In order to shed light on the role that grain boundaries and dislocations play in anelastic relaxation of thin films and small-scale structures, we measured the effective elastic moduli of 99.99% pure Al and Cu 10 m m diameter micro-wires in the as-received (drawn and slight tempered) and annealed states. Moduli were determined using microtensile tests at various strain rates (6.7x10-6s-1, 1.3x10-5s-1, 2.6x10-5s-1, 4.5x10-5s-1, 2.5x10-4s-1, 4.5x10-4s-1). Focused-ion beam scanning electron microscopy was used for imaging grain sizes. Results from the as-received wires are compared with the annealed wires to illustrate the effects of grain size and dislocation density on effective moduli, which closely relates to grain boundary sliding and dislocation motion, respectively. We conclude that microstructure is more significant than scale in inducing anelasticity in small-scale wires and, by extension, thin films.