Skip to main content
×
×
Home

‘The Worst Oratorio Ever!’: Colonialist Condescension in the Critical Reception of George Tolhurst’s Ruth (1864)

  • Sarah Kirby (a1)
Abstract

The oratorio genre was regarded amongst the most edifying and instructive artforms of the Victorian era, and it was to these lofty ideals that George Tolhurst (1827–1877) aspired when composing his 1864 oratorio Ruth. The first work of its kind written in the British colony of Victoria, Australia, Ruth received an initially favourable local reception; Tolhurst was urged by the Melbourne press to aim higher and present his work to a wider and more discerning audience. Consequently, he took his work to London where it was roundly criticized, widely mocked and eventually dubbed ‘the worst oratorio ever’. It might be assumed that a work so poorly received in the cultural metropolis of London would be, like so much other Victorian music, immediately forgotten. However, through its notoriously bad reception, Ruth – in what Percy Scholes describes as a ‘succès de ridicule’ – found a cult following that has spanned from the nineteenth century to the present day. This article examines the critical reception of Ruth through the lens of colonial social relations, arguing that the treatment of Ruth in both London and Melbourne is emblematic of broader trends in the nineteenth-century relationship between parent state and settler colony. It also explores the surprising phenomenon of twentieth- and twenty-first-century consumption of Ruth in Britain, questioning whether the legacies of certain Victorian social and cultural prejudices relating to the artistic products of the colonies have been mitigated. Aesthetic and representational decisions made in recent revivals of Ruth suggest that cultural hierarchies forged during the Victorian era continue to be reinforced in the present day.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 ‘Past Concerts’, Felsted Choral Society, www.felstedchoralsociety.co.uk/about/ (accessed 8 April 2016).

2 Scholes, Percy, The Mirror of Music, 1844–1944: A Century of Musical Life in Britain as Reflected in the Pages of the Musical Times (London: Novello & Co, 1947): 95 .

3 Scholes, Mirror of Music, 97.

4 Tyson, Lois, Critical Theory Today: A User-friendly Guide (New York: Garland Publishing, 1999): 407 .

5 Radic, Thérèse, ‘The Lost Chord of Australian Culture: Researching Australian Music History’, in A Community of Researchers: Proceedings of the XXIInd Annual Conference, ed. Jane Southcott and Ros Smith (Melbourne: Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2002): 614 ; Skinner, Graeme , ‘Toward a General History of Australian Musical Composition: First National Music 1788–c.1860’ (PhD thesis, University of Sydney, 2011).

6 For a critical survey of some of this literature see, Laidlaw, Zoe, ‘Breaking Britannia’s Bounds? Law, Settlers, and Space in Britain’s Imperial Historiography’, The History Journal 55, no. 3 (2012): 807830 .

7 See, for example, Wolfe, Patrick, Settler Colonialism and the Transformation of Anthropology: The Politics and Poetics of an Ethnographic Event (London: Cassell, 1999); Wolfe, Patrick, ‘Land, Labour, and Difference: Elementary Structures of Race’, American Historical Review 106 (2001): 886905 ; Wolfe, Patrick, ‘Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the Native’, Journal of Genocide Research 8, no. 4 (2006): 387409 .

8 Political and economic relations between settler society and parent state, particularly in the case of the Australian colonies, are far better covered in the literature; for example, there is a wealth of scholarship considering the economic consequences of the 1850s gold rushes, the political relationship between Britain and Australia in the lead up to Australian Federation, and the participation of Australians in Imperial and European wars.

9 Loomba, Ania, Colonialism/Postcolonialism (New York: Routledge, 2005): 14 .

10 Loomba, Colonialism/Postcolonialism, 14.

11 Veracini, Lorenzo, Settler Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010): 18 .

12 Veracini, Settler Colonialism, 7.

13 ‘Convicts and the British Colonies in Australia’, About Australia, www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/convicts-and-the-british-colonies (accessed 17 January 2016).

14 Grant, Robert D., Representations of British Emigration, Colonisation and Settlement Imagining Empire, 1800–1860 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005): xi .

15 Grant, Representations of British Emigration, xiii

16 The early history of white Australia is an area of ongoing scholarly debate, and presenting so inadequate a summary as space here allows risks both over-simplifying the circumstances and minimizing the experience of Indigenous Australians. As Stuart Macintyre explains regarding scholarship on British settlement: ‘its initiation, purpose, efficacy and consequences are all debated more vigorously now than ever before. Was it part of a larger imperial design or an improvisation? Was Australia meant to be a dumping-ground for convicts or a strategic and mercantile base? Did it begin with an ‘indescribable hopelessness and confusion’, as the country’s most eminent historian [Manning Clark] put it, or was it a place of order and redemption? Was it an invasion or peaceful occupation, despoliation or improvement, a place of exile or hope, estrangement or attachment?’ See, Macintyre, Stuart, A Concise History of Australia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999):18 .

17 Marsden, Susan, ‘South Australia’, The Oxford Companion to Australian History, ed. Graeme Davison, John Hirst and Stuart Macintyre (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001). Online at www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195515039.001.0001/acref-9780195515039 (accessed 17 January 2017).

18 John Lack, ‘Victoria’, The Oxford Companion to Australian History (accessed 17 January 2017).

19 Macintyre, Concise History of Australia, 87.

20 Macintyre, Concise History of Australia, 3.

21 See, for example in the case of Victoria works such as Edwin Carton Booth, Another England: Life, Living, Homes, and Homemakers in Victoria (London: Virtue & Co., 1869) and Charles Rooking Carter, Victoria: The British El Dorado; or, Melbourne in 1869 (London: E. Stanford, 1870).

22 White, Richard, ‘The Outsider’s Gaze and the Representation of Australia’, in Australia in the World: Perceptions and Possibilities, ed. Don Grant and Graham Seal (Perth: Black Swan Press, 1994): 24 .

23 White, ‘The Outsider’s Gaze’, 24.

24 From Federation onwards, Australians were described as ‘British subjects’, and the concept of Australian citizenship had no legal meaning until the Nationality and Citizenship Act of 1948. It was not until the end of the 1960s that Australian citizens were no longer legally required to declare their nationality as British, and the Australian Citizenship Amendment Act of 1984 removed the term ‘British subject’ from official usage. See, ‘Citizenship in Australia – Fact sheet 187’, National Archives of Australia, www.naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/fs187.aspx (accessed 16 August 2016).

25 Hassam, Andrew, Through Australian Eyes: Colonial Perceptions of Imperial Britain (Carlton South, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2000): 25 .

26 As described by Roger Covell in the early chapters of Australia’s Music: Themes of a New Society (Melbourne: Sun Books, 1967): 6.

27 Catherine Mackerras, ‘Nathan, Isaac (1790–1864)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/nathan-isaac-2502/text3377 (accessed 18 August 2016).

28 E.J. Lea-Scarlett, ‘Packer, Charles Sandys (Stuart Shipley) (1810–1883)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/packer-charles-sandys-stuart-shipley-4353/text7071 (accessed 18 August 2016).

29 This, despite the efforts of his twentieth-century media-tycoon descendants. Graeme Skinner, ‘Packer, Charles’, Dictionary of Sydney, www.dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/packer_charles (accessed 9 September 2016).

30 Gustavson, Royston, ‘Tolhurst, George’, in The Oxford Companion to Australian Music, ed. Warren Bebbington (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1997): 554 .

31 Kenneth Hince, ‘Allan, George Leavis (1826–1897)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/allan-george-leavis-2875 (accessed 15 April 2016).

32 ‘Memoranda’, The Telegraph, St. Kilda, Prahran and South Yarra Guardian, 30 January 1869.

33 Personal communication with the Tolhurst family.

34 ‘Sad and Fatal Case of Small Pox’, North Devon Herald (Supplement), 25 January 1877, 2.

35 Biographical information provided by Gillian Tolhurst Hall who has kindly allowed access to her extensive and thorough genealogical research.

36 Skinner, ‘Toward a General History of Australian Musical Composition’, 7.

37 The topic of liminality and musicians is an area too large and significant to give adequate attention here. Discussing the social location of professional musicians (performers, rather than composers) Katherine Butler Brown’s, ‘The Social Liminality of Musicians: Case Studies from Mughal India and Beyond’ is ground-breaking in its application of Victor Turner’s theory of liminality to understanding the social hierarchies within which musicians exist. This study provides a model upon which many other societies could be studied. See, Butler Brown, Katherine, ‘The Social Liminality of Musicians: Case Studies from Mughal India and Beyond’, Twentieth-century Music 3 (2007): 1349 .

38 Tolhurst, George, ‘God Preserve Our Sovereign’s Viceroy’, Williams’s Musical Annual and Australian Sketch Book (Melbourne: W.H. Williams, 1858), www.nla.gov.au/apps/cdview/?pi=nla.mus-vn961407-s40-e ; Tolhurst, George, Christmas in Australia (Melbourne: Printed and published for the proprietors by Robert Stewart at the Herald Office, 1864), http://nla.gov.au/nla.mus-vn1941001 ; Tolhurst, George, ‘I Remember’, Williams’s Musical Annual and Australian Sketch Book (Melbourne: W.H. Williams, 1858), www.nla.gov.au/apps/cdview/?pi=nla.mus-vn961407-s27-v .

39 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864.

40 While no full orchestral score survives (making quirks of instrumentation difficult to assess), the full vocal score with piano accompaniment is freely available on the International Music Score Library Project. Further information about the character of the music can be gained by perusal of this score. ‘Ruth, (George Tolhurst)’, IMSLP, http://imslp.org/wiki/Ruth_(Tolhurst,_George) (accessed 17 January 2017).

41 ‘Maidstone’, Musical Standard, 25 December 1869, 308.

42 ‘Ruth’, The Monthly Musical Record, 1 June 1872, 88. (Review of 2nd edition of the score.)

43 ‘Mr. George Tolhurst’s Oratorio’, The Era, 2 February 1868.

44 Lewis, Anthony, ‘Tolhurst’s “Ruth”: Or, amid the Australian Corn’, Musical Times 114, no. 1560 (1973): 142 .

45 Dahlhaus, Carl, Foundations of Music History, trans. J.B. Robinson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983): 154 .

46 ‘Amusements’, Argus, 14 January 1864.

47 Malone, Betty, Discovering Prahran, No.2 (Armadale, Vic.: Prahran Historical & Arts Society, 1999): 7 .

48 Love, Harold, The Golden Age of Australian Opera: W.S. Lyster and His Companies 1861–1880 (Sydney: Currency Press, 1981): 23 .

49 The Royal Melbourne Philharmonic claim to have an ongoing and world-record holding tradition of performing the Messiah, now up to its 236th consecutive performance as of 2015. See, ‘Handel’s Messiah’, Royal Melbourne Philharmonic, http://rmp.org.au/concert/handels-messiah-3/ (accessed 15 April 2016).

50 Stockigt, Janice B., ‘A Study of British Influence on Musical Taste and Programming: New Choral Works Introduced to Audiences by the Melbourne Philharmonic Society, 1876–1901’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review 2, no. 2 (2005): 30 .

51 Carr-Boyd, Ann, Music in Australia, 1788–1888 (Broadway, NSW: Australian Music Centre, 1969): 138 .

52 Love, The Golden Age of Australian Opera, 37.

53 Thérèse Radic, ‘Horsley, Charles Edward (1822–1876)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/horsley-charles-edward-3800/text6021 (accessed 19 August 2016); Carr-Boyd, Music in Australia, 142–3.

54 Albert Carne, William, A Century of Harmony: The Official Centenary History of the Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Society (Melbourne: Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Society, 1954): 5657

55 Brisbane, Katherine, Entertaining Australia (Sydney: Currency Press, 1991): 12 .

56 Stockigt, ‘A Study of British Influence on Musical Taste’, 31

57 Radic, Thérèse, ‘Major Choral Organizations in Late Nineteenth-Century Melbourne’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review 2, no. 2 (2005): 12 . It should also be noted, however, as Kerry Murphy argues in the same issue of Nineteenth Century Music Review, that the influence of German musicians on taste in Melbourne was substantial. See, Murphy, Kerry, ‘Volk von Brüdern’: The German-speaking Liedertafel in Melbourne’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review 2, no. 2 (2005): 5575 .

58 ‘On the Cultivation and Progress of Music in This City’, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 August 1856.

59 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864.

60 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864. The Official Catalogue of the Industrial Department of the 1862 International Exhibition in London lists ‘music compositions’ exhibited by G. P. Tolhurst among the products of Victoria. Besides the puzzling fact that Tolhurst’s middle name was William, it is impossible to say whether these works included Ruth, or extent to which these compositions were critically assessed. See, Official Catalogue of the Industrial Department (London: Truscott, Son, & Simmons 1862): 146.

61 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864.

62 Howard E. Smither, ‘Oratorio’, Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, www.grovemusic.com (accessed 15 April 2016).

63 ‘Inauguration of the Temperance League of Victoria’, Argus, 2 July 1857, 5.

64 ‘The Oratorio of “Ruth”’, Age, 22 January 1864.

65 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864.

66 ‘The Oratorio of “Ruth”’, Age, 22 January 1864.

67 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864.

68 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864.

69 ‘The Oratorio of “Ruth”, Age, 22 January 1864.

70 ‘The Oratorio of “Ruth”, Age, 22 January 1864; ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864.

71 Royle, Jennifer, ‘Musical (Ad)venturers: Colonial Composers and Composition in Melbourne, 1870–1901’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review 2, no. 2 (2005): 134 .

72 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 19 January 1864.

73 Royle, ‘Musical (Ad)venturers’, 135.

74 Campbell Brewer, Francis, The Drama and Music in New South Wales (Sydney: Charles Potter, Govt. Printer, 1892): 95 .

75 Skinner, ‘Toward a General History of Australian Musical Composition’, 27.

76 Wentworh Dilke, Charles, Greater Britain: A Record of Travel in English-speaking Countries During 1866 and 1867 (London: Macmillan, 1872): 55 .

77 Hassam, Through Australian Eyes, 28.

78 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 22 January 1864.

79 The only performance of any part of Ruth in Australia since Tolhurst’s departure in 1866 that I have found was a few short excerpts sung at the South Melbourne church at which Tolhurst’s grandson, the Rev. F.E.H. Tolhurst, was the vicar in 1954. ‘On the Record’, Record, 4 December 1954.

80 ‘Miscellaneous Intelligence’, Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 11, no. 254 (1864): 260.

81 Unsigned, these sorts of reports would usually have been sent from a correspondent within the colony. However, in an edition of the Musical Times from 1874, the editor, Henry C. Lunn, writing on ‘Distant Music’ of the Empire suggests in this piece, ‘we found that the few lines we wrote, based on the announcement of its success in the journals which were forwarded to us, and of course before we could have heard a note of the composition, were re-printed as an opinion of the Musical Times’, suggesting that this indeed was written in England. See, Lunn, Henry C., ‘Distant Music’, Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 15, no. 350 (1872): 432 .

82 Radic, ‘Major Choral Organizations in Late Nineteenth-Century Melbourne’, 5. For example, as Tonic Sol-fa, which could be employed ‘to encourage … the working and middle classes – to embrace their ideals of “good music”’. See, Edward McGuire, Charles, Music and Victorian Philanthropy: The Tonic Sol-Fa Movement (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009): 32 .

83 Scott, Derek B., Sounds of the Metropolis: The Nineteenth-century Popular Music Revolution in London, New York, Paris, and Vienna (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008): 61 .

84 Johnston, Judith and Anderson, Monica, Australia Imagined: Views from the British Periodical Press 1800–1900 (Crawley, W.A.: University of Western Australia Press, 2005): 3 . As Edwin Carton Booth explained in his 1869 survey of the colony of Victoria: ‘Thirty years ago this other England was unknown. Ten years passed away, and it was the small and unimportant offshoot of a third or fourth-rate colony. Ten years more, and it found itself famous. Gold had been discovered within its borders; and in a very short time, wanton extravagance and wicked waste were the chief features pertaining to Victoria and Victorian society. The country has now sown its wild oats, and has settled into a respectable mode of life; a respectability happily attended with competence and comfort’. See, Edwin Carton Booth, Another England: Life, Living, Homes, and Homemakers in Victoria (London: Virtue & Co., 1869): 2 .

85 Quoted in Skinner, ‘Toward a General History of Australian Musical Composition’, 20.

86 Erin Ford Cozens, ‘“With a Pretty Little Garden at the Back”: Domesticity and the Construction of “Civilized” Colonial Spaces in Nineteenth-Century Aotearoa/New Zealand’, Journal of World History 25, no. 4 (2014): 515534 ; here 517.

87 Said, Edward, Culture and Imperialism (New York: Knopf, 1993): xvii .

88 Hughes, Robert, The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia’s Founding (New York: Knopf, 1987): 586 , quoted in Said, Culture and Imperialism, xvi.

89 Myers, Janet C., Antipodal England: Emigration and Portable Domesticity in the Victorian Imagination (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009): 81 .

90 For further discussion of class-liminality in nineteenth-century antipodean colonial society, see Cozens, ‘“With a Pretty Little Garden at the Back’ and Russell, Penny, ‘The Brash Colonial: Class and Comportment in Nineteenth-Century Australia’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 12 (2002): 431453 .

91 ‘Store Street Concert Hall’, The Holborn, St. Pancras, and Bloomsbury Journal, 8 February 1868, 3.

92 ‘Tolhurst’. Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 13, no. 300 (1868): 292–3.

93 ‘Reviews’, Musical Standard, 25 January 1868, 37.

94 ‘Musical Opinion’, Musical Standard, 8 February 1868, 62.

95 Lunn, ‘Distant Music’, 433. As an example of this, Lunn writes of a provincial critic who ‘metaphorically pats Beethoven on the back by saying that his song “Adelaida” is a composition “containing many pleasant surprises”’.

96 ‘“Ruth”, A New Sacred Oratorio’, Argus, 22 January 1864.

97 [Tolhurst, Ruth (oratorio); text by Tolhurst; remarks on the musical content] Musical World 46, no. 5 (1868): 76–7.

98 Ryan, Simon, The Cartographic Eye: How Explorers Saw Australia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996): 107 .

99 Lort Stokes, John, Discoveries in Australia; With an Account of the Coasts and Rivers Explored and Surveyed During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, in the Years 1837–43, vol. 2 (London, 1846): 519 .

100 White, Richard, ‘Cooees Across the Strand: Australian Travellers in London and the Performance of National Identity’, Australian Historical Studies 32, no. 116 (2001): 115 .

101 Musical World 46, no. 5 (1868): 76–7.

102 Edward Horsley, Charles, ‘From the Antipodes’, Musical World 47, no. 11 (1869): 171172 . Horsley goes on to categorically respond to each of the article’s claims: ‘The charge of “standing on our heads” is no doubt funny, but, as you live also at the Antipodes to us, we may exclaim, “tu quoque”. The oft repeated remark about the “kernels of certain fruits” growing outside, applied to one particular genus only, which is quite inedible, if not poisonous; and, as the country is more opened up, it is fast dying out’.

103 Horsley, ‘From the Antipodes’, 171–2.

104 Although this was not encouraged by Horsley himself, who ‘entreated Mr. Tollhurst [sic] not to be rash. Charybdis he found in Melbourne. Scylla I warned him against in London. He has rushed on one and has met the other; and the wind being sown in Victoria, he has reaped the whirlwind in England’. Ruth was submitted for performance by the Melbourne Philharmonic while Horsley was conductor but was rejected. Horsley, ‘From the Antipodes’, 171–2.

105 It was a common perception that Australians were humourless. See, Hassam, Through Australian Eyes, 163.

106 ‘Rochester’, Musical World 50, no. 2 (1872): 28; ‘Chatham’, Musical World 49, no. 45 (1871): 726; ‘Entreat me not to leave thee’, The Musical World 50, no. 9 (1872): 145.

107 ‘Maidstone’, Musical Standard, 25 December 1869, 308.

108 ‘Maidstone’, Musical World 48, no. 1 (1870): 6.

109 ‘Maidstone’, Musical World 48, no. 44 (1870): 726.

110 ‘Miscellaneous’, The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 16, no. 364 (1873): 109.

111 Rodmell, Paul, ‘James Mapleson and the National Opera House’, in Music and Institutions in Nineteenth-Century Britain, ed. Paul Rodmell (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012): 108 , n. 28.

112 Thaddeus Egg [Joseph Bennett], ‘Mr. George Tolhurst and Ruth’, Musical World 46, no. 13 (1868): 222.

113 ‘Musical Opinion’, Musical Standard, 8 February 1868, 62.

114 Love, Harold, ‘How Music Created a Public’, Criticism 46, no. 2 (2004): 267 .

115 Johnson, James H., Listening in Paris: A Cultural History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995): 5 .

116 Leanne Langley, ‘Britain: To 1890’ in ‘Criticism, II: History to 1945’, Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, www.grovemusic.com (accessed 5 April 2017).

117 Hall, Catherine, Civilising Subjects: Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination, 1830–1867 (Oxford: Polity, 2002): 12 .

118 Quoted in Hall, Civilising Subjects, 10.

119 According to Pierre Bourdieu, as described by Fred Everett Maus in ‘Criticism, I: General Issues’, Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, www.grovemusiconline.com (accessed 19 January 2017). The quoted material above is Maus describing Bourdieu’s position.

120 Brown, David, ‘From Elijah (1846) to The Kingdom (1906): Music and Scripture Interacting in the Nineteenth-Century English Oratorio’, Music and Theology in Nineteenth-Century Britain, ed. Bennett Zon and Martin Clarke (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012): 186 .

121 Hale, William, ‘Ruth by George Tolhurst, 1864: “The Worst Oratorio in the World!”’, programme notes, Cambridge: Tolhurst Project Organizing Committee, 2007 .

122 Unknown correspondent, [holograph], n.d., manuscript letter in possession of the author; John E. Prout [holograph], 25 April 1921, in possession of the author. I found Shore’s rebound edition for sale in Travis & Emery’s Music Bookshop in Covent Garden in September 2016 (I was alerted to its existence by Will Hale, to whom I am extremely grateful). It contains a wealth of letters and comments from many prominent British organists and musicians of the 1920s, biographical research Shore conducted into George Tolhurst, and a large collection of transcribed reviews of Ruth’s London premiere.

123 Samuel Royle Shore [typescript], 25 October 1920, in possession of the author.

124 Festes, , ‘Interludes’, Musical Times 61, no. 923 (1920): 21 .

125 Mary Tolhurst-Paton [holograph] to S. Royle Shore, 16 February 1932, in author’s possession. Tolhurst-Paton’s emphasis.

126 Scholes, Mirror of Music, 95.

127 Scholes, Mirror of Music, 97.

128 Roger Lawrence, email to author, 19 April 2016.

129 Roger Lawrence, email to author, 19 April 2016. Richard Drakeford (1936–2009) composer, Organ Scholar at Worcester College and later Director Of Music at Harrow School.

130 Roger Lawrence, email to author, 19 April 2016. Christopher Robinson (b. 1936), Organ Scholar, Christchurch, later organist of Worcester, Music Director at St John’s Cambridge; Steuart Wilson (1889–1966), tenor.

131 J.H.K.,Centenary Year of a Curiosity’, Guardian, 30 March 1964, 8 .

132 Aprahamian, Felix, ‘Pleasures of Eccentricity’, The Sunday Times, 14 June 1964, 36 .

133 P.H.S.The Times Diary’, The Times, 20 February 1973, 14 .

134 Chissell, Joan, ‘Academy Gleans a Comic Sheaf’, The Times, 7 March 1973, 11 ; P.H.S. ‘The Times Diary’, The Times, 20 February 1973, 14 .

135 ‘Ruth Revived by Many Hands’, Guardian, 20 February 1973, 13.

136 Lewis, ‘Tolhurst’s “Ruth”: Or, amid the Australian Corn’, 142.

137 Lewis, ‘Tolhurst’s “Ruth”: Or, amid the Australian Corn’, 142.

138 Hale, William, ‘Ruth by George Tolhurst, 1864: “The Worst Oratorio in the World!”’, programme notes, Cambridge: Tolhurst Project Organizing Committee, 2007 .

139 William Hale, email to author, 18 April 2016; Comic Relief is a British charity established in 1985 to combat poverty by fundraising through entertainment, ‘About Us’, Comic Relief, www.comicrelief.com/faqs.

140 ‘Horrotorio Lined up As Fundraiser’, Cambridge News, www.cambridge-news.co.uk/Horrortorio-lined-fundraiser/story-22486652-detail/story.html#ixzz41oW4xm1k (accessed 22 April 2016).

141 P.H.S. ‘The Times Diary’, The Times, 20 February 1973, 14.

142 Slonimsky, Nicolas, Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers since Beethoven’s Time (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969).

143 J.H.K., ‘Centenary Year of a Curiosity’, The Guardian, 30 March 1964, 8 .

144 Tolhurst, George, ‘The Oratorio, “Ruth”’, Musical Standard, 8 February 1868, 65 .

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nineteenth-Century Music Review
  • ISSN: 1479-4098
  • EISSN: 2044-8414
  • URL: /core/journals/nineteenth-century-music-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed