman A., Nat. Mater. 11, 781 (2012).
35.Painter O., Lee R.K., Scherer A., Yariv A., O’Brien J.D., Dapkus P.D., Kim I., Science 284, 1819 (1999).
36.Wierer J.J. Jr., David A., Megens M.M., Nat. Photonics 3, 163 (2009).
37.Kuramochi E., Nozaki K., Shinya A., Takeda K., Sato T., Matsuo S., Taniyama H., Sumikura H., Notomi M., Nat. Photonics 8, 474 (2014).
38.Chow E., Grot A., Mirkarimi L.W., Sigalas M., Girolami G., Opt. Lett. 29, 1093 (2004).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 31
Total number of PDF views: 73 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 527 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.