Measuring nonlinear AC dielectric or magnetic properties of ferro and ferri magnetic materials has often required large, extremely high power and bulky equipment configurations for production of the required intense electric and/or magnetic fields. Multiple RF cavities, striplines or waveguide test fixtures may be required. The techniques often require 10s of cubic millimeter too centimeter material volumes. This paper presents results from an initial experimental design of a free space based measurement configuration for small material volumes such as nano and micro particulates or particulate composites. The technique uses wideband radiators and modest variable power radio frequency pumping sources. A second design uses, in concert with a higher power pump, a variable frequency low power probe source at frequencies other than that of the pump. A two dimensional photonic bandgap (PBG) structure is common to both configurations. The photonic structure acts to enhance power density at frequencies associated with localized electromagnetic fields constrained to small volumes of the photonic structures. Field localization is recognized and has been applied in biological diagnostics and treatment [Phys. Rev. v109, 1492; Phys. Rev. B, v55 and 62, n. 19 and 16, pp 13234 and 11230 and Chem.Soc.News, 1998, v27, p241].
Modeling of various measurement configurations is based upon expansion of incident and propagating fields in characteristic modes external and within the structure. A proper choice of photonic structure, material and pump frequency is found to localize fields in air, between the structural dielectric members of the photonic structure. This will allow small magnetic or electric samples to be inserted for exposure in these regions. The electromagnetic reflection, transmission, absorption and field/power density multiplier of the photonic structure can be measured at multiple frequencies and reflect the dielectric or magnetic nonlinearity and changed dispersion induced at the pump frequency. One PBG-free space combination will be presented that finds power density multipliers of 10 6. Thus a 10 watt pump source will produce RF magnetic field strengths near 10 Oe. This magnetic field should be sufficient to exceed critical fields for many ferri and ferromagnetic samples inserted in the volume of field localization.