Skip to main content

Single-atom dynamics in scanning transmission electron microscopy

  • Rohan Mishra (a1), Ryo Ishikawa (a2), Andrew R. Lupini (a3) and Stephen J. Pennycook (a4)

The correction of aberrations in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has simultaneously improved both spatial and temporal resolution, making it possible to capture the dynamics of single atoms inside materials, and resulting in new insights into the dynamic behavior of materials. In this article, we describe the different beam–matter interactions that lead to atomic excitations by transferring energy and momentum. We review recent examples of sequential STEM imaging to demonstrate the dynamic behavior of single atoms both within materials, at dislocations, at grain and interface boundaries, and on surfaces. We also discuss the effects of such dynamic behavior on material properties. We end with a summary of ongoing instrumental and algorithm developments that we anticipate will improve the temporal resolution significantly, allowing unprecedented insights into the dynamic behavior of materials at the atomic scale.

Hide All
1. Duscher G., Chisholm M.F., Alber U., Ruhle M., Nat. Mater. 3, 621 (2004).
2. Kim M., Duscher G., Browning N.D., Sohlberg K., Pantelides S.T., Pennycook S.J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4056 (2001).
3. Frechero M.A., Rocci M., Sanchez-Santolino G., Kumar A., Salafranca J., Schmidt R., Diaz-Guillen M.R., Dura O.J., Rivera-Calzada A., Mishra R., Jesse S., Pantelides S.T., Kalinin S.V., Varela M., Pennycook S.J., Santamaria J., Leon C., Sci. Rep. 5, 17229 (2015).
4. Xiang Z.L., Ashhab S., You J.Q., Nori F., Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 623 (2013).
5. Kalinin S.V., Borisevich A., Jesse S., Nature 539, 485 (2016).
6. Jesse S., Borisevich A.Y., Fowlkes J.D., Lupini A.R., Rack P.D., Unocic R.R., Sumpter B.G., Kalinin S.V., Belianinov A., Ovchinnikova O.S., ACS Nano 10, 5600 (2016).
7. Yang Y., Chen C.C., Scott M.C., Ophus C., Xu R., Pryor A., Wu L., Sun F., Theis W., Zhou J., Eisenbach M., Kent P.R., Sabirianov R.F., Zeng H., Ercius P., Miao J., Nature 542, 75 (2017).
8. Ishikawa R., Lupini A.R., Findlay S.D., Taniguchi T., Pennycook S.J., Nano Lett. 14, 1903 (2014).
9. Hwang J., Zhang J.Y., D’Alfonso A.J., Allen L.J., Stemmer S., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 266101 (2013).
10. LeBeau J.M., Findlay S.D., Allen L.J., Stemmer S., Nano Lett. 10, 4405 (2010).
11. Krivanek O.L., Chisholm M.F., Dellby N., Murfitt M.F., “Atomic-Resolution STEM at Low Primary Energies,” in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy: Imaging and Analysis, Pennycook S.J., Nellist P.D., Eds. (Springer , New York, 2011), p. 615.
12. Egerton R.F., Li P., Malac M., Micron 35, 399 (2004).
13. Egerton R.F., McLeod R., Wang F., Malac M., Ultramicroscopy 110, 991 (2010).
14. Henkelman G., Uberuaga B.P., Jónsson H., J. Chem. Phys. 113, 9901 (2000).
15. Jiang N., Hembree G.G., Spence J.C.H., Qiu J., de Abajo F.J.G., Silcox J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 551 (2003).
16. Su D., Wang F., Ma C., Jiang N., Nano Energy 2, 343 (2013).
17. Jiang N., Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 016501 (2016).
18. Parkinson G.S., Novotny Z., Argentero G., Schmid M., Pavelec J., Kosak R., Blaha P., Diebold U., Nat. Mater. 12, 724 (2013).
19. Gohlke D., Mishra R., Restrepo O.D., Lee D., Windl W., Gupta J., Nano Lett. 13, 2418 (2013).
20. Isaacson M.S., Langmore J., Parker N.W., Kopf D., Utlaut M., Ultramicroscopy 1, 359 (1976).
21. Isaacson M., Kopf D., Utlaut M., Parker N.W., Crewe A.V., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 1802 (1977).
22. Batson P.E., Microsc. Microanal. 14, 89 (2008).
23. Pennycook T.J., McBride J.R., Rosenthal S.J., Pennycook S.J., Pantelides S.T., Nano Lett. 12, 3038 (2012).
24. Han C.W., Iddir H., Uzun A., Curtiss L.A., Browning N.D., Gates B.C., Ortalan V., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4675 (2015).
25. Krivanek O.L., Zhou W., Chisholm M.F., Idrobo J.C., Lovejoy T.C., Ramasse Q.M., Dellby N., “Gentle STEM of Single Atoms: Low keV Imaging and Analysis at Ultimate Detection Limits,” in Low Voltage Electron Microscopy: Principles and Applications, Bell D.C., Erdman N., Eds. (Wiley and Royal Microscopical Society, Oxford, UK, 2012), p. 119.
26. Krivanek O.L., Chisholm M.F., Nicolosi V., Pennycook T.J., Corbin G.J., Dellby N., Murfitt M.F., Own C.S., Szilagyi Z.S., Oxley M.P., Pantelides S.T., Pennycook S.J., Nature 464, 571 (2010).
27. Girit Ç.Ö., Meyer J.C., Erni R., Rossell M.D., Kisielowski C., Yang L., Park C.-H., Crommie M.F., Cohen M.L., Louie S.G., Zettl A., Science 323, 1705 (2009).
28. Kurasch S., Kotakoski J., Lehtinen O., Skakalova V., Smet J., Krill C.E. III, Krasheninnikov A.V., Kaiser U., Nano Lett. 12, 3168 (2012).
29. Komsa H.-P., Kurasch S., Lehtinen O., Kaiser U., Krasheninnikov A.V., Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 88 , 035301 (2013).
30. Lehtinen O., Vats N., Algara-Siller G., Knyrim P., Kaiser U., Nano Lett. 15, 235 (2015).
31. Komsa H.P., Kotakoski J., Kurasch S., Lehtinen O., Kaiser U., Krasheninnikov A.V., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 , 035503 (2012).
32. Mishra R., Zhou W., Pennycook S.J., Pantelides S.T., Idrobo J.C., Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 88, 144409 (2013).
33. He Z., He K., Robertson A.W., Kirkland A.I., Kim D., Ihm J., Yoon E., Lee G.D., Warner J.H., Nano Lett. 14, 3766 (2014).
34. Robertson A.W., Lee G.D., He K., Yoon E., Kirkland A.I., Warner J.H., Nano Lett. 14, 1634 (2014).
35. Chen Q., He K., Robertson A.W., Kirkland A.I., Warner J.H., ACS Nano 10, 10418 (2016).
36. Gong C.C., Robertson A.W., He K., Lee G.D., Yoon E., Allen C.S., Kirkland A.I., Warner J.H., ACS Nano 9, 10066 (2015).
37. Freysoldt C., Grabowski B., Hickel T., Neugebauer J., Kresse G., Janotti A., Van de Walle C.G., Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 253 (2014).
38. Lee J., Zhou W., Pennycook S.J., Idrobo J.C., Pantelides S.T., Nat. Commun. 4, 1650 (2013).
39. Kotakoski J., Mangler C., Meyer J.C., Nat. Commun. 5, 3991 (2014).
40. Susi T., Kotakoski J., Kepaptsoglou D., Mangler C., Lovejoy T.C., Krivanek O.L., Zan R., Bangert U., Ayala P., Meyer J.C., Ramasse Q., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 115501 (2014).
41. Li H., Wang S., Sawada H., Han G.G., Samuels T., Allen C.S., Kirkland A.I., Grossman J.C., Warner J.H., ACS Nano 11, 3392 (2017).
42. Pennycook S.J., Nellist P.D., Eds., Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy: Imaging and Analysis (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2011).
43. Pennycook S.J., MRS Bull. 37, 943 (2012).
44. Lin J., Cretu O., Zhou W., Suenaga K., Prasai D., Bolotin K.I., Cuong N.T., Otani M., Okada S., Lupini A.R., Idrobo J.-C., Caudel D., Burger A., Ghimire N.J., Yan J., Mandrus D.G., Pennycook S.J., Pantelides S.T., Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 436 (2014).
45. Susi T., Meyer J.C., Kotakoski J., Ultramicroscopy 180, 163 (2017).
46. Ishikawa R., Mishra R., Lupini A.R., Findlay S.D., Taniguchi T., Pantelides S.T., Pennycook S.J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155501 (2014).
47. Oh S.H., van Benthem K., Molina S.I., Borisevich A.Y., Luo W., Werner P., Zakharov N.D., Kumar D., Pantelides S.T., Pennycook S.J., Nano Lett. 8, 1016 (2008).
48. Bowers M.L., Ophus C., Gautam A., Lancon F., Dahmen U., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 106102 (2016).
49. Peter N.J., Liebscher C.H., Kirchlechner C., Dehm G., J. Mater. Res. 32, 968 (2016).
50. Li C., Zhang Y.-Y., Pennycook T.J., Wu Y., Lupini A.R., Paudel N., Pantelides S.T., Yan Y., Pennycook S.J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 143107 (2016).
51. Li C., Wu Y., Pennycook T.J., Lupini A.R., Leonard D.N., Yin W., Paudel N., Al-Jassim M., Yan Y., Pennycook S.J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 096403 (2013).
52. Gao P., Ishikawa R., Tochigi E., Kumamoto A., Shibata N., Ikuhara Y., Chem. Mater. 29, 1006 (2017).
53. Ryoo H., Bae H.B., Kim Y.M., Kim J.G., Lee S., Chung S.Y., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54, 7963 (2015).
54. Jang J.H., Kim Y.M., He Q., Mishra R., Qiao L., Biegalski M.D., Lupini A.R., Pantelides S.T., Pennycook S.J., Kalinin S.V., Borisevich A.Y., ACS Nano 11, 6942 (2017).
55. Yao L., Majumdar S., Akaslompolo L., Inkinen S., Qin Q.H., van Dijken S., Adv. Mater. 26, 2789 (2014).
56. Pennycook T.J., Jones L., Pettersson H., Coelho J., Canavan M., Mendoza-Sanchez B., Nicolosi V., Nellist P.D., Sci. Rep. 4, 7555 (2014).
57. Sawada H., Shimura N., Hosokawa F., Shibata N., Ikuhara Y., Microscopy 64, 213 (2015).
58. Ishikawa R., Pennycook S.J., Lupini A.R., Findlay S.D., Shibata N., Ikuhara Y., Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 163102 (2016).
59. Ishikawa R., Lupini A.R., Hinuma Y., Pennycook S.J., Ultramicroscopy 151, 122 (2015).
60. Sang X., Lupini A.R., Unocic R.R., Chi M., Borisevich A.Y., Kalinin S.V., Endeve E., Archibald R.K., Jesse S., Adv. Struct. Chem. Imaging 2, 6 (2016).
61. Furnival T., Leary R.K., Midgley P.A., Ultramicroscopy 178, 112 (2016).
62. Stevens A., Yang H., Carin L., Arslan I., Browning N.D., Microscopy 63, 41 (2014).
63. Sang X., Xie Y., Lin M.-W., Alhabeb M., Van Aken K.L., Gogotsi Y., Kent P.R.C., Xiao K., Unocic R.R., ACS Nano 10, 9193 (2016).
64. Pennycook S.J., Jesson D.E., Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 938 (1990).
65. Pennycook S.J., Jesson D.E., Ultramicroscopy 37, 14 (1991).
66. Kim H., Zhang J.Y., Raghavan S., Stemmer S., Phys. Rev. X 6, 041063 (2016).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 22
Total number of PDF views: 165 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 821 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 8th September 2017 - 11th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.