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Materials and the Global Environment: Waste Mining in the 21st Century

  • Robert U. Ayres, John Holmberg and Björn Andersson

Extract

Sustainability is supposed to be the watchword of the coming century. Kenneth Boulding characterized the economic system of the 19th century as a “cowboy economy,” meaning that resources were essentially not a limiting factor. In contrast, he noted that in the future we must prepare to live in a “spaceship economy,” adopting Barbara Ward's famous metaphor of “Spaceship Earth.” In a spaceship, all materials must be recycled (or discarded into space).

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References

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1Boulding, K.E., “The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth,” in Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, edited by Jarett, H. (Johns Hopkins University Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore, 1966).
2Ward, B., Spaceship Earth (Columbia University Press, New York, 1966).
3Williams, R., “Advanced Energy Technologies,” in World Energy Assessment, edited by Goldemberg, J. (United Nations, New York, 2000).
4Tateda, M., Ike, M., and Fujita, M., Resources, Conservation and Recycling 19 (1997) p. 93.
5Nowak, Z., “Recovery of Minerals and Elements from Ash,” in Coal Ash Utilization: Fly Ash, Bottom Ash and Slag, edited by Torrey, S. (Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ, 1978).
6Roy, M., Murtha, J., and Burnet, G., Industrial Applications of Magnetic Separation (IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1979).
7Morton, W.E. in Coal Ash Utilization: Fly Ash, Bottom Ash and Slag, edited by Torrey, S. (Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ, 1978).
8Peters, F.R. and Johnson, P.W.Revised and Updated Cost Estimates for Producing Alumina from Domestic Raw Materials, Information Circular (8648), (U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington DC, 1974).
9Yun, C.K.Park, S.B. and Park, W.H.Aluminum Kombinat: An Integral Utilization of Low Grade Anthracites for Simultaneous Recovery of Aluminum and Energy,” presented at the 4th Joint Meet., MMIJ-AIME, Tokyo, 1980.
10Canon, R.M.Gilliam, T.M. and Watson, J.S.Evaluating Potential Processes for Recovery of Metals from Coal Ash (CS-1992) (Electric Power Research Institute, November 1981).
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12Andersson, B.A.Progress in Photovoltaics 8 (2000) p. 61.
13Andersson, B.A. and Råde, I., “Metal Resource Constraints for Large-Scale Battery Electric Vehicle Fleets,” Transportation Research Part D—Energy and the Environment, in press.
14Harrison, R.P.Altered Landscapes: ‘Red Mud’ and the Aluminum Industry,” presented at the Second Intl. Symp. on Iron Control in Metallurgy, Ottawa, Canada, October 20–23, 1996.
15Brown, S.O. and Kirkpatrick, D.B.Red Mud Product Development,” in Light Metals 1999 (Mineral, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, 1999) p. 25.
16Newton, P.Making Bricks with Red Mud in Jamaica, International Development Research Center Report Vol. 21, No. 2., Ottawa, Canada, 1993.
17Brown, W.Century-Board (personal communication, 2000).
18Yalcin, N. and Selvinc, V.Ceramics International 26 (5) (2000) p. 485.
19Mishra, B.Kirkpatrick, D. and Slavik, M. in Proc. EPD Congress 2000 (Mineral, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, 2000) p. 369.
20Kasai, T. and Mizota, T.J. Mining Mater. Proc. Inst. Jpn. 112 (3) (1996) p. 131.
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MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
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