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Virtual reality as a distraction technique for pain and anxiety among patients with breast cancer: A randomized control trial

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 September 2018

Eslam Bani Mohammad
School of Nursing, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Muayyad Ahmad*
School of Nursing, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Author for correspondence: Muayyad Ahmad, Ph.D., R.N., Clinical Nursing Department, School of Nursing, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan 11942. E-mail:;



The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of immersive virtual reality (VR) distraction technology in reducing pain and anxiety among female patients with breast cancer.


A randomized control trial design was used with a sample of 80 female patients with breast cancer at a specialized cancer center in Jordan. Participants were randomly assigned into intervention and comparison groups.


The study findings showed that one session of the immersive VR plus morphine made a significant reduction in pain and anxiety self-reported scores, compared with morphine alone, in breast cancer patients.

Significance of results

Immersive VR is an effective distraction intervention for managing pain and anxiety among breast cancer patients. Using immersive VR as an adjuvant intervention is more effective than morphine alone in relieving pain and anxiety; furthermore, VR is a safe intervention more than pharmacological treatment.

Original Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

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