To realize applications based on nanowires, the development of methods that allow the organization of nanostructures into integrated arrangements is crucial. While many different methods exist, the direct synthesis of complex nanowire structures is one of the most suitable approaches to efficiently connect numerous nanostructures to the macroscopic world. The fabrication of various 3D nanowire assemblies including arrays, networks, and hierarchical structures by combining specifically designed template materials with electrochemical deposition is demonstrated. The ion track template method is extended to create more complex structures by changing template production and electrodeposition parameters. In contrast to current synthesis routes, it is possible to independently control many of the parameters defining both (i) characteristics of individual nanowires (including dimensions and composition) and (ii) the arrangement of the nanoscale building blocks into nanowire assemblies determined by nanowire orientation and integration level. Results that highlight the benefits arising from the design of advanced 3D nanowire architectures are presented.
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