Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Solution-processed transparent electrodes

  • David S. Hecht (a1) and Richard B. Kaner (a2)
Abstract

Typically, materials with high electrical conductivity such as metals are opaque, and materials with high optical transparency such as glass are insulating. Finding materials that are both transparent to visible light and electrically conductive has proven to be a challenge. The need for such materials continues to grow, as many of today’s popular devices such as liquid-crystal displays and organic light-emitting diodes in televisions, touch screens in phones or tablet computers, electrophoretic displays in e-readers, or solar cells on a roof require one or more layers to transmit visible light, while simultaneously applying a voltage or conducting a current. Today, the industry’s need for such a material is serviced by various metal oxides, of which indium tin oxide (ITO) is by far the most common. The opto-electronic properties of ITO satisfy industry need for most devices; however, ITO has several drawbacks (e.g., brittle, expensive, and typically applied via costly sputtering techniques). To address these issues, recent advances in solution-processed nanomaterials have enabled several printable alternatives to sputtered ITO. These nanomaterials include conducting polymers, metallic nanostructures, ITO nanostructures, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. The ability to apply nanomaterials from the liquid phase opens the possibility to print these electronic materials roll-to-roll, greatly reducing cost and increasing yield and throughput, while the nanomaterial topology enables truly flexible devices.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Solution-processed transparent electrodes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Solution-processed transparent electrodes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Solution-processed transparent electrodes
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
1.NanoMarkets, Transparent Conductor Markets 2011 (2011).
2.Hecht, D.S., Hu, L.B., Irvin, G., Adv. Mater. 23, 1482 (2011).
3.Wan, Q., Dattoli, E.N., Fung, W.Y., Guo, W., Chen, Y.B., Pan, X.Q., Lu, W., Nano Lett. 6, 2909 (2006).
4.Goebbert, C., Nonninger, R., Aegerter, M.A., Schmidt, H., Thin Solid Films 351, 79 (1999).
5.Mahajeri, M., Voigt, M., Taylor, R.N.K., Reindl, A., Peukert, W., Thin Solid Films 518, 3373 (2010).
6.Kirchmeyer, S., Reuter, K., J. Mater. Chem. 15, 2077 (2005).
7.Yue, J., Epstein, A.J., Zhong, Z., Gallagher, P.K., Macdiarmid, A.G., Synth. Met. 41, 765 (1991).
8.Ha, Y.H., Nikolov, N., Pollack, S.K., Mastrangelo, J., Martin, B.D., Shashidhar, R., Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 615 (2004).
9.De, S., Higgins, T.M., Lyons, P.E., Doherty, E.M., Nirmalraj, P.N., Blau, W.J., Boland, J.J., Coleman, J.N., ACS Nano 3, 1767 (2009).
10.Lai, S., Ou, C., Tsai, C., Chuang, B., Ma, M., Liang, S., SID Digest (2008).
11.Lee, J.Y., Connor, S.T., Cui, Y., Peumans, P., Nano Lett. 8, 689 (2008).
12.Hu, L., Kim, H.S., Lee, J.Y., Peumans, P., Cui, Y., ACS Nano (2010).
13.Hu, L.B., Hecht, D.S., Gruner, G., Chem. Rev. 110, 5790 (2010).
14.Hu, L., Hecht, D.S., Gruner, G., Nano Lett. 4, 2513 (2004).
15.Wu, Z.C., Chen, Z.H., Du, X., Logan, J.M., Sippel, J., Nikolou, M., Kamaras, K., Reynolds, J.R., Tanner, D.B., Hebard, A.F., Rinzler, A.G., Science 305, 1273 (2004).
16.Wassei, J.K., Kaner, R.B., Mater. Today 13, 52 (2010).
17.Cai, W.W., Zhu, Y.W., Li, X.S., Piner, R.D., Ruoff, R.S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 (2009).
18.De, S., Coleman, J.N., ACS Nano 4, 2713 (2010).
19.Bae, S., Kim, H., Lee, Y., Xu, X.F., Park, J.S., Zheng, Y., Balakrishnan, J., Lei, T., Kim, H.R., Song, Y.I., Kim, Y.J., Kim, K.S., Ozyilmaz, B., Ahn, J.H., Hong, B.H., Iijima, S., Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574 (2010).
20.Wu, J.B., Agrawal, M., Becerril, H.A., Bao, Z.N., Liu, Z.F., Chen, Y.S., Peumans, P., ACS Nano 4, 43 (2009).
21.Biswas, S., Drzal, L.T., Nano Lett. 9, 167 (2009).
22.Hecht, D.S., Heintz, A.M., Lee, R., Hu, L.B., Moore, B., Cucksey, C., Risser, S., Nanotechnol. 22, 5 (2011).
23.Yang, Z.P., Ci, L.J., Bur, J.A., Lin, S.Y., Ajayan, P.M., Nano Lett. 8, 446 (2008).
24.Allen, M.J., Tung, V.C., Kaner, R.B., Chem. Rev. 110, 132 (2010).
25.Geim, A.K., Science 324, 1530 (2009).
26.Geim, A.K., Novoselov, K.S., Nat. Mater. 6, 183 (2007).
27.Castro Neto, A.H., Guinea, F., Peres, N.M.R., Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109 (2009).
28.Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Morozov, S.V., Jiang, D., Zhang, Y., Dubonos, S.V., Grigorieva, I.V., Firsov, A.A., Science 306, 666 (2004).
29.Nair, R.R., Blake, P., Grigorenko, A.N., Novoselov, K.S., Booth, T.J., Stauber, T., Peres, N.M.R., Geim, A.K., Science 320, 1308 (2008).
30.Hecht, D., Hu, L.B., Gruner, G., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).
31.Blake, P., Brimicombe, P.D., Nair, R.R., Booth, T.J., Jiang, D., Schedin, F., Ponomarenko, L.A., Morozov, S.V., Gleeson, H.F., Hill, E.W., Geim, A.K., Novoselov, K.S., Nano Lett. 8, 1704 (2008).
32.Zhu, Y.W., Murali, S., Cai, W.W., Li, X.S., Suk, J.W., Potts, J.R., Ruoff, R.S., Adv. Mat. 22, 3906 (2010).
33.Li, D., Kaner, R.B., Science 320, 1170 (2008).
34.Berger, C., Song, Z.M., Li, X.B., Wu, X.S., Brown, N., Naud, C., Mayou, D., Li, T.B., Hass, J., Marchenkov, A.N., Conrad, E.H., First, P.N., de Heer, W.A., Science 312, 1191 (2006).
35.Cai, J.M., Ruffieux, P., Jaafar, R., Bieri, M., Braun, T., Blankenburg, S., Muoth, M., Seitsonen, A.P., Saleh, M., Feng, X.L., Mullen, K., Fasel, R., Nature 466, 470 (2010).
36.Li, D., Muller, M.B., Gilje, S., Kaner, R.B., Wallace, G.G., Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101 (2008).
37.Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Dommett, G.H.B., Kohlhaas, K.M., Zimney, E.J., Stach, E.A., Piner, R.D., Nguyen, S.T., Ruoff, R.S., Nature 442, 282 (2006).
38.Hernandez, Y., Nicolosi, V., Lotya, M., Blighe, F.M., Sun, Z.Y., De, S., McGovern, I.T., Holland, B., Byrne, M., Gun’ko, Y.K., Boland, J.J., Niraj, P., Duesberg, G., Krishnamurthy, S., Goodhue, R., Hutchison, J., Scardaci, V., Ferrari, A.C., Coleman, J.N., Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 563 (2008).
39.Dubin, S., Gilje, S., Wang, K., Tung, V.C., Cha, K., Hall, A.S., Farrar, J., Varshneya, R., Yang, Y., Kaner, R.B., ACS Nano 4, 3845 (2010).
40.Gruner, G., Hu, L., Hecht, D., Unidym, 7449133 (2006).
41.Lotya, M., Hernandez, Y., King, P.J., Smith, R.J., Nicolosi, V., Karlsson, L.S., Blighe, F.M., De, S., Wang, Z.M., McGovern, I.T., Duesberg, G.S., Coleman, J.N., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 3611 (2009).
42.Tung, V.C., Chen, L.M., Allen, M.J., Wassei, J.K., Nelson, K., Kaner, R.B., Yang, Y., Nano Lett. 9, 1949 (2009).
43.Wang, X., Zhi, L.J., Mullen, K., Nano Lett. 8, 323 (2008).
44.Wang, X., Zhi, L.J., Tsao, N., Tomovic, Z., Li, J.L., Mullen, K., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 2990 (2008).
45.Wu, J.B., Becerril, H.A., Bao, Z.N., Liu, Z.F., Chen, Y.S., Peumans, P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
46.Miller, A.J., Hatton, R.A., Chen, G.Y., Silva, S.R.P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 3 (2007).
47.Gaynor, W., Lee, J.Y., Peumans, P., ACS Nano 4, 30 (2010).
48.Li, J., Hu, L., Wang, L., Zhou, Y., Gruner, G., Marks, T.J., Nano Lett. 6, 2472 (2006).
49.Hecht, D.S., Thomas, D., Hu, L.B., Ladous, C., Lam, T., Park, Y., Irvin, G., Drzaic, P., J. Soc. Info. Dis. 17, 941 (2009).
50.Mackey, B., SID 11 Dig. 43.1, 617 (2011).
51.Doherty, E.M., De, S., Lyons, P.E., Shmeliov, A., Nirmalraj, P.N., Scardaci, V., Joimel, J., Blau, W.J., Boland, J.J., Coleman, J.N., Carbon 47, 2466 (2009).
52.Giovannetti, G., Khomyakov, P.A., Brocks, G., Karpan, V.M., van den Brink, J., Kelly, P.J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 4 (2008).
53.Filleter, T., Emtsev, K.V., Seyller, T., Bennewitz, R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 3 (2008).
54.Elechiguerra, J.L., Larios-Lopez, L., Liu, C., Garcia-Gutierrez, D., Camacho-Bragado, A., Yacaman, M.J., Chem. Mater. 17, 6042 (2005).
55.Sierros, K.A., Hecht, D.S., Banerjee, D.A., Morris, N.J., Hu, L., Irvin, G., Lee, R.S., Cairns, D., Thin Solid Films 518 (2010).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed