Considerable taxonomic confusion exists regarding many species of Cantharellus. Several taxa have been classified in either Cantharellus or Craterellus depending on which morphological characters were emphasised. Recent phylogenetic studies based on sequence analyses suggest that some species now classified in Cantharellus should be in Craterellus. We extracted DNA from dried herbarium specimens and amplified, sequenced and cladistically analysed approximately 650 bp of the 5′ end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA gene. Our data confirm earlier results and provide molecular evidence for the classification of additional Cantharellus species (Ca. ignicolor and Ca. lutescens) within Craterellus. Furthermore, the data enable us to predict that all Leptocantharellus-like species currently classified within Cantharellus are more accurately classified within Craterellus. The species complexes of Cr. tubaeformis and Cr. cornucopioides were also investigated. These analyses did not support the monophyly of Ca. tubaeformis but the hypothesis that colour varieties of Cr. cornucopioides represent separate species was rejected.
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