A large negative resistance is observed in the I-V characteristics of gold nanogap junction when high-bias voltages are applied. This phenomenon is characteristic behaviour on the nanometre scale; it only occurs for gap widths slightly under 13 nm. Furthermore, this junction exhibits a non-volatile resistance hysteresis when the bias voltage is reduced very rapidly from a high level to around 0 V, and when the bias voltage is reduced slowly. This non-volatile resistance change occurs as a result of changes in the gap width between the metal electrodes, brought about by the applied bias voltage.
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