Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy were employed to follow the development of the endodermis in cluster roots and lateral roots of Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. Endodermal cells had three different origins: rootlet endodermis arose from the rootlet meristem; endodermis covering the primordium shortly after initiation came from division of parental endodermis; cells at the junction between parent and rootlet endodermis developed from re-differentiated rootlet cortical cells. In the cluster root, the Casparian band formed in three ways, and was not initially present opposite the two sets of single xylem elements in the rootlet stele. A new clearing technique was developed that allowed visualization of xylem, suberized endodermis, Casparian band formation and phenolic compounds. In lateral roots, endodermal differentiation was asynchronous, but was related to position relative to protoxylem poles. However, the observed delay began before these poles had differentiated. At the tip of mature rootlets, which are determinate, the endodermis terminates in a ‘dome’ of cells, with the initial cell differentiating as an endodermal cell. Results are discussed in terms of determinate development in roots and the spatial and temporal contexts within which this development takes place.
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