Skip to main content Accessibility help

Mapping regional vegetation developments in Twente (the Netherlands) since the Late Glacial and evaluating contemporary settlement patterns

  • R. van Beek (a1), M.T.I.J. Gouw-Bouman (a2) and J.A.A. Bos (a3)


Interdisciplinary, landscape-oriented studies from an archaeological viewpoint in the Low Countries mainly concentrate on cultural and economic research questions. Focal points are the physical setting of settlements and cemeteries, land use patterns and subsistence economy. As a result, the collected data are rather site-based and one-dimensional. As a counterweight, this study aims to look beyond the boundaries of settlements and cemeteries by offering a regional and diachronic perspective on the development of the landscape, vegetation and habitation of Twente (the Netherlands) since the Late Glacial. A detailed search for existing pollen data yielded 125 sites containing information from a wide variety of sampling contexts. A series of six evidence-based regional vegetation maps have been constructed by analysing relations between pollen data, soil data and topography. The maps serve as first-stage generalised models that predict regional trends, allow subsequent testing and place site-specific archaeological data in a wider context. The method developed is applicable to other regions. A comparison with contemporary habitation patterns, based on archaeological and historical data, reveals spatio-temporal trends in human influence on vegetation and in physical factors influencing site location. Five maps have been ‘translated’ into artist impressions.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Mapping regional vegetation developments in Twente (the Netherlands) since the Late Glacial and evaluating contemporary settlement patterns
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Mapping regional vegetation developments in Twente (the Netherlands) since the Late Glacial and evaluating contemporary settlement patterns
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Mapping regional vegetation developments in Twente (the Netherlands) since the Late Glacial and evaluating contemporary settlement patterns
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email:


Hide All
Andersen, S.T., 1970. The relative pollen productivity and pollen representation of north European trees, and correction factors for tree pollen spectra. Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse (ser 2) 96: 199.
Bakels, C.C., 1978. Four linearbandkeramik settlements and their environment: a paleoecological study of Sittard, Stein, Elsloo and Hienheim. Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 11 (Leiden): 244 pp.
Bakels, C.C., 2009. The Western European Loess Belt: Agrarian history, 5300 BC–AD 1000. Springer (Dordrecht): 296 pp.
Bakker, J.A., 1979. The TRB West Group. Studies in the Chronology and Geography of the Makers of Hunebeds and Tiefstich pottery. Cingula V (Amsterdam): 238 pp.
Bakker, J.A., 1982. TRB settlement patterns around the southern North Sea. Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 15: 87124.
Bakker, R., 2003. The emergence of agriculture on the Drenthe Plateau: a palaeobotanical study supported by high-resolution C-14 dating. Archäologische Berichte 16. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Groningen: 305 pp.
Bakker, J.A. & Groenman-van Waateringe, W., 1988. Megaliths, soils and vegetation on the Drenthe Plateau. In: Groenman-van Waateringe, W. & Robinson, M. (eds): Man-made soils. Bar International Series 410, B.A.R. (Oxford): 143181.
Behre, K.-E. (ed.), 1986. Anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams. A.A. Balkema (Rotterdam): 245 pp.
Behre, K.-E., 2000. Frühe Ackersysteme, Düngemethoden und Entstehung der nordwestddeutschen Heiden. Archäologisches Korrespondenblatt 30: 135151.
Behre, K.-E. & Kucan, D., 1986. Die Reflektion archäologisch bekannter Siedlungen in Pollendiagrammen verschiedener Entfernung-Beispiele aus der Siedlungskamer Flögeln, Nordwestdeutschland. In: Behre, K.-E. (ed.): Anthropogenic Indicators in Pollendiagrams, A.A. Balkema (Rotterdam): 95114.
Berglund, B.E., Birks, H.J.B., Ralska-Jasiewiczowa, M. & Wright, H.E. (eds), 1996. Palaeoecological Events During the Last 15.000 Years. Regional Syntheses of Palaeoecological Studies of Lakes and Mires in Europe. Whiley (Chichester): 784 pp.
Blaauw, M., 2003. An investigation of Holocene sun-climate relationships using numerical C-14 wiggle-match dating of peat deposits. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Amsterdam: 107 pp.
Borger, G.J., 1992. Draining – digging – dredging: the creation of a new landscape in the peat areas of the low countries. In: Verhoeven, J.T.A. (ed.): Fens and bogs in the Netherlands; Vegetation, history, nutrient dynamics and conservation. Geobotany 18, Springer (Deventer): 131171.
Bos, J.A.A. & Zuidhoff, F.S., 2011. Het landschap van de Borchert. In: van der Velde, H.M. (ed.): Germanen op de Borchert. Een oude opgraving in Denekamp opnieuw belicht. ADC Roel Brandt Stichting (Amersfoort): 3160.
Bos, J.A.A., Huisman, D.J., Kiden, P., Hoek, W.Z. & van Geel, B., 2005a. Early Holocene environmental change in the Kreekrak area (Zeeland, SW-Netherlands): A multi-proxy analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 227: 259289.
Bos, J.A.A., van Geel, B., Groenewoudt, B.J. & Lauwerier, R.C.G.M., 2005b. Early Holocene environmental change, the presence and disappearance of early Mesolithic habitation near Zutphen (The Netherlands). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 15: 2744.
Bouman, M.T.I.J., Bos, J.A.A. & van Beek, R., 2013. Van wildernis naar cultuurlandschap. Een reconstructie van de regionale vegetatieontwikkeling van Twente in het Holoceen. ADC Rapport 3413 (Amersfoort): 64 pp.
Brandt, R., Groenewoudt, B.J. & Kvamme, K.L., 1992. An experiment in archaeological site location: modelling in the Netherlands using GIS techniques. World Archaeology 24: 268282.
Broström, A., 2002. Estimating source area of pollen and pollen productivity in cultural landscapes of southern Sweden: developing a palynological tool for quantifying past plant cover. Lundqua Thesis 46. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Lund: 116 pp.
Broström, A., Gaillard, M.-J., Ihse, M. & Odgaard, B.V., 1998. Pollen-landscape relationships in modern analogues of ancient cultural landscapes in southern Sweden – a first step towards quantification of vegetation openness in the past. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 7: 189201.
Broström, A., Nielsen, A.B., Gaillard, M.-J., Hjelle, K., Mazier, F., Binney, H., Bunting, J., Fyfe, R., Meltsov, V., Poska, A., Räsänen, S., Soepboer, W., Von Stedingk, H., Suutari, H. & Sugita, S., 2008. Pollen productivity estimates of key European plant taxa for quantitative reconstruction of past vegetation: a review. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 461478.
Bunting, M.J., 2002. Detecting woodland remnants in cultural landscapes: Modern pollen deposition around small woodlands in Northwest Scotland. The Holocene 12: 291301.
Bunting, M.J. & Hjelle, K.L., 2010. Effect of vegetation data collection strategies on estimates of relevant source area of pollen (RSAP) and relative pollen productivity estimates (relative PPE) for non-arboreal taxa. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19: 365374.
Bunting, M.J. & Middleton, D., 2005. Modelling pollen dispersal and deposition using HUMPOL software, including simulating windroses and irregular lakes. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 134: 185196.
Bunting, M.J., Gaillard, M.-J., Sugita, S., Middleton, R. & Broström, A., 2004. Vegetation structure and pollen source area. The Holocene 14: 651660.
Burrichter, E., 1969. Das Zwillbrocker Venn, Westmünsterland, in Moor- und vegetationskundlicher Sicht. Mit einem Beitrag zur Wald- und Siedlungsgeschichte seiner Umgebung. Abhandlungen aus dem Landesmuseum für Naturkunde zu Münster in Westfalen 31–1 (Münster): 60 pp.
Burrichter, E., 1973. Die potentielle natürliche Vegetation in der Westfälischen Bucht. Erläuterungen zur Übersichtskarte 1: 200 000. Landeskundliche Karten und Hefte der Geographischen Kommission für Westfalen, Reihe Siedlung und Landschaft in Westfalen 8 (Münster): 58 pp.
Deeben, J., Hallewas, D.P., Kolen, J. & Wiemer, R., 1997. Beyond the Crystal Ball. Predictive Modelling as a Tool in Archaeological Heritage Management and Occupation History. In: Willems, W.J.H., Kars, H. & Hallewas, D.P. (eds): Archaeological Heritage Management in the Netherlands. Fifty Years State Service for Archaeological Investigations. Van Gorcum/Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek (Assen/Amersfoort): 76118.
Deeben, J., Brinkkemper, O., Groenewoudt, B.J. & Lauwerier, R.C.G.M., 2006. Een Federmesser-site van de Enterse akkers (Gemeente Wierden, Overijssel). In: Groenewoudt, B.J., van Heeringen, R.M. & Scheepstra, G.H. (eds): Het zandeilandenrijk van Overijssel. Bundel verschenen ter gelegenheid van de pensionering van A.D. Verlinde als archeoloog in, voor en van Overijssel. Nederlandse Archeologische Rapporten 22. Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek (Amersfoort): 4982.
de Kort, J.W., 2007. De vegetatieontwikkeling rondom de Zevenbergen bij Oss, circa 1800–500 v. Chr.: een inspiratiebron voor natuurontwikkeling en landschapsbeheer. In: Jansen, R. & Louwe Kooijmans, L.P. (eds): 10 Jaar Archol. Van contract tot wetenschap. Archol BV (Leiden): 221234.
de Rooi, C.-J., 2008. Waar de venen groeiden: de Achterhoek. Historisch-Geografisch Tijdschrift 26: 117129.
Dimbleby, G.W., 1985. The palynology of archaeological sites. Academic Press (London): 176 pp.
Dincauze, D.F., 2000. Environmental Archaeology. Principles and Practice. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge): 587 pp.
Donders, T.H., Bunnik, F.P.M. & Bouman, M.T.I.J., 2010. De Nederlandse biostratigrafie database, v1.0: pollen biozones. TNO Rapport TNO-034-UT-2010-01172 (Delft).
Doorenbosch, M., 2013. Ancestral Heaths. Reconstructing the Barrow Landscape in the Central and Southern Netherlands. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Leiden: 280 pp.
Dupont, L.M. & Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M., 1984. Palaeobotanic and isotopic analysis of Late Subboreal and Early Subatlantic peat from Engbertsdijkveen VII, The Netherlands. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 41: 241271.
Evans, J.G., 2003. Environmental archaeology and the social order. Routledge (London/New York): 296 pp.
Evans, J. & O’Connor, T., 1999. Environmental Archaeology. Principles and Methods. Sutton Publishing (Stroud): 280 pp.
Fyfe, R.M., 2012. Bronze Age landscape dynamics: spatially detailed pollen analysis from a ceremonial complex. Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 27642773.
Fyfe, R.M., Twiddle, C., Sugita, S., Gaillard, M.-J., Barratt, P., Caseldine, C.J., Dodson, J., Edwards, K.J., Farrell, M., Froyd, C., Grant, M.J., Huckerby, E., Innes, J.B., Shaw, H. & Waller, M., 2013. The Holocene vegetation cover of Britain and Ireland: overcoming problems of scale and discerning patterns of openness. Quaternary Science Reviews 73: 132148.
Gaillard, M.-J., Sugita, S., Bunting, M.J., Middleton, R., Broström, A., Caseldine, C., Giesecke, T., Hellman, S.E.V., Hicks, S., Hjelle, K., Langdon, C., Nielsen, A.B., Poska, A., Von Stedingk, H., Veski, S. & Members, P., 2008. The use of modelling and simulation approach in reconstructing past landscapes from fossil pollen data: A review and results from the POLLANDCAL network. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 419443.
Gaillard, M.-J., Sugita, S., Mazier, F., Trondman, A.K., Broström, A., Hickler, T., Kaplan, J.O., Kjellström, E., Kokfelt, U., Kuneš, P., Lemmen, C., Miller, P., Olofsson, J., Poska, A., Rundgren, M., Smith, B., Strandberg, G., Fyfe, R., Nielsen, A.B., Alenius, T., Balakauskas, L., Barnekow, L., Birks, H.J.B., Bjune, A., Björkman, L., Giesecke, T., Hjelle, K., Kalnina, L., Kangur, M., van der Knaap, W.O., Koff, T., Lageras, P., Latałowa, M., Leydet, M., Lechterbeck, J., Lindbladh, M., Odgaard, B.V., Peglar, S., Segerström, U., Von Stedingk, H. & Seppä, H., 2010. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks. Climate of the Past 6: 483499.
Gamble, C., 1986. The Palaeolithic Settlement of Europe. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge): 471 pp.
Gerding, M.A.W., 1995. Vier eeuwen turfwinning. De verveningen in Groningen, Friesland, Drenthe en Overijssel tussen 1550–1950. A.A.G. Bijdragen 35. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wageningen: 533 pp.
Gerrets, D.A., Opbroek, M., & Williams, G.L. (eds), 2012. Onvoltooid verleden. Sporen van meer dan 10.000 jaar menselijke activiteiten langs de Regge bij Nijverdal. ADC-Monografie 13 (Amersfoort): 344 pp.
Gould, S.J., 1986. Evolution and the triumph of homology, or why history matters. American Scientist 74: 6069.
Groenewoudt, B.J., van Haaster, H., van Beek, R. & Brinkkemper, O., 2007. Towards a reverse image. Botanical research into the landscape history of the Eastern Netherlands (1100 B.C.–A.D. 1500). Landscape History 29: 1733.
Grote Historische Atlas, 2005. Grote Historische topografische Atlas ± 1905, Overijssel. Nieuwland (Utrecht): 168 pp.
Hannon, G.E., Bradshaw, R.H.W., Nord, J. & Gustafsson, M., 2008. The Bronze Age landscape of the Bjäre peninsula, southern Sweden, and its relationship to burial mounds. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 623632.
Havinga, A. J., 1967. Palynology and pollen preservation. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 2: 8198.
Heiri, O., Cremer, H., Engels, S., Hoek, W. Z., Peeters, W. & Lotter, A.F., 2007. Lateglacial summer temperatures in the Northwest European lowlands: a chironomid record from Hijkermeer, the Netherlands. Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 24202437.
Hjelle, K.L., Solem, T., Halvorsen, L.S. & Åstveid, L.C., 2012. Human impact and landscape utilization from the Mesolithic to medieval time traced by high spatial resolution pollen analysis and numerical methods. Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 13681379.
Hoek, W.Z., 1997a. Palaeogeography of Lateglacial vegetations. Aspects of Lateglacial and Early Holocene vegetation, abiotic landscape, and climate in The Netherlands. Nederlandse Geografische Studies 230. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utrecht: 147 pp.
Hoek, W.Z., 1997b. Atlas to palaeogeography of Lateglacial vegetations. Maps of Lateglacial and Early Holocene landscape and vegetation in The Netherlands, with an extensive review of available palynological data. Nederlandse Geografische Studies 231 (Utrecht/Amsterdam): 165 pp.
Hoek, W.Z., Bohncke, S.J.P. & Ganssen, G.M., 1999. Lateglacial environmental changes recorded in calcareous gyttja deposits at Gulickshof, southern Netherlands. Boreas 42: 123139.
Huntley, B. & Birks, H.J.B., 1983. An atlas of past and present pollen maps for Europe: 0–13000 years ago. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge): 688 pp.
Isenberg, E., 1979. Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen zur Vegetations- und Siedlungsgeschichte im Gebiet der Graftschaft Bentheim. Abhandlungen aus dem Landesmuseum für Naturkunde zu Münster in Westfalen 41 (Münster): 63 pp.
Jacobson, G.L. & Bradshaw, R.H.W., 1981. The selection of sites for palaeovegetational studies. Quaternary Research 16: 8096.
Janssen, C.R., 1972. The Palaeoecology of plant communities in the Dommel valley, North Brabant, Netherlands. Journal of Ecology 60: 411437.
Janssen, C.R., 1973. Local and regional pollen deposition. In: Birks, H.J.B. & West, R.G. (eds): Quaternary Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications (Oxford): 3142.
Janssen, C.R., 1974. Verkenningen in de palynologie. Oosthoek, Scheltema & Holkema (Utrecht): 176 pp.
Karg, S., 2008. Direct evidence of heathland management in the early Bronze Age (14th century B.C.) from the grave-mound Skelhøj in western Denmark. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 4149.
Kooistra, M.J. & Kooistra, L.I., 2003. Integrated research in archaeology using soil micromorphology and palynology. Catena 54: 603617.
Koster, E.A., 2009. The ‘European Aeolian Sand Belt’: Geoconservation of Drift Sand Landscapes. Geoheritage 1: 93110.
Kuhry, P., 1985. Transgression of a raised bog across a coversand ridge originally covered with an oak-lime forest. Paleoecological study of a Middle Holocene local vegetational succession in the Amtsven (northwest Germany). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 44: 303353.
Lang, G., 1994. Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. Methoden und Ergebnisse. Fisher, (Jena/Stuttgart/New York): 462 pp.
Lenting, J.L., 1853. De boekweit-teelt in Nederland; met eene voorrede van H.C. van Hall. Oomkes (Groningen): 66 pp.
Lohof, E., 1991. Grafritueel en sociale verandering in de bronstijd van Noordoost-Nederland. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Amsterdam: 349 pp.
Loveluck, C. & Dobney, K., 2001. A match made in heaven or a marriage of convenience? The problems and rewards of integrating paleoecological and archaeological data. In: Albarella, U. (ed.): Environmental Archaeology: Meaning and Purpose. Environmental Science and Technology Library 17. Kluwer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht): 149175.
Middeldorp, A.A., 1984. Functional Paleoecology of raised Bogs. An analysis by means of pollen density dating, in connection with the regional forest history. University of Amsterdam, Hugo de Vries-Laboratory (Amsterdam): 124 pp.
Middeldorp, A.A., 1986. Functional palaeoecology of the Hannenmoor raised bog ecosystem – a study of vegetation, history, production and decomposition by means of pollen density dating. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 49: 173.
Munaut, A.-V., 1967. Recherches paleo-ecologiques en Basse et Moyenne Belgique. Acta Geographica Lovaniensia 6 (Louvain): 191 pp.
Neefjes, J. & Willemse, N.W., 2009. Cultuurhistorische Atlas Winterswijk. RAAP BV/Bureau Overland (Utrecht): 192 pp.
Nielsen, A.B., Giesecke, T., Theuerkauff, M., Feeser, I., Behre, K.-E., Beug, H.-J., Chen, S.H., Christiansen, J., Dörfler, W., Endtmann, E., Jahns, S., de Klerk, P., Kühl, N., Latałowa, M., Odgaard, B.V., Rasmussen, P., Stockholm, J.R., Voigt, R., Wiethold, J. & Wolters, S., 2012. Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions. Quaternary Science Reviews 47, 131149.
O’Connor, T., 2001. Economic prehistory or environmental archaeology? On gaining a sense of identity. In: Albarella, U. (ed.): Environmental Archaeology: Meaning and Purpose. Environmental Science and Technology Library 17. Kluwer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht): 1727.
Pott, R., 1984. Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen zur Vegetations- und Siedlungsgeschichte im Gebiet der Borkenberge bei Haltern in Westfalen. Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde 46–2 (Münster): 28 pp.
Raemaekers, D.C.M., 1999. The articulation of a ‘New Neolithic’. The meaning of the Swifterbant Culture for the process of neolithisation in the western part of the North European Plain (4900–3400 BC). Archaeological Studies Leiden University 3. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Leiden: 224 pp.
Scholte Lubberink, H.B.G., 1998. De landschappelijke ligging van archeologische sites uit de steentijd en de Vroege Bronstijd in Noordoost-Twente, Provincie Overijssel. In: Deeben, J. & Drenth, E. (eds): Bijdragen aan het onderzoek naar de Steentijd in Nederland. Verslagen van de ‘Steentijddag’ 1. Rapportage Archeologische Monumentenzorg 68. Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek (Amersfoort): 111122.
Spek, T., 2004. Het Drentse esdorpenlandschap: een historisch-geografische studie. Matrijs (Utrecht): 1100 pp.
Stapert, D., 2005. Het Laat-Paleolithicum in Noord-Nederland. In: Deeben, J., Drenth, E., van Oorsouw, M. & Verhart, L. (eds): De Steentijd van Nederland. Archeologie 11/12. Stichting Archeologie (Meppel): 143170.
Stobbe, A., 1996. Die holozäne Vegetationsgeschichte der nördlichen Wetterau – paläoökologische Untersuchungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung anthropogener Einflüsse. Dissertationes Botanicae 260. Schweizerbart Science Publishers (Berlin): 216 pp.
Succow, M. & Joosten, H., 2001. Landschaftsökologische Moorkunde (Zweite, völllig neu bearbeitete Auflage). Schweizerbart Science Publishers (Stuttgart): 622 pp.
Sugita, S., 1994. Pollen representation of vegetation in Quaternary sediments: Theory and method in patchy vegetation. Journal of Ecology 82: 881897.
Sugita, S., 2007a. Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation I: pollen from large sites REVEALS regional vegetation composition. The Holocene 17: 229241.
Sugita, S., 2007b. Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation II: All you need is LOVE. The Holocene 17: 243257.
Sugita, S., Gaillard, M.-J. & Broström, A., 1999. Landscape openness and pollen records: a simulation approach. The Holocene 9: 409421.
Sugita, S., Hicks, S. & Sormunen, H., 2010a. Absolute pollen productivity and pollen-vegetation relationships in northern Finland. Journal of Quaternary Science 25: 724736.
Sugita, S., Parshall, T., Calcote, R. & Walker, K., 2010b. Testing the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm for spatially explicit reconstruction of vegetation in northern Michigan and Wisconsin. Quaternary Research 74: 289300.
Tolksdorf, J.F. & Kaiser, K., 2012. Holocene aeolian dynamics in the European sand-belt as indicated by geochronological data. Boreas 41: 408421.
van Asch, N., Heiri, O., Bohncke, S.J.P. & Hoek, W.Z., 2013. Climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian Lateglacial Interstadial in the Weerterbos region, the Netherlands. Boreas 42: 123139.
van Beek, R., 2009. Reliëf in tijd en ruimte, Interdisciplinair onderzoek naar bewoning en landschap van Oost-Nederland tussen vroege prehistorie en middeleeuwen. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wagening: 641 pp.
van Beek, R., 2011. Diversity rules. On Late Prehistoric settlement of the Eastern Netherlands and the need for regionally specific models. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 77: 2547.
van Beek, R. & Groenewoudt, B., 2013. An Odyssey along the River Vecht in the Dutch-German border area. A Regional Analysis of Roman-period Sites in Germania Magna. Germania 89: 157190.
van Beek, R. & Louwen, A., 2013. The centrality of urnfields. Second thoughts on structure and stability of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age cultural landscapes in the Low Countries. In: Fontijn, D., Louwen, A.J., van der Vaart, S. & Wentink, K. (eds): Beyond Barrows. Current research on the structuration and perception of the Prehistoric Landscape through Monuments. Sidestone Press (Leiden): 81112.
van Beek, R., Groenewoudt, B.J. & Keunen, L.J., 2014. Establishing the dates of farm sites (A.D. 800–present) in Salland (the Netherlands): an interdisciplinary approach. Journal of Field Archaeology 39: 5166.
van der Hammen, T. & Bakker, J.A., 1971. Former vegetation, landscape and man in the Dinkel valley. In: van der Hammen, T. & Wijmstra, T.A. (eds): The upper Quaternary of the Dinkel valley. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst, Nieuwe Serie 22. Rijks Geologische Dienst (Haarlem): 147158.
van der Hammen, T. & Wijmstra, T.A. (eds), 1971. The upper Quaternary of the Dinkel valley (Twente, Eastern Overijssel, The Netherlands). Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst, Nieuwe Serie 22 (Haarlem): 159 pp.
van der Molen, P.C. & Hoekstra, S.P., 1988. A paleoecological study of a hummuck-hollow complex from Engbertsdijksveen, in the Netherlands. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 56: 213274.
van der Velde, H.M., 2011. Wonen in een grensgebied. Een langetermijngeschiedenis van het Oost-Nederlandse cultuurlandschap (500 v. Chr.–1300 na Chr.). Nederlandse Archeologische Rapporten 40. Ph.D. dissertation, Vrije University Amsterdam: 307 pp.
van der Waals, J.D., 1972. Die durchlochten Rössener Keile und das frühe Neolithicum in Belgien und in den Niederlanden. Fundamenta A 3: 153184.
van Geel, B., 1978. A Paleoecological study of Holocene peat bog sections in Germany and the Netherlands, based on the analysis of pollen, spores and macro- and microscopic remains of fungi, algae, cormophytes and animals. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 25: 1120.
van Geel, B., Bohncke, S.J.P. & Dee, H., 1981. A paleoecological study from an Upper Late Glacial and Holocene sequence from ‘The Borchert’ The Netherlands. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 31: 347448.
van Geel, B., Coope, G. R. & van der Hammen, T., 1989. Paleoecology and stratigraphy of the Lateglacial type section at Usselo (the Netherlands). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 60: 25129.
Vergne, V., Munaut, A.V., Ducrocq, T., Bostyn, F. & Miras, Y., 2004. Apport de la palynology à la connaissance des premières traces d’antropisation en France septrionale et en Belgique. In: Richard, H. (ed.): Néolithisation précoce. Premières traces d’antropisation du couvert végétal à partir des données polliniques. Presses universitaires de Franche-comté (Besançon): 2945.
Verhart, L.B.M., 2000. Times fade away. The neolithisation in the southern Netherlands in an anthropological and geographical perspective. Archaeological Studies Leiden University 6. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Leiden: 257 pp.
Verlinde, A.D., 1973. Two Barrows from the Middle Bronze Age at Gammelke, Municipality of Weerselo, Province of Overijssel. Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek 23: 109122.
Verlinde, A.D., 1987. Die Gräber und Grabfunde der späten Bronzezeit und frühen Eisenzeit in Overijssel. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Leiden: 179 pp.
Werkgroep Historische Kaart van Twente (ed.), 1991. Historische kaart van Twente ca. 1500. Vereniging Oudheidkamer Twente (Enschede): 54 pp.


Mapping regional vegetation developments in Twente (the Netherlands) since the Late Glacial and evaluating contemporary settlement patterns

  • R. van Beek (a1), M.T.I.J. Gouw-Bouman (a2) and J.A.A. Bos (a3)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed