Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Computing with spins and magnets

  • Behtash Behin-Aein (a1), Jian-Ping Wang (a2) and Roland Wiesendanger (a3)
Abstract

The possible use of spin and magnets in place of charge and capacitors, respectively, to store and process information is well known. Magnetic tunnel junctions are being widely investigated and developed for magnetic random access memories. These are two terminal devices that change their resistance based on switchable magnetization of magnetic materials. They utilize the interaction between electron spin and magnets to read information from the magnets and write onto them. Such advances in memory devices could also translate into a new class of logic devices that offer the advantage of nonvolatile and reconfigurable information processing over transistors. Logic devices having a transistor-like gain and directionality could be used to build integrated circuits without the need for transistor-based amplifiers and clocks at every stage. We review device characteristics and basic logic gates that compute with spins and magnets from the mesoscopic to the atomic scale, as well as materials, integration, and fabrication challenges and methods.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1.Brataas, A., Kent, A.D., Ohno, H., Nat. Mater. 11, 372 (2012).
2.Lyle, A., Harms, J., Patil, S., Yao, X., Lilja, D. J., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 (15), 152504 (2010).
3.Meng, H., Wang, J., Wang, J.-P., IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 26 (6), 360 (2005).
4.Matsunaga, S., Hayakawa, J., Ikeda, S., Miura, K., Hasegawa, H., Endoh, T., Ohno, H., Hanyu, T., Appl. Phys. Express 1 (9), 091301 (2008).
5.Natsui, M., Suzuki, D., Sakimura, N., Nebashi, R., Tsuji, Y., Morioka, A., Sugibayashi, T., Miura, S., Honjo, H., Kinoshita, K., Ikeda, S., Endoh, T., Ohno, H., Hanyu, T., in 2013 IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers 94, 194 (2013).
6.Jiang, Y., Harms, J., Wang, J.-P., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 59 , 2917 (2012).
7.Yao, X., Harms, J., Lyle, A., Ebrahimi, F., Zhang, Y., Wang, J.-P., IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 11 (1), 120 (2012).
8.Kang, S.H., Lee, K., Acta Mater. 61 (3), 952 (2013).
9.Datta, S., Salahuddin, S., Behin-Aein, B., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 (25), 252411 (2012).
10.Datta, S., Diep, V.Q., Behin-Aein, B., in Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices, Chen, A., Hutchby, J., Zhirnov, V., Bourianoff, G., Eds. (Wiley, New York, 2014), chap. 2, in press (available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.2254).
11.Diep, V.Q., Sutton, B., Behin-Aein, B., Datta, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 222405 (2014).
12.Behin-Aein, B., Datta, D., Salahuddin, S., Datta, S., Nat. Nanotech. 5 (4), 266 (2010).
13.Srinivasan, S., Sarkar, A., Behin-Aein, B., Datta, S., IEEE Trans. Magn. 47 (10), 4026 (2011).
14.Behin-Aein, B., Sarkar, A., Srinivasan, S., Datta, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (12), 123510 (2011).
15.Sarkar, A., Srinivasan, S., Behin-Aein, B., Datta, S.. IEEE Int. Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Tech. Dig. 11.1 (2011).
16.Khajetoorians, A.A., Wiebe, J., Chilian, B., Wiesendanger, R., Science 332, 1062 (2011).
17.Wiesendanger, R., Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1495 (2009).
18.Wiesendanger, R., Güntherodt, H.-J., Güntherodt, G., Gambino, R.J., Ruf, R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 247 (1990).
19.Wiesendanger, R., Shvets, I.V., Bürgler, D., Tarrach, G., Güntherodt, H.-J., Coey, J.M.D., Gräser, S., Science 255, 583 (1992).
20.Heinze, S., Bode, M., Kubetzka, A., Pietzsch, O., Nie, X., Blügel, S., Wiesendanger, R., Science 288, 1805 (2000).
21.Serrate, D., Ferriani, P., Yoshida, Y., Hla, S.-W., Menzel, M., von Bergmann, K., Heinze, S., Kubetzka, A., Wiesendanger, R., Nat. Nanotech. 5, 350 (2010).
22.Meier, F., Zhou, L., Wiebe, J., Wiesendanger, R., Science 320, 82 (2008).
23.Zhou, L., Wiebe, J., Lounis, S., Vedmedenko, E., Meier, F., Blügel, S., Dederichs, P.H., Wiesendanger, R., Nat. Phys. 6, 187 (2010).
24.Khajetoorians, A.A., Wiebe, J., Lounis, S., Vedmedenko, E., Meier, F., Blügel, S., Dederichs, P.H., Wiesendanger, R., Nat. Phys. 8, 497 (2012).
25.Khajetoorians, A.A., Lounis, S., Chilian, B., Costa, A.T., Zhou, L., Mills, D.L., Wiebe, J., Wiesendanger, R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037205 (2011).
26.Kubota, H., Fukushima, A., Yakushiji, K., Nagahama, T., Yuasa, S., Ando, K., Maehara, H., Nagamine, Y., Tsunekawa, K., Djayaprawira, D.D., Watanabe, N., Suzuki, Y., Nat. Phys. 4 (1), 37 (2007).
27.Nakayama, M., Kai, T., Shimomura, N., Amano, M., Kitagawa, E., Nagase, T., Yoshikawa, M., Kishi, T., Ikegawa, S., Yoda, H., J. Appl. Phys. 103 (7), 07A710 (2008).
28.Zhao, H., Glass, B., Amiri, P.K., Lyle, A., Zhang, Y., Chen, Y.-J., Rowlands, G., Upadhyaya, P., Zeng, Z., Katine, J.A., Langer, J., Galatsis, K., Jiang, H., Wang, K.L., Krivorotov, I.N., Wang, J.-P., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 (2), 25001 (2012).
29.Meng, H., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (15), 152509 (2006).
30.Cowburn, R.P., Welland, M.E., Science 287 (5457), 1466 (2000).
31.Lyle, A., Harms, J., Klein, T., Lentsch, A., Martens, D., Klemm, A., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 (1), 012402 (2012).
32.Lyle, A., Harms, J., Klein, T., Lentsch, A., Klemm, A., Martens, D., Wang, J.-P., AIP Adv. 1 (4), 042177 (2011).
33.Behin-Aein, B., Salahuddin, S., Datta, S., IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8 (4), 505 (2009).
34.Liu, L.Q., Liu, L., Li, Y., Tseng, H.W., Ralph, D.C., Buhrman, R.A., Science 336 (6081), 555 (2012).
35.Liu, L., Lee, O.J., Gudmundsen, T.J., Ralph, D.C., Buhrman, R.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 096602 (2012).
36.Bhowmik, D., You, L., Salahuddin, S., Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 59 (2014).
37.Heron, J.T., Trassin, M., Ashraf, K., Gajek, M., He, Q., Yang, S.Y., Nikonov, D.E., Chu, Y.-H., Salahuddin, S., Ramesh, R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (21), 217202 (2011).
38.Khalili, P., Wang, K.L., SPIN 2 (3), 1240002 (2012).
39.Zhu, J., Katine, J.A., Rowlands, G.E., Chen, Y.-J., Duan, Z., Alzate, J.G., Upadhyaya, P., Langer, J., Amiri, P.K., Wang, K.L., Krivorotov, I.N., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (19), 197203 (2012).
40.Imre, A., Csaba, G., Orlov, L.J., Bernstein, G.H., Porod, W., Science 311 (5758), 205 (2006).
41.Meng, H., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 (17), 172506 (2006).
42.Mangin, S., Ravelosona, D., Katine, J.A., Carey, M.J., Terris, B.D., Fullerton, E.E., Nat. Mater. 5 (3), 210 (2006).
43.Wang, J., Shen, W., Bai, J., IEEE Trans. Magn. 41 (10), 3181 (2005).
44.Ikeda, S., Miura, K., Yamamoto, H., Mizunuma, K., Gan, H.D., Endo, M., Kanai, S., Hayakawa, J., Nat. Mater. 9 (9), 721 (2010).
45.Khalili, P., Zeng, Z.M., Langer, J., Zhao, H., Rowlands, G., Chen, Y.-J., Krivorotov, I.N., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (11), 112507 (2011).
46.Johnson, M.T., Bloemen, P.J.H., den Broeder, F.J.A., de Vries, J.J., Rep. Prog. Phys. 59 (11), 1409 (1996).
47.den Broeder, F.J.A., Donkersloot, H.C., Draaisma, H.J.G., de Jonge, W.J.M., J. Appl. Phys. 61 (8), 4317 (1987).
48.Carcia, P.F., Meinhaldt, A.D., Suna, A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 47 (2), 178 (1985).
49.Daalderop, G., Kelly, P., den Broeder, F., Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (5), 682 (1992).
50.Mohanan, S., Herr, U., J. Appl. Phys. 102 (9), 93903 (2007).
51.Dou, J., Pechan, M.J., Shipton, E., Eibagi, N., Fullerton, E.E., J. Appl. Phys. 113 (17), 17C115 (2013).
52.Pal, S., Rana, B., Hellwig, O., Thomson, T., Barman, A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (8), 082501 (2011).
53.Kugler, Z., Drewello, V., Schäfers, M., Schmalhorst, J., Reiss, G., Thomas, A., J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 323 (2), 198 (2011).
54.Mizunuma, K., Ikeda, S., Yamamoto, H., Gan, H.D., Miura, K., Hasegawa, H., Hayakawa, J., Ito, K., Matsukura, F., Ohno, H., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49 (4S), 04DM04 (2010).
55.Worledge, D.C., Hu, G., Abraham, D.W., Sun, J.Z., Trouilloud, P.L., Nowak, J., Brown, S., Gaidis, M.C., O’Sullivan, E.J., Robertazzi, R.P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (2), 22501 (2011).
56.Lavrijsen, R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (13), 132502 (2011).
57.Devolder, T., Ducrot, P.-H., Adam, J.-P., Barisic, I., Vernier, N., Kim, J.-V., Ockert, B., Ravelosona, D., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 (2), 022407 (2013).
58.Jamali, M., Klemm, A., Wang, J.-P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 (25), 252409 (2013).
59.Thiele, J.-U., Folks, L., Toney, M.F., Weller, D.K., J. Appl. Phys. 84 (10), 5686 (1998).
60.Mizukami, S., Watanabe, D., Oogane, M., Ando, Y., Miura, Y., Shirai, M., Miyazaki, T., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (5), 052501 (2011).
61.Dai, B., Kato, T., Iwata, S., Tsunashima, S., IEEE Trans. Magn. 48 (11), 3223 (2012).
62.Sarkar, A., Nikonov, D.E., Young, I.A., Behin-Aein, B., Datta, S., IEEE Trans. Nanotech. 13 (1), 143 (2014).
63.Sun, J.Z., Brown, S.L., Chen, W., Delenia, E.A., Gaidis, M.C., Harms, J., Hu, G., Jiang, X., Kilaru, R., Kula, W., Lauer, G., Liu, L.Q., Murthy, S., Nowak, J., O’Sullivan, E.J., Parkin, S.S.P., Robertazzi, R.P., Rice, P.M., Sandhu, G., Topuria, T., Worledge, D.C., Phys. Rev. B. 88, 104426 (2013).
64.Sun, J.Z., Robertazzi, R.P., Nowak, J., Trouilloud, P.L., Hu, G., Abraham, D.W., Gaidis, M.C., Brown, S.L., O’Sullivan, E.J., Gallagher, W.J., Worledge, D.C., Phys. Rev. B 84, 064413 (2011).
65.Augustine, C., Panagopoulos, G., Behin-Aein, B., Srinivasan, S., Sarkar, A., Roy, K., IEEE NANOARCH Proceedings 129 (2011).
66.Behin-Aein, B., “All-Spin Logic Devices” US Patent 8558571 B2 (2012).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 80 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 388 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.