Surrogates are widely used in the research and development of nuclear wasteforms, providing detailed insight into the chemical and physical behaviour of the wasteform whilst avoiding the widespread (restricted and costly) use of radiotoxic elements in the laboratory. However, caution must be exercised when dealing with surrogates since no single element or compound perfectly mimics all aspects of the behaviour of another. In this paper we present a broad discussion of the use of surrogates in waste immobilization, drawing upon and highlighting our research into glass and ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of bulk PuO2.
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