In the previous studies, we have successfully developed a novel spiral structured nanofibrous scaffolds with improved osteoconductivity for bone tissue engineering. The spiral structure design facilitates the nutrient transport and waste removal, and allows uniform cellular growth and distribution within the scaffolds, thus enhanced the bioactivity of the scaffolds. In this chapter, HAP and BMP-2 were incorporated within the nanofibrous spiral scaffolds in order to enhance the osteoinductivity of the established system. The effect of the blending materials was evaluated through cell proliferation, cell differentiation of human osteoblast cells seeded on the scaffolds and cultured for 4 and 8 days. The results has demonstrated that the functionalization of PCL nanofibrous spiral scaffolds leads to higher ALP expression level and increased amount of mineralization level however lower cell proliferation rate.
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