Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-4nnqn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-30T07:24:40.477Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Measurement of the Electro-Optic Coefficient for Gallium Arsenide and Cadmium Telluride Modulator Rods

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 February 2011

Gary L Herrit
II-VI Incorporated, 375 Saxonburg Blvd., Saxonburg, PA, 16056, U.S.A.
Herman E. Reedy
II-VI Incorporated, 375 Saxonburg Blvd., Saxonburg, PA, 16056, U.S.A.
Get access


Cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide remain the only viable materials for electro-optic modulator applications in the 10 μm wavelength range. Primarily the modulators are used as Q switches, cavity dumpers, amplitude modulators, and frequency modulators for infrared applications, such as laser radar and guidance systems. Designers of optical and electrical systems incorporating these modulators require accurate values for the electro-optic coefficient, r41.

A test arrangement, based on a modified version of the cross polarizer technique, was used to measure the electro-optic coefficients for cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide single crystals. The first part of this paper describes our test arrangement for measuring the r41 coefficient. The second part of the paper will discuss the test results. The r41 coefficient for CdTe was found to be 5.5 × 10−12 m/V in the unclamped region and 4.1 × 10−12 m/V in the clamped reion. Values for the r41 coefficient in GaAs were found to be 1.3 × 10−12 m/V and 1.9 × 10−12 m/V in the unclamped and clamped regions, respectively. All measurements were at 10.6 μm. Also investigated are the piezoelectric resonance values for both materials and the effect the resonances have on the measured r41 coefficient in the clamped and unclamped regions.

Research Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1989

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



1 Buhrer, C. F., Bloom, L R., and Baird, D. H., “Electro-optic light modulation with cubic crystals,” Appl. Opt. 2, 839 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2 Ho, L. and Buhrer, C. F., “Electro-optic effect of gallium arsenide,” Appl. Opt. 2, 647(1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3 Yariv, A., Mead, C. A., and Parker, J. V., “GaAs as an electro-optic modulator at 10.6 microns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–2(8), 243(1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4 Stafsudd, O. M., Haak, F. A., and Radisavijevic, K., “Electro-optic constant of cadmium telluride,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1276(1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5 Kelfer, J. E. and Yariv, A., “Electro-optic characteristics of CdTe at 3.39 and 10.6 μ” Appl. Phys. Left. 15, 26(1969).Google Scholar
6 Kiefer, J. E., Nussmeler, T. A., and Goodwin, F. E., “Intracavity CdTe modulators for CO2 Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–8(2), A1 (1972).Google Scholar
7 Bell, R. O., “Review of optical applications of CdTe,” Revue De Physique Appliquez 12, 391(1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8 Spears, D. L and Strauss, A. J., “CdTe optical wavegulde modulators,” Revue De Physique Appliquez 12, 401(1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9 Ahlberg, H., Lundqvist, S., Letalick, D., Renhorn, I., and Steinvall, O., “Imaging Q-switched CO2 laser radar with heterodyne detection: design and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2891(1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10 Letalick, D., Renhorn, I., and Widen, A., “CO2 waveguide laser with programmable pulse profile,” Opt. Eng. 28, 172(1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11 Kaminow, I., “Measurements of the electro-optic effect in CdS, ZnTe, and GaAs at 10.6 microns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–4(1), 23(1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12 Sugle, M. and Tada, K., “Measurements of the linear electro-optic coefficients and analysis of the nonlinear susceptibilities in cubic GaAs and hexagonal CdS,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 421 (1976).Google Scholar
13 Kiefer, E., Nussmeier, T. A., and Goodwin, F. E., “Intracavity CdTe modulators for CO2 Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–8(2), A1(1972).Google Scholar
14 Nye, J. F., Physical Progerties of Crystals, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1985), pp. 131148 and pp. 235–258.Google Scholar
15 Namba, S., “Electro-optic effect of zincblende,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 76(1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16 Carpenter, R., “The electro-optic effect in uniaxial crystals of the dihydrogen phosphate type. III. Measurement of coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 225(1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17 Yariv, Amnon, Introduction to Optical Electronics, 2nd ed. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1976), pp. 256259.Google Scholar