Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Dual Citizenship in De Facto States: Comparative Case Study of Abkhazia and Transnistria

  • Ramesh Ganohariti (a1)

Abstract

The contested nature of de facto states and their acceptance of dual citizenship results in the overlap of multiple citizenship regimes, leading to individuals living in de facto states possessing multiple citizenship statuses. Using the Most Similar Systems Design, this article explores the factors that influence the (divergent) citizenship regimes of Abkhazia and Transnistria; the former allows dual citizenship only with Russia, while the latter places no restrictions. The primary reason for the adoption of dual citizenship is for pragmatic reasons, as the secondary citizenship can compensate for the lack of benefits (such as international travel, diplomatic protection) afforded by the de facto state’s citizenship. This said, having an ethnicized national identity, in contrast to a civic (state-centered) national identity, can produce (dual) citizenship laws that give preferential treatment to the titular group and its diaspora. Additionally, the influence exerted by the patron state (Russia) and the severity of the conflict with the parent state (Georgia/Moldova) influences dual citizenship in becoming conditional and thus more exclusive.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: ramganohariti@gmail.com

References

Hide All
1tv.ru. 2006. “V Abkhazii nachali vydavat’ pervyye sobstvennyye pasporta.” January 23. https://www.1tv.ru/n/225258
Agarin, Timofey, and Karolewski, Ireneusz Paweł, eds. 2015. Extraterritorial Citizenship in Postcommunist Europe. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Agarin, Timofey. 2015. “Nation-State Building with the Bear in Mind: The Impact of the Russian Federation in Post-Soviet ‘Break-Away’ Regions.” In Extraterritorial Citizenship in Postcommunist Europe, edited by Agarin, Timofey and Karolewski, Ireneusz Paweł, 109134. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Abkhazia on Alliance and Strategic Partnership. 2014. http://kremlin.ru/supplement/4783
Anonymous1. 2017. Transnistrian government official. Interviewed by author April 13, Tiraspol.
Anonymous2. 2017. Lawyer. Interviewed by author April 25, Sukhum.
Artman, Vincent. 2011. “Passport Politics”: Passportization And Territoriality In The De Facto States Of Georgia”. MA diss., University of Oregon.
Artman, Vincent. 2014. “Annexation by Passport.” AlJazeera, March 14. http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/3/ukraine-russia-crimeapassportizationcitizenship.html.
Bauböck, Rainer. 2010. “Studying Citizenship Constellations.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36 (5): 847859.
Begunov, Vladimir. 2016. “Iz Sirii s nadezhdoy. Tri istorii repatriantov.” Sputnik, March 23. http://sptnkne.ws/ezg5.
Bganba, Valeri. 2014. “KommentariySpikera Narodnogo Sobraniya – Parlamenta Respu bliki Abkhaziya V. R. Bganba kinterv'yu informatsionnomu portalu ¨Vestnik Kavkaza£ T. M. Shamba” April 9. http://www.parlamentra.org/rus/news/detail/detail.php?ELEMENT_ID=876.
Blatter, Joachim. 2011. “Dual Citizenship and Theories of Democracy.” Citizenship Studies 15 (6–7): 769798.
Bloemraad, Irene, Korteweg, Anna, and Yurdakul, Gökçe. 2008. “Citizenship and Immigration: Multiculturalism, Assimilation, and Challenges to the Nation-State.” Annual Review of Sociology 34: 153179.
Bobick, Michael. 2012. “Performative Sovereignty: State Formation in the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic.” PhD diss., Cornell University.
Brubaker, Rogers. 1992. “Citizenship Struggles in Soviet Successor States.” The International Migration Review 26 (2): 269291.
Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Caspersen, Nina. 2012. Unrecognized States. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Chirikba, Viacheslav. 2017. Former Foreign Minister of Abkhazia. Interviewed by author April 25, Sukhum.
Clogg, Rachel. 2008. “The Politics of Identity in Post-Soviet Abkhazia: Managing Diversity and Unresolved Conflict.” Nationalities Papers 36 (2): 305329.
Constitution of the Republic of Abkhazia. 1994. http://presidentofabkhazia.org/en/doc/const/.
Constitution of the Russian Federation. 1993. http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-03.htm.
Coppieters, Bruno. 1999. “The Roots of the Conflict.” In Accord: A Question of Sovereignty—The Georgia-Abkhazia Peace Process, edited by Cohen, Jonathan, 1419. London: Conciliation Resources. http://www.c-r.org/downloads/07_Georgia.pdf.
Cucuberia, Anzhela. 2009. “Parlament Abkhazii otmenil popravki v zakon o grazhdanstve.” Kavkazsky Uzel, August 6. http://www.kavkaz-uzel.eu/articles/157569/.
Dahlin, Eric, and Hironaka, Ann. 2008. “Citizenship Beyond Borders: A Cross-National Study of Dual Citizenship.” Sociological Inquiry 78 (1): 5473.
Erkvani, Zurab. 2015. “Zurab Erkvani– evropast’an viza-liberalizats’ia, pasportizats’ia da ukontrolo teritoriebi.” Timer, November 7. http://www.timer.ge/zurab-erqvania-evropasthan-viza-liberalizacia-pasportizacia-da-ukontrolo-teritoriebi/.
European Court of Human Rights. 2009. Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Conflict in Georgia. http://echr.coe.int/Documents/HUDOC_38263_08_Annexes_ENG.pdf.
Federal Law on Citizenship of the Russian Federation. 2002. http://www.legislationline.org/documents/action/popup/id/4189.
Federal Law on Russian Compatriots. 1999. http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/13875.
Francis, Celine. 2011. Conflict Resolution and Status: The Case of Georgia and Abkhazia (1989–2008). Brussels, Belgium: Brussels University Press.
Galinsky, Ilya. 2017. Lecturer, Pridnestrovan State University. Interviewed by author April 12, Tiraspol.
Gerber, Abraham. 2016. “Student Rails against ‘Stateless’ ID.” Taipei Times, November 20. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2016/11/20/2003659621.
Glazer, Nathan. 2010. “Dual Nationality: Threat to National Identity, or Harbinger of a Better World.” Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2: 68136821.
Ghazaryan, Narine. 2015. “Armenia and Extraterritorial Citizenship: A Means to Self-Determination and Nation Building?” In Extraterritorial Citizenship in Postcommunist Europe, edited by Agarin, Timofey and Karolewski, Ireneusz Paweł, 135154. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Grossman, Andrew. 2001. “Nationality and the Unrecognised State.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 50 (4): 849876.
Hailbronner, Kay. 2003. “Introduction: The Trend Towards Dual Nationality.” In Rights and Duties of Dual Nationals, edited by Martin, David and Hailbronner, Kay, 1926. Amsterdam: Kluwer Law International.
Harpaz, Yossi. 2019. “Compensatory Citizenship: Dual Nationality as a Strategy of Global Upward Mobility.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 45 (6): 897916.
Howard, Mark. 2005. “Variation in Dual Citizenship Policies in the Countries of the EU.” IMR 39 (3): 697720.
Howard, Mark. 2006. “Comparative Citizenship: An Agenda for Cross-National Research.” Perspectives on Politics 4 (3): 443455.
International Crisis Group. 2006. Abkhazia Today: Europe Report No. 176. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/23764/176_abkhazia_today.pdf.
Jafarova, Esmira. 2015. Conflict Resolution in South Caucasus. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Jopua, Robert. 2017. “Formu “pasporta” dlya negrazhdan Abkhazii utverdil Kabmin respubliki.” Sputnik, March 30. http://sptnkne.ws/ezhk.
Khashig, Inal. 2002. “Abkhaz Rush for Russian Passports.” Institute for War & Peace Reporting, June 27. https://iwpr.net/global-voices/abkhaz-rush-russian-passports.
Khashig, Inal. 2005. “Abkhazia Offers Citizenship to Diaspora.” Institute for War and Peace Reporting, November 10. https://iwpr.net/global-voices/abkhazia-offers-citizenship-diaspora.
Kobrinskaya, Irina. 2008. “‘Unrecognized States’ in Russia’s Domestic and Foreign Policy.” PONARS Eurasia Memo No. 10. http://www.ponarseurasia.org/sites/default/files/policy-memos-pdf/pepm_010.pdf.
Kolstø, Pål. 2006. “The Sustainability and Future of Unrecognized Quasi-States.” Journal of Peace Research 43: 723740.
Kolstø, Pål. 2014. “Transnistria Is a Bridge Too Far for Russia.” openDemocracy. https://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/p%C3%A5l-kolst%C3%B8/transnistria-is-bridge-too-far-for-russia.
Krasniqi, Gëzim. 2012. “Overlapping Jurisdictions, Disputed Territory, Unsettled State: The Perplexing Case of Citizenship in Kosovo.” Citizenship Studies 16 (3–4): 353366.
Khajimba, Raul. 2015. “Obrashcheniye Prezidenta RaulyaKhadzhimba V Svyazi S 23-y Godovshchinoy Nachala Otechestvennoy Voyny NarodaAbkhazii” August 14. http://presidentofabkhazia.org/about/info/news/?ELEMENT_ID=2535&sphrase_id=1624415.
Law No. 596-XII on Citizenship of the Republic of Moldova. 1991. http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=311903&lang=1.
Law No. 1024 Citizenship of the Republic of Moldova. 2000. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b60ba.html.
Law on Citizenship of PMR. 1992. http://zakon-pmr.com/DetailDoc.aspx?document=36354.
Law on Citizenship of PMR. 2002. http://zakon-pmr.com/DetailDoc.aspx?document=60966.
Law on Citizenship of RA. 1993. http://forum-abkhazia.ru/showthread-t_9.html.
Law on Citizenship of South Ossetia. 2006. http://osembassy.ru/consul/constitutional-law/.
Law on the Passport of the PMR Citizen. 2002. http://zakon-pmr.com/DetailDoc.aspx?document=61014.
Lenta.ru. 2010. “Abkhaziya naladila vydachu sobstvennykh zagranpasportov.” July 31. https://lenta.ru/news/2010/07/30/passports/.
Littlefield, Scott. 2009. “Citizenship, Identity and Foreign Policy: The Contradictions and Consequences of Russia’s Passport Distribution in the Separatist Regions of Georgia.” Europe-Asia Studies 61 (8): 14611482.
Luzhansky, Vladimir and Vladlena, Lysenko. 2017. Trasnistrian government official and University Lecturer, Pridnestrovan State University. Interviewed by author April 12, Tiraspol.
Malaev, Mihail. 2017. “Kakoy status imeyut pasporta Pridnestrov’ya, Abkhazii i Yuzhnoy Osetii.” Kommersant.ru, February 20. http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3224414.
Mashke.org. n.d. “Ethnic Composition of Transnistria 2004.” http://pop-stat.mashke.org/pmr-ethnic-loc2004.htm. (Accessed September 1, 2018.)
Meckstroth, Theodore. 1975. “‘Most Different Systems’ and ‘Most Similar Systems’: A Study in the Logic of Comparative Inquiry.” Comparative Political Studies 8 (2): 132157.
Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (1933).
Mühlfried, Florian. 2010. “Citizenship at War: Passports and Nationality in the 2008 Russian-Georgian Conflict.” Anthropology Today 26 (2): 813.
Abkhazii, Naseleniye. n.d. [Population of Abkhazia]. http://www.ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru/rnabkhazia.html. (Accessed September 1, 2018.)
Organic Law of Georgia on Georgian Citizenship. 2014. https://matsne.gov.ge/en/document/view/2342552.
Parliament of RA. 2014. “Zayavleniye deputata Parlamenta Respubliki Abkhaziya Aslana Kobakhiya.” http://parlamentra.org/rus/news/detail/detail.php?ELEMENT_ID=978
Pogonyi, Szabolcs. 2011. “Dual Citizenship and Sovereignty.” Nationalities Papers 39 (5): 685704.
Pogonyi, Szabolcs. 2017a. “Europeanization of Kin-Citizenship and the Dynamics of Kin-Minority Claim-Making: The Case of Hungary.” Problems of Post-Communism 64 (5): 242256.
Pogonyi, Szabolcs. 2017b. Extra-Territorial Ethnic Politics, Discourses and Identities in Hungary. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Presidential Decree № 227 on the Passport of the PMR Citizen. 2001. http://zakon-pmr.com/DetailDoc.aspx?document=45394.
Protocol on Mutual Recognition in the Territory of Transnistria and Moldova of Documents Issued by the Relevant Bodies of Both Parties. 2001. http://mfa-pmr.org/ru/JNc.
Riegl, Martin. 2014. “Prospects and Limits of Economic Development of Unrecognized States: Between Organized Hypocracy and Private Interests.” European Scientific Journal 10 (4): 1735.
RT. 2017. “Moscow’s Recognition of Donetsk, Lugansk Passports Doesn’t Contradict International Law—Kremlin.” February 20. https://on.rt.com/83ow.
Shevel, Oxana. 2017. “Citizenship and State Transition”. In The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship, edited by Shachar, Ayelet, Bauböck, Rainer, Bloemraad, Irene, and Vink, Maarten, 407430. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Solonari, Vladimir. 2003. “Creating a ‘People’: A Case Study in Post-Soviet History-Writing.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 4 (2): 411438.
South Ossetia Today. 2016. “Leonid Tibilov: «Nasha respublika nakhoditsya v preddverii ser’yeznogo politicheskogo meropriyatiya».” August 12. http://south-ossetia.info/leonid-tibilov-nasha-respublika-naxoditsya-v-preddverii-sereznogo-politicheskogo-meropriyatiya/.
Supreme Council of the PMR. 2017. “Russian Law ‘On Citizenship’: Our Proposals.” http://en.vspmr.org/news/supreme-council/rossiyskiy-zakon-o-grajdanstve-nashi-predlojeniya.html.
Taniya, Kan. 2017. Vice Minister, Abkhazia. Interviewed by author April 24, Sukhum.
The Law on Voting (Referendum). 1996. http://presidentofabkhazia.org/doc/const/?PAGEN_1=5.
Toal, Gerald, and O’Loughlin, John. 2014. “How People in South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Transnistria Feel about Annexation by Russia.” The Washington Post, March 20. http://wapo.st/1ijx3aY?tid=ss_tw&utm_term=.a2561d7368b6.
Traunmüller, Karin, and Agarin, Timofey. 2015. “Regulating Access to Citizenship after Territorial Changes: Extraterritorial Citizenship of the Russian Federation.” In Extraterritorial Citizenship in Postcommunist Europe, edited by Agarin, Timofey and Karolewski, Ireneusz Paweł, 4364. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Tynyaev, Ivan. 2017. “Perepis’ Naseleniya PMR.” Pridnestrovia, March 9. http://newspmr.com/novosti-pmr/obshhestvo/15927.
UN DESA. 2013. “Population Policies Database: International Migration 2013 Revision.” (Dataset). https://esa.un.org/poppolicy/wpp_datasets.aspx. (Accessed September 1, 2018.)
Vink, Maarten, De Groot, Gerard-Rene, and Luk, Ngo Chun. 2015. “MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset.” (Dataset). https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/TTMZ08. (Accessed September 1, 2018.)
Wallbott, Thorsten. 2014. “Citizenship and Immigration in Western Europe: National Trajectories under Postnational Conditions? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Selected Countries.” MMG Working Paper 14-12. Göttingen: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity.
Zavodskaya, Elena. 2017. “Soglasheniye o dvoynom grazhdanstve mozhet byt’ podpisano cherez polgoda.” Ekho Kavkaza, December 11. https://www.ekhokavkaza.com/a/28910266.html.

Keywords

Dual Citizenship in De Facto States: Comparative Case Study of Abkhazia and Transnistria

  • Ramesh Ganohariti (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed