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Self-folding thin-film materials: From nanopolyhedra to graphene origami

  • Vivek B. Shenoy (a1) and David H. Gracias (a2)

Abstract

Self-folding of thin films is a more deterministic form of self-assembly wherein structures curve or fold up either spontaneously on release from the substrate or in response to specific stimuli. From an intellectual standpoint, the study of the self-folding of thin films at small size scales is motivated by the observation that a large number of naturally occurring materials such as leaves and tissues show curved, wrinkled, or folded micro- and nanoscale geometries. From a technological standpoint, such a self-assembly methodology is important since it can be used to transform the precision of existing planar patterning methods, such as electron-beam lithography, to the third dimension. Also, the self-folding of graphene promises a means to create a variety of three-dimensional carbon-based micro- and nanostructures. Finally, stimuli responsive self-folding can be used to realize chemomechanical and tether-free actuation at small size scales. Here, we review theoretical and experimental aspects of the self-folding of metallic, semiconducting, and polymeric films.

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