Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Realization of 3D Isotropic Negative Index Materials using Massively Parallel and Manufacturable Microfabrication and Micromachining Technology

  • Logeeswaran VJ (a1), M. Saif Islam (a2), Mei Lin Chan (a3), David A Horsley (a4), Wei Wu (a5), Shih-Yuan Wang (a6) and R. Stanley Williams (a7)...
Abstract
Abstract

In this paper, we present a method to realize a three dimensional (3D) homogeneous and isotropic negative index materials (3D-NIMs) fabricated using a low cost and massively parallel manufacturable microfabrication and microassembly technique. The construction of self-assembled 3D-NIM array was realized through two dimensional (2-D) planar microfabrication techniques exploiting the as-deposited residual stress imbalance between a bi-layer consisting of e-beam evaporated metal (650nm of chromium) and a structural layer of 500nm of low stress silicon nitride deposited by LPCVD on a silicon substrate.

A periodic continuation of a single rectangular unit cell consisting of split-ring resonators (SRR) and wires were fabricated to generate a 3D assembly by orienting them along all three Cartesian axes. The thin chromium and silicon nitride bi-layer is formed as hinges. The strain mismatch between the two layers curls the structural layer (flap) containing the SRR upwards. The self-assembled out-of-plane angular position depends on the thickness and material composing the bi-layer. This built-in stress-actuated assembly method is suitable for applications requiring a thin dielectric layer for the SRR. The split-ring resonators and other structures are created on the membrane which is then assembled into the 3-D configuration.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1. V. G. Veselago , “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. V10, pp 509, 1968.

2. R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “Experimental verification of negative index of refraction,” Science V292, pp 77, 2001.

3. J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. V47, pp 2057, 1999.

4. J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , W. J. Stewart , and I. Youngs , “Extremely Low Frequency Plasmons in Metallic Mesostructures,” Physical Review Letter V76, pp4773, (1996).

5. J. B. Pendry , “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Physical Review Letter V85, pp 3966, 2000.

6. N. Fang , H. Lee , C. Sun , X. Zhang , “Sub–Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens,” Science V308, pp 534, 2005.

7. A. Alú & N. Engheta , “Pairing an epsilon-negative slab with a mu-negative slab: Resonance, tunneling and transparency,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, V51, No. 10, pp2558, (2003).

9. S. A. Ramakrishna , “Physics of negative refractive index materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. V68, pp 449, 2005.

10. N. Engheta & R. W. Ziolkowski , “A Positive Future for Double-Negative Metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. V53, No.4, pp 1535, 2005.

11. Th. Koschny , L. Zhang , & C. M. Soukoulis , “Isotropic Three-Dimensional Left-Handed Metamaterials,” Physical Review B 71, 121103–R, (2005).

12. CR Simovski & He Sailing , “Frequency range and explicit expressions for negative permittivity and permeability for an isotropic medium formed by a lattice of perfectly conducting omega particles,” Physics Letters A 311 (2-3) pp254263 (2003).

13. A. Grbica & G. V. Eleftheriades , “An Isotropic Three-Dimensional Negative-Refractive-Index Transmission-Line Metamaterial,” Journal of Applied Physics V98, pp 043106, 2005

14. C. Caloz and T. Itoh , Electromagnetic Metamaterials, Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications, Wiley and IEEE Press, 2005.

16. G. P. Nikishkov , “Curvature estimation for multilayer hinged structures with initial strains,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 94, pp. 53335336, 2003.

17. P. O. Vaccaro et al., “Strain-driven self-positioning of micromachined structures,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, pp. 28522854, 2001.

19. H. O. Moser , B. D. F. Casse , O. Wilhelmi , & B. T. Saw , “Terahertz Response of a Microfabricated Rod– Split-Ring-Resonator Electromagnetic Metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters V94, 063901 (2005)

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Online Proceedings Library (OPL)
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1946-4274
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-online-proceedings-library-archive
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 3 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 38 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.