Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Development of Nonpolar and Semipolar InGaN/GaN Visible Light-Emitting Diodes

  • Daniel F. Feezell, Mathew C. Schmidt, Steven P. DenBaars and Shuji Nakamura
Abstract

This article reviews the development of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), emphasizing structures on freestanding bulk GaN. A brief history of LED development on each orientation is provided, followed by a discussion of the most relevant and recent results. The context is related to several current LED issues, such as the realization of high-efficiency white solid-state lighting, potential solutions to the “green gap,” and applications for polarized emitters. The section on nonpolar LEDs highlights high-power violet and blue emitters and considers the effects of indium incorporation and substrate miscut. The section on semipolar GaN reviews the development of LEDs in the violet, blue, green, and yellow regions and highlights the potential of InGaN/GaN LEDs as an alternative technology to AlInGaP for yellow emitters. A brief review of polarization anisotropy also is included for each orientation. Finally, a two source white light system utilizing a nonpolar blue LED and a semipolar yellow LED is presented.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1Krames, M.R., Shchekin, O.B., Muller-Mach, R., Mueller, G.O., Zhou, L., Harbers, G., Craford, M.G., J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160 (2007).
2Humphreys, C.J., MRS Bull. 33, 459 (2008).
3Phillips, J.M., Coltrin, M.E., Crawford, M.H., Fischer, A.J., Krames, M.R., Mueller-Mach, R., Mueller, G.O., Ohno, Y., Rohwer, L.E.S., Simmons, J.A., Tsao, J.Y., Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
4Bernardini, F., Fiorentini, V., Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024 (1997).
5Waltereit, P., Brandt, O., Trampert, A., Grahn, H.T., Menniger, J., Ramsteiner, M., Reiche, M., Ploog, K.H., Nature 406, 865 (2000).
6Paskova, T., Phys. Status Solidi B 245, 1011 (2008).
7Yamada, H., Iso, K., Saito, M., Hirasawa, H., Fellows, N., Masui, H., Fujito, K., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2, 89 (2008).
8Waltereit, P., Brandt, O., Ramsteiner, M., Trampert, A., Grahn, H.T., Menniger, J., Reiche, M., Uecker, R., Reiche, P., Ploog, K.H., Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 133 (2000).
9Craven, M., Lim, S.H., Wu, F., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201 (2002).
10Chintis, A., Chen, C., Adivarahan, V., Shatalov, M., Kuoksis, E., Mandavill, V., Yang, J., Khan, M.A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3663 (2004).
11Chakraborty, A., Haskell, B.A., Keller, S., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Mishra, U.K., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5143 (2004).
12Gardner, N.F., Kim, J.C., Wierer, J.J., Shen, Y.C., Krames, M.R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111101 (2005).
13Chakraborty, A., Haskell, B.A., Keller, S., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Mishra, U.K., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L173 (2005).
14Teisseyre, H., Skierbiszewski, C., Lucznik, B., Kamler, G., Feduniewicz, A., Siekacz, M., Suski, T., Perlin, P., Grzegory, I., Porowski, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 162112 (2005).
15Paskova, T., Kroeger, R., Figge, S., Hommel, D., Darakchieva, V., Monemar, B., Preble, E., Hanser, A., Williams, N.M., Tutor, M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051914 (2006).
16Dwilinski, R., Doradzinski, R., Garczynski, J., Sierzputowski, L.P., Puchalski, A., Rudzinski, M., Zajac, M., in Proc. Int. Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (2008) p. 43.
17Fujito, K., Kiyomi, K., Mochizuki, T., Namita, H., Nagao, S., Fujimura, I., Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 1056 (2008).
18Okamoto, K., Ohta, H., Nakagawa, D., Sonobe, M., Ichihara, J., Takasu, H., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1197 (2006).
19Schmidt, M.C., Kim, K.C., Sato, H., Fellows, N., Masui, H., Nakamura, S., DenBaars, S., Speck, J.S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L126 (2007).
20Kim, K.C., Schmidt, M.C., Sato, H., Wu, F., Fellows, N., Saito, M., Fujito, K., Speck, J.S., Nakamura, S., DenBaars, S.P., Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
21Kim, K.C., Schmidt, M.C., Sato, H., Wu, F., Fellows, N., Jia, Z., Saito, M., Nakamura, S., DenBaars, S.P., Speck, J.S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181120 (2007).
22Shen, Y.C., Mueller, G.O., Watanabe, S., Gardner, N.F., Munkholm, A., Krames, M.R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141101 (2007).
23Sabathil, M., Laubsch, A., Strassburg, M., Lugauer, H., Peter, M., Linder, N., Lutgen, S., Hader, J., Moloney, J.V., Pasenow, B., Koch, S.W., in Proc. Int. Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (2008) p. 269.
24Kim, M.H., Schubert, M.F., Dai, Q., Kim, J.K., Schubert, E.F., Piprek, J., Park, Y., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
25Xie, J., Ni, X., Fan, Q., Shimada, R., Ozgur, U., Morkoc, H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183507 (2008).
26Yamada, H., Iso, K., Saito, M., Masui, H., Fujito, K., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
27Iso, K., Yamada, H., Hirasawa, H., Fellows, N., Saito, M., Fujito, K., DenBaars, S.P., Speck, J.S., Nakamura, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L960 (2007).
28Hirai, A., Jia, Z., Schmidt, M.C., Farrell, R.M., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Speck, J.S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191906 (2007).
29Yamada, H., Iso, K., Saito, M., Fujito, K., DenBaars, S.P., Speck, J.S., Nakamura, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L1117 (2007).
30Tsujimura, H., Nakagawa, S., Okamoto, K., Ohta, H., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L1010 (2007).
31Masui, H., Yamada, H., Iso, K., Hirasawa, H., Fellows, N.N., Speck, J.S., Nakamura, S., DenBaars, S.P., Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 1203 (2008).
32Masui, H., Yamada, H., Iso, K., Nakamura, S., DenBaars, S.P., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 225104 (2008).
33Park, S.H., Ahn, D., Chuang, S.L., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1175 (2007).
34Nakagawa, S., Tsujimura, H., Okamoto, K., Kubota, M., Ohta, H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171110 (2007).
35Romanov, A.E., Baker, T.J., Nakamura, S., Speck, J.S., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023522 (2006).
36Park, S.H., Ahn, D., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013505 (2007).
37Kamiyama, S., Honshio, A., Kitano, T., Iwaya, M., Amano, H., Akasaki, I., Kinoshita, H., Shiomi, H., Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 2121 (2005).
38Chakraborty, A., Baker, T.J., Haskell, B.A., Wu, F., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Mishra, U.K., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L945 (2005).
39Sharma, R., Pattison, P.M., Masui, H., Farrell, R.M., Baker, T.J., Haskell, B.A., Wu, F., DenBaars, S.P., Speck, J.S., Nakamura, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231110 (2005).
40Funato, M., Ueda, M., Kawakami, Y., Narukawa, Y., Kosugi, T., Takahashi, M., Mukai, T., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L659 (2006).
41Tyagi, A., Zhong, H., Fellows, N., Iza, M., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L129 (2007).
42Zhong, H., Tyagi, A., Fellows, N., Wu, F., Chung, R.B., Saito, M., Fujito, K., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233504 (2007).
43Zhong, H., Tyagi, A., Fellows, N.N., Chung, R.B., Saito, M., Fujito, K., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Electron. Lett. 43, 825 (2007).
44Sato, H., Tyagi, A., Zhong, H., Fellows, N., Chung, R.B., Saito, M., Fujito, K., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 162 (2007).
45Sato, H., Chung, R.B., Hirohiko, H., Fellows, N., Masui, H., Wu, F., Saito, M., Fujito, K., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221110 (2008).
46Fellows, N., Sato, H., Masui, H., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7854 (2008).
47Ueda, M., Funato, M., Kojima, K., Kawakami, Y., Narukawa, Y., Mukai, T., Phys. Rev. B 78, 233303 (2008).
48Fellows, N., Sato, H., Lin, Y., Chung, R.B., DenBaars, S.P., Nakamura, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121112 (2008).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed