Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Human Metacognition Across Domains: Insights from Individual Differences and Neuroimaging

  • Marion Rouault (a1), Andrew McWilliams (a1) (a2) (a3), Micah G. Allen (a1) and Stephen M. Fleming (a1) (a4)

Abstract

Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate and control one’s own cognitive processes. Metacognition operates over a range of cognitive domains, such as perception and memory, but the neurocognitive architecture supporting this ability remains controversial. Is metacognition enabled by a common, domain-general resource that is recruited to evaluate performance on a variety of tasks? Or is metacognition reliant on domain-specific modules? This article reviews recent literature on the domain-generality of human metacognition, drawing on evidence from individual differences and neuroimaging. A meta-analysis of behavioral studies found that perceptual metacognitive ability was correlated across different sensory modalities, but found no correlation between metacognition of perception and memory. However, evidence for domain-generality from behavioral data may suffer from a lack of power to identify correlations across model parameters indexing metacognitive efficiency. Neuroimaging data provide a complementary perspective on the domain-generality of metacognition, revealing co-existence of neural signatures that are common and distinct across tasks. We suggest that such an architecture may be appropriate for “tagging” generic feelings of confidence with domain-specific information, in turn forming the basis for priors about self-ability and modulation of higher-order behavioral control.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Human Metacognition Across Domains: Insights from Individual Differences and Neuroimaging
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Human Metacognition Across Domains: Insights from Individual Differences and Neuroimaging
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Human Metacognition Across Domains: Insights from Individual Differences and Neuroimaging
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-ncnd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Stephen M. Fleming, E-mail: stephen.fleming@ucl.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Ais, J., Zylberberg, A., Barttfeld, P.Sigman, M. (2016). Individual consistency in the accuracy and distribution of confidence judgments. Cognition, 146, 377386. 10.1016/j.cognition.2015.10.006
Allen, M., Frank, D., Schwarzkopf, D. S., Fardo, F., Winston, J. S., Hauser, T. U., & Rees, G. (2016). Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence. eLife, 5, e18103. 10.7554/eLife.18103
Allen, M., Glen, J. C., Müllensiefen, D., Schwarzkopf, D. S., Fardo, F., Frank, D., … Rees, G. (2017). Metacognitive ability correlates with hippocampal and prefrontal microstructure. NeuroImage, 149, 415423. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.02.008
Alter, A. L.Oppenheimer, D. M. (2009). Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 219235. 10.1177/1088868309341564
Arbuckle, T. Y.Cuddy, L. L. (1969). Discrimination of item strength at time of presentation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 126131. 10.1037/h0027455
Baird, B., Cieslak, M., Smallwood, J., Grafton, S. T.Schooler, J. W. (2015). Regional white matter variation associated with domain-specific metacognitive accuracy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(3), 440452. 10.1162/jocn_a_00741
Baird, B., Mrazek, M. D., Phillips, D. T.Schooler, J. W. (2014). Domain-specific enhancement of metacognitive ability following meditation training. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 19721979. 10.1037/a0036882
Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Gorgolewski, K. J.Margulies, D. S. (2013). Medial and lateral networks in anterior prefrontal cortex support metacognitive ability for memory and perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 1665716665. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0786-13.2013
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191215. 10.1016/0146-6402(78)90002-4
Bang, D., Aitchison, L., Moran, R., Castanon, S. H., Rafiee, B., Mahmoodi, A., … Summerfield, C. (2017). Confidence matching in group decision-making. Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 0117. 10.1038/s41562-017-0117
Bang, D.Fleming, S. M. (2018). Dissociating decision confidence from evidence reliability in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(23), 60826087. 10.1101/251330
Barch, D. M. (2017). The neural correlates of transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(7), 613615. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17030289
Benjamin, A. S., Bjork, R. A.Schwartz, B. L. (1998). The mismeasure of memory: When retrieval fluency is misleading as a metamnemonic index. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 5568. 10.1037/0096-3445.127.1.55
Boldt, A., de Gardelle, V.Yeung, N. (2017). The impact of evidence reliability on sensitivity and bias in decision confidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 43, 15201531. 10.1037/xhp0000404
Bornstein, B. H.Zickafoose, D. J. (1999). “I know I know it, I know I saw it”: The stability of the confidence–accuracy relationship across domains. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 5, 7688. 10.1037/1076-898X.5.1.76
Chapman, S., Colvin, L. E., Vuorre, M., Cocchini, G., Metcalfe, J., Huey, E. D., & Cosentino, S. (2018). Cross domain self-monitoring in anosognosia for memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 101, 221233. 10.1016/j.cortex.2018.01.019
Chiappe, D.MacDonald, K. (2005). The evolution of domain-general mechanisms in intelligence and learning. The Journal of General Psychology, 132, 540. 10.3200/GENP.132.1.5-40
Chua, E. F.Bliss-Moreau, E. (2016). Knowing your heart and your mind: The relationships between metamemory and interoception. Consciousness and Cognition, 45, 146158. 10.1016/j.concog.2016.08.015
Chua, E. F., Pergolizzi, D.Weintraub, R. R. (2014). The cognitive neuroscience of metamemory monitoring: Understanding metamemory processes, subjective levels expressed, and metacognitive accuracy. In S. M. Fleming & C. D. Frith (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of metacognition (pp. 267–291). Berlin: Springer.
Clarke, F. R., Birdsall, T. G.Tanner, W. P. Jr. (1959). Two types of ROC curves and definitions of parameters. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 31, 629630. 10.1121/1.1907764
Clithero, J. A.Rangel, A. (2013). Informatic parcellation of the network involved in the computation of subjective value. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 12891302. 10.1093/scan/nst106
Cocchini, G., Beschin, N., Fotopoulou, A.Sala, Della, S. (2010). Explicit and implicit anosognosia or upper limb motor impairment. Neuropsychologia, 48, 14891494. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.01.019
Cortese, A., Amano, K., Koizumi, A., Kawato, M.Lau, H. (2016). Multivoxel neurofeedback selectively modulates confidence without changing perceptual performance. Nature Communications, 7, 13669. 10.1038/ncomms13669
Cosentino, S., Metcalfe, J., Butterfield, B.Stern, Y. (2007). Objective metamemory testing captures awareness of deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 43, 10041019. 10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70697-X
David, A. S. (1990). Insight and psychosis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 798808. 10.1192/bjp.156.6.798
de Gardelle, V., Le Corre, F.Mamassian, P. (2016). Confidence as a common currency between vision and audition. PLoS One, 11, e0147901e0147911. 10.1371/journal.pone.0147901
de Gardelle, V.Mamassian, P. (2014). Does confidence use a common currency across two visual tasks? Psychological Science, 25, 12861288. 10.1177/0956797614528956
Dehaene, S., Posner, M. I.Tucker, D. M. (1994). Localization of a neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 5, 303305. 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1994.tb00630.x
De Martino, B., Fleming, S. M., Garrett, N.Dolan, R. J. (2013). Confidence in value-based choice. Nature Neuroscience, 16, 105110. 10.1038/nn.3279
Donoso, M., Collins, A. G. E.Koechlin, E. (2014). Foundations of human reasoning in the prefrontal cortex. Science, 344, 14811486. 10.1126/science.1252254
Duncan, J. (2010). The multiple-demand (MD) system of the primate brain: Mental programs for intelligent behaviour. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 172179. 10.1016/j.tics.2010.01.004
Dunlosky, J.Metcalfe, J. (2008). Metacognition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Elliott, R., Sahakian, B. J., McKay, A. P., Herrod, J. J., Robbins, T. W.Paykel, E. S. (1996). Neuropsychological impairments in unipolar depression: The influence of perceived failure on subsequent performance. Psychological Medicine, 26, 975989. 10.1017/S0033291700035303
Faivre, N., Filevich, E., Solovey, G., Kühn, S.Blanke, O. (2018). Behavioural, modeling, and electrophysiological evidence for supramodality in human metacognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 38, 263277. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0322-17.2017
Fetsch, C. R., Kiani, R., Newsome, W. T.Shadlen, M. N. (2014). Effects of cortical microstimulation on confidence in a perceptual decision. Neuron, 83, 797804. 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.07.011
Fitzgerald, L. M., Arvaneh, M.Dockree, P. M. (2017). Domain-specific and domain-general processes underlying metacognitive judgments. Consciousness and Cognition, 49, 264277. 10.1016/j.concog.2017.01.011
Fleck, M. S., Daselaar, S. M., Dobbins, I. G.Cabeza, R. (2006). Role of prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions in decision-making processes shared by memory and nonmemory tasks. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 16231630. 10.1093/cercor/bhj097
Fleming, S. M. (2017). HMeta-d: Hierarchical Bayesian estimation of metacognitive efficiency from confidence ratings. Neuroscience of Consciousness, 2017(1), 114. 10.1093/nc/nix007
Fleming, S. M.Daw, N. D. (2017). Self-evaluation of decision-making: A general Bayesian framework for metacognitive computation. Psychological Review, 124, 91114. 10.1037/rev0000045
Fleming, S. M.Dolan, R. J. (2012). The neural basis of metacognitive ability. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 367, 13381349. 10.1098/rstb.2011.0417
Fleming, S. M.Lau, H. (2014). How to measure metacognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(443), 19. 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00443/abstract
Fleming, S. M., Huijgen, J.Dolan, R. J. (2012). Prefrontal contributions to metacognition in perceptual decision making. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 61176125. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6489-11.2012
Fleming, S. M., Ryu, J., Golfinos, J. G.Blackmon, K. E. (2014). Domain-specific impairment in metacognitive accuracy following anterior prefrontal lesions. Brain, 137, 28112822. 10.1093/brain/awu221
Fleming, S. M., Weil, R. S., Nagy, Z., Dolan, R. J.Rees, G. (2010). Relating introspective accuracy to individual differences in brain structure. Science, 329, 15411543. 10.1126/science.1191883
Fotopoulou, A., Tsakiris, M., Haggard, P., Vagopoulou, A., Rudd, A.Kopelman, M. (2008). The role of motor intention in motor awareness: An experimental study on anosognosia for hemiplegia. Brain, 131, 34323442. 10.1093/brain/awn225
Galvin, S. J., Podd, J. V., Drga, V.Whitmore, J. (2003). Type 2 tasks in the theory of signal detectability: Discrimination between correct and incorrect decisions. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 10, 843876. 10.3758/BF03196546
Garfinkel, S. N., Manassei, M. F., Hamilton-Fletcher, G., In den Bosch, Y., Critchley, H. D.Engels, M. (2016). Interoceptive dimensions across cardiac and respiratory axes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 371, 20160014. 10.1098/rstb.2016.0014
Gehring, W. J., Goss, B., Coles, M. G., Meyer, D. E.Donchin, E. (1993). A neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 4, 385390. 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1993.tb00586.x
Gherman, S.Philiastides, M. G. (2017). Human VMPFC encodes early signatures of confidence in perceptual decisions. bioRxiv, 224337. 10.1101/224337
Hanks, T. D., Mazurek, M. E., Kiani, R., Hopp, E.Shadlen, M. N. (2011). Elapsed decision time affects the weighting of prior probability in a perceptual decision task. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 63396352. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5613-10.2011
Harty, S., OConnell, R. G., Hester, R.Robertson, I. H. (2013). Older adults have diminished awareness of errors in the laboratory and daily life. Psychology and Aging, 28, 10321041. 10.1037/a0033567
Hauser, T. U., Allen, M., Purg, N., Moutoussis, M., Rees, G.Dolan, R. J. (2017). Noradrenaline blockade specifically enhances metacognitive performance. eLife, 6, e24901. 10.7554/eLife.24901.001
Heereman, J., Walter, H.Heekeren, H. R. (2015). A task-independent neural representation of subjective certainty in visual perception. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 551. 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00551
Hilgenstock, R., Weiss, T.Witte, O. W. (2014). You’d better think twice: Post-decision perceptual confidence. NeuroImage, 99, 323331. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.049
Janowsky, J. S., Shimamura, A. P.Squire, L. R. (1989). Memory and metamemory: Comparisons between patients with frontal lobe lesions and amnesic patients. Psychobiology, 17, 311. 10.3758/BF03337811
Kanai, R., Walsh, V.Tseng, C. H. (2010). Subjective discriminability of invisibility: A framework for distinguishing perceptual and attentional failures of awareness. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 10451057. 10.1016/j.concog.2010.06.003
Kanazawa, S. (2004). General intelligence as a domain-specific adaptation. Psychological Review, 111, 512523. 10.1037/0033-295X.111.2.512
Kelemen, W. L., Frost, P. J.Weaver, C. A. (2000). Individual differences in metacognition: Evidence against a general metacognitive ability. Memory & Cognition, 28, 92107. 10.3758/BF03211579
Kepecs, A., Uchida, N., Zariwala, H. A.Mainen, Z. F. (2008). Neural correlates, computation and behavioural impact of decision confidence. Nature, 455, 227231. 10.1038/nature07200
Kiani, R., Corthell, L.Shadlen, M. N. (2014). Choice certainty is informed by both evidence and decision time. Neuron, 84, 13291342. 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.015
Kiani, R.Shadlen, M. N. (2009). Representation of confidence associated with a decision by neurons in the parietal cortex. Science, 324, 759764. 10.1126/science.1169405
Kievit, R. A., Lindenberger, U., Goodyer, I. M., Jones, P. B., Fonagy, P., Bullmore, E. T., … Dolan, R. J. (2017). Mutualistic coupling between vocabulary and reasoning supports cognitive development during late adolescence and early adulthood. Psychological Science, 28, 14191431. 10.1177/0956797617710785
Klein, S. B., Altinyazar, V.Metz, M. A. (2013). Facets of self in schizophrenia: The reliability and accuracy of trait self-knowledge. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 276289. 10.1177/2167702612474263
Koriat, A.Levy-Sadot, R. (2001). The combined contributions of the cue-familiarity and accessibility heuristics to feelings of knowing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 3453. 10.1037//0278-7393.27.1.34
Lak, A., Costa, G. M., Romberg, E., Koulakov, A. A., Mainen, Z. F.Kepecs, A. (2014). Orbitofrontal cortex is required for optimal waiting based on decision confidence. Neuron, 84, 190201. 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.039
Lebreton, M., Abitbol, R., Daunizeau, J.Pessiglione, M. (2015). Automatic integration of confidence in the brain valuation signal. Nature Neuroscience, 18(8), 11591167. 10.1038/nn.4064
Lemaitre, A.-L., Herbet, G., Duffau, H.Lafargue, G. (2017). Preserved metacognitive ability despite unilateral or bilateral anterior prefrontal resection. Brain and Cognition, 120, 4857. 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.004
Maniscalco, B.Lau, H. (2012). A signal detection theoretic approach for estimating metacognitive sensitivity from confidence ratings. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(1), 422430. 10.1016/j.concog.2011.09.021
Maniscalco, B., McCurdy, L. Y., Odegaard, B.Lau, H. (2017). Limited cognitive resources explain a trade-off between perceptual and metacognitive vigilance. Journal of Neuroscience, 37, 12131224. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2271-13.2016
Masson, M. E. J.Rotello, C. M. (2009). Sources of bias in the Goodman–Kruskal gamma coefficient measure of association: Implications for studies of metacognitive processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 509527. 10.1037/a0014876
McCurdy, L. Y., Maniscalco, B., Metcalfe, J., Liu, K. Y., de Lange, F. P.Lau, H. (2013). Anatomical coupling between distinct metacognitive systems for memory and visual perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 18971906. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1890-12.2013
Meuwese, J. D., van Loon, A. M., Lamme, V. A.Fahrenfort, J. J. (2014). The subjective experience of object recognition: Comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76, 10571068. 10.3758/s13414-014-0643-1
Meyniel, F., Schlunegger, D.Dehaene, S. (2015). The sense of confidence during probabilistic learning: A normative account. PLoS Computational Biology, 11, e1004305. 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004305
Modirrousta, M.Fellows, L. K. (2008). Medial prefrontal cortex plays a critical and selective role in “feeling of knowing” meta-memory judgments. Neuropsychologia, 46, 29582965. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.06.011
Morales, J., Lau, H.Fleming, S. M. (2018). Domain-general and domain-specific patterns of activity support metacognition in human prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 38(14), 35343546. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2360-17.2018
Moritz, S., Ramdani, N., Klass, H., Andreou, C., Jungclaussen, D., Eifler, S., … Zink, M. (2014). Overconfidence in incorrect perceptual judgments in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, 1, 165170. 10.1016/j.scog.2014.09.003
Moro, V., Scandola, M., Bulgarelli, C., Avesani, R.Fotopoulou, A. (2015). Error-based training and emergent awareness in anosognosia for hemiplegia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 25, 593616. 10.1080/09602011.2014.951659
Nair, A., Palmer, E. C., Aleman, A.David, A. S. (2014). Relationship between cognition, clinical and cognitive insight in psychotic disorders: A review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 152, 191200. 10.1016/j/schres.2013.11.033
Navajas, J., Hindocha, C., Foda, H., Keramati, M., Latham, P. E.Bahrami, B. (2017). The idiosyncratic nature of confidence. Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 810818. 10.1038/s41562-017-0215-1
Nelson, T. O.Narens, L. (1990). Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 26, 125173. 10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60053-5
Orfei, M. D., Blundo, C., Celia, E., Casini, A. R., Caltagirone, C., Spalletta, G., & Varsi, A. E. (2010). Anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease: Frequency and neuropsychological correlates. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 11331140. 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181dd1c50
Palmer, E. C., David, A. S.Fleming, S. M. (2014). Effects of age on metacognitive efficiency. Consciousness and Cognition, 28, 151160. 10.1016/j.concog.2014.06.007
Pannu, J. K.Kaszniak, A. W. (2005). Metamemory experiments in neurological populations: A review. Neuropsychology Review, 15, 105130. 10.1007/s11065-005-7091-6
Paulus, M. P., Huys, Q. J.Maia, T. V. (2016). A Roadmap for the development of applied computational psychiatry. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 1(5), 386392. 10.1016/j.bpsc.2016.05.001
Peirce, C. S.Jastrow, J. (1884). On small differences in sensation. Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, 3, 7583.
Peters, M. A., Fesi, J., Amendi, N., Knotts, J. D., Lau, H.Ro, T. (2017). Transcranial magnetic stimulation to visual cortex induces suboptimal introspection. Cortex, 93, 119132. 10.1016/j.cortex.2017.05.017
Pleskac, T. J.Busemeyer, J. R. (2010). Two-stage dynamic signal detection: A theory of choice, decision time, and confidence. Psychological Review, 117, 864901. 10.1037/a0019737
Pouget, A., Drugowitsch, J.Kepecs, A. (2016). Confidence and certainty: Distinct probabilistic quantities for different goals. Nature Neuroscience, 19, 366374. 10.1038/nn.4240
Rahnev, D., Koizumi, A., McCurdy, L. Y., D’Esposito, M.Lau, H. (2015). Confidence leak in perceptual decision making. Psychological Science, 26, 16641680. 10.1177/0956797615595037
Rahnev, D. A., Maniscalco, B., Luber, B., Lau, H.Lisanby, S. H. (2011). Direct injection of noise to the visual cortex decreases accuracy but increases decision confidence. Journal of Neurophysiology, 107, 15561563. 10.1152/jn.00985.2011
Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A.McKoon, G. (2010). Individual differences, aging, and IQ in two-choice tasks. Cognitive Psychology, 60, 127157. 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.09.001
Reyes, G., Silva, J. R., Jaramillo, K., Rehbein, L.Sackur, J. (2015). Self-knowledge dim-out: Stress impairs metacognitive accuracy. PLoS One, 10, e0132320. 10.1371/journal.pone.0132320
Richter, F. R., Cooper, R. A., Bays, P. M.Simons, J. S. (2016). Distinct neural mechanisms underlie the success, precision, and vividness of episodic memory. eLife, 5, e18260. 10.7554/eLife.18260
Ritchie, S. J., Bates, T. C., Der, G., Starr, J. M.Deary, I. J. (2013). Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed. Psychology and Aging, 28, 515521. 10.1037/a0030820
Rouault, M., Seow, T., Gillan, C. M.Fleming, S. M. (2018). Psychiatric symptom dimensions are associated with dissociable shifts in metacognition but not task performance. Biological Psychiatry, 84(6), 443451. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.12.017
Rounis, E., Maniscalco, B., Rothwell, J. C., Passingham, R. E.Lau, H. (2010). Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal cortex impairs metacognitive visual awareness. Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 165175. 10.1080/17588921003632529
Ruby, E., Giles, N.Lau, H. (2017). Finding domain-general metacognitive mechanisms requires using appropriate tasks. bioRxiv, 211805. 10.1101/211805
Sadeghi, S., Ekhtiari, H., Bahrami, B.Ahmadabadi, M. N. (2017). Metacognitive deficiency in a perceptual but not a memory task in methadone maintenance patients. Scientific Reports, 7, 7052. 10.1038/s41598-017-06707-w
Samaha, J.Postle, B. R. (2017). Correlated individual differences suggest a common mechanism underlying metacognition in visual perception and visual short-term memory. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 284(1867), 20172035. 10.1098/rspb.2017.2035
Schnyer, D. M., Verfaellie, M., Alexander, M. P., LaFleche, G., Nicholls, L.Kaszniak, A. W. (2004). A role for right medial prefrontal cortex in accurate feeling-of-knowing judgments: Evidence from patients with lesions to frontal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 42, 957966. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.11.020
Shimamura, A. P.Squire, L. R. (1986). Memory and metamemory: A study of the feeling-of-knowing phenomenon in amnesic patients. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12(3), 452460. 10.1037/0278-7393.12.3.452
Song, C., Kanai, R., Fleming, S. M., Weil, R. S., Schwarzkopf, D. S.Rees, G. (2011). Relating inter-individual differences in metacognitive performance on different perceptual tasks. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 17871792. 10.1016/j.concog.2010.12.011
Stephan, K. E., Manjaly, Z. M., Mathys, C. D., Weber, L. A. E., Paliwal, S., Gard, T., … Petzschner, F. H. (2016). Allostatic self-efficacy: A metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 550. 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00550
Stone, J., Pal, S., Blackburn, D., Reuber, M., Thekkumpurath, P.Carson, A. (2015). Functional (psychogenic) cognitive disorders: A perspective from the neurology clinic. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 48(Suppl. 1), S5S17. 10.3233/JAD-150430
Thompson, W. B.Mason, S. E. (1996). Instability of individual differences in the association between confidence judgments and memory performance. Memory & Cognition, 24, 226234. 10.3758/BF03200883
Valk, S. L., Bernhardt, B. C., Böckler, A., Kanske, P.Singer, T. (2016). Substrates of metacognition on perception and metacognition on higher-order cognition relate to different subsystems of the mentalizing network. Human Brain Mapping, 37(10), 33883399. 10.1002/hbm.23247
van den Berg, R., Anandalingham, K., Zylberberg, A., Kiani, R., Shadlen, M. N.Wolpert, D. M. (2016). A common mechanism underlies changes of mind about decisions and confidence. eLife, 2016, 136. 10.7554/eLife.12192.001
Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36(3), 148. 10.18637/jss.v036.i03
Wells, A., Fisher, P., Myers, S., Wheatley, J., Patel, T.Brewin, C. R. (2012). Metacognitive therapy in treatment-resistant depression: A platform trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 367373. 10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.004
West, R. F.Stanovich, K. E. (1997). The domain specificity and generality of overconfidence: Individual differences in performance estimation bias. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 387392. 10.3758/BF03210798
Woolgar, A., Parr, A., Cusack, R., Thompson, R., Nimmo-Smith, I., Torralva, T., … Duncan, J. (2010). Fluid intelligence loss linked to restricted regions of damage within frontal and parietal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 1489914902. 10.1073/pnas.1007928107
Ye, Q., Zou, F., Lau, H., Hu, Y.Kwok, S. C. (2018). Causal evidence for mnemonic metacognition in human precuneus. bioRxiv, 280750. 10.1101/280750
Yokoyama, O., Miura, N., Watanabe, J., Takemoto, A., Uchida, S., Sugiura, M., … Nakamura, K. (2010). Right frontopolar cortex activity correlates with reliability of retrospective rating of confidence in short-term recognition memory performance. Neuroscience Research, 68, 199206. 10.1016/j.neures.2010.07.2041
Zylberberg, A., Fetsch, C. R.Shadlen, M. N. (2016). The influence of evidence volatility on choice, reaction time and confidence in a perceptual decision. eLife, 5, e17688. 10.7554/eLife.17688
MathJax
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see http://www.mathjax.org.

Keywords

Human Metacognition Across Domains: Insights from Individual Differences and Neuroimaging

  • Marion Rouault (a1), Andrew McWilliams (a1) (a2) (a3), Micah G. Allen (a1) and Stephen M. Fleming (a1) (a4)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed