Haas, T. de Pierik, H.J. van der Spek, A.J.F. Cohen, K.M. Maanen, B. van and Kleinhans, M.G. 2017. Holocene evolution of tidal systems in the Netherlands: effects of rivers, coastal boundary conditions, eco-engineering species, inherited relief and human interference. Earth-Science Reviews,
Scheder, Juliane Engel, Max Bungenstock, Friederike Pint, Anna Siegmüller, Annette Schwank, Stephan and Brückner, Helmut 2017. Fossil bog soils (‘dwog horizons’) and their relation to Holocene coastal changes in the Jade Weser region, southern North Sea, Germany. Journal of Coastal Conservation,
Yuan, Bing de Swart, Huib E. and Panadès, Carles 2017. Modeling the finite-height behavior of offshore tidal sand ridges, a sensitivity study. Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 137, p. 72.
Yuan, Bing and de Swart, Huib E. 2017. Effect of sea level rise and tidal current variation on the long-term evolution of offshore tidal sand ridges. Marine Geology, Vol. 390, p. 199.
Pierik, H.J. Cohen, K.M. Vos, P.C. van der Spek, A.J.F. and Stouthamer, E. 2017. Late Holocene coastal-plain evolution of the Netherlands: the role of natural preconditions in human-induced sea ingressions. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, Vol. 128, Issue. 2, p. 180.
Brown, Antony G. Tooth, Stephen Bullard, Joanna E. Thomas, David S. G. Chiverrell, Richard C. Plater, Andrew J. Murton, Julian Thorndycraft, Varyl R. Tarolli, Paolo Rose, James Wainwright, John Downs, Peter and Aalto, Rolf 2017. The geomorphology of the Anthropocene: emergence, status and implications. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 71.
van Maren, D.S. Oost, A.P. Wang, Z.B. and Vos, P.C. 2016. The effect of land reclamations and sediment extraction on the suspended sediment concentration in the Ems Estuary. Marine Geology, Vol. 376, p. 147.
Erkens, Gilles van der Meulen, Michiel J. and Middelkoop, Hans 2016. Double trouble: subsidence and CO2 respiration due to 1,000 years of Dutch coastal peatlands cultivation. Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 551.
Griffioen, J. Klaver, G. and Westerhoff, W.E. 2016. The mineralogy of suspended matter, fresh and Cenozoic sediments in the fluvio-deltaic Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt–Ems area, the Netherlands: An overview and review. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 95, Issue. 01, p. 23.
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van den Biggelaar, Don F.A.M. Kluiving, Sjoerd J. Bohncke, Sjoerd J.P. van Balen, Ronald T. Kasse, Cornelis Prins, Maarten A. and Kolen, Jan 2015. Landscape potential for the adoption of crop cultivation: Role of local soil properties and groundwater table rise during 6000–5400 BP in Flevoland (central Netherlands). Quaternary International, Vol. 367, p. 77.
Vos, Peter C. Bunnik, Frans P.M. Cohen, Kim M. and Cremer, Holger 2015. A staged geogenetic approach to underwater archaeological prospection in the Port of Rotterdam (Yangtzehaven, Maasvlakte, The Netherlands): A geological and palaeoenvironmental case study for local mapping of Mesolithic lowland landscapes. Quaternary International, Vol. 367, p. 4.
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2015. NJG volume 94 issue 1 Cover and Front matter. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 94, Issue. 01, p. f1.
Flooding of the southern part of the North Sea occurred between 9000 and 8000 BP, when the rate of relative sea-level rise was on the order of 0.7 cm per year for the Dover Strait Region and 1.6 cm per year for the area north of the Frisian Islands, forcing the shoreline to recede rapidly. When relative sea-level rise decelerated after 7000 BP for the Belgian coast and 6000 BP for the central Netherlands coast, sediment supply by the tidal currents balanced the creation of accommodation space in the estuaries and other back-barrier basins. Consequently, the barrier started to stabilize, and the tidal basins and their inlets silted up. Between 5500 and 4500 BP, the Belgian coastal plain changed into a freshwater marsh with peat accumulation, and the same happened 500–1000 years later in the western provinces of the Netherlands. The E-W running barrier/back-barrier system of the Frisian Islands in the northern Netherlands stayed open until today, however, because of lower sediment supply.
The period between 4000 and 2000 BP was relatively quiet due to the strong deceleration of the rate of sea-level rise; peat cushions developed behind the barriers, which were straightened by erosion of the headlands. Major and often catastrophic flooding occurred in the Middle Ages, when the estuaries in the southwestern part of the Netherlands formed.
About 226 (± 15%) × 109 m3 sediment, mostly sand, is stored in the barriers and back-barrier basins of the Netherlands, 70% of which was deposited prior to 5000 BP. About 10% of the stored sediment is estimated to be of alluvial origin. Most of the sediment is derived by the erosion of the Pleistocene basement during recession of the barriers, but tide-induced crossshore transport from the North Sea forms an additional source for the barriers and back-barriers of the west-facing coast of the Netherlands.
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