We report the implementation of an automated reel-to-reel fluidic self-assembly system based on surface-tension driven self-assembly for macroelectronics application. The reported system incorporates precisely controlled and automated agitation, web moving, component recycling, and dispensing system. The system enables continuous parallel assembly of semiconductor chips at a high rate (15,000 chips per hour using 2.5 cm wide web) and assembly yield (>99%) under optimal condition. In principle, scaling to any throughput should be possible considering the parallel nature of self-assembly. The process overcomes the limitations on area and throughput of prior methods. It provides a new platform for macroelectronics to enable the integration of microscopic high performance inorganic semiconductors on flexible substrates with any desired location, pitch, and integration density. As an example we demonstrate the fabrication of a solid state area lighting module.
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