Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-vvt5l Total loading time: 0.282 Render date: 2022-07-01T05:09:27.612Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

The Political Economy of Global Finance: A Network Model

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 March 2013

Thomas Oatley
Affiliation:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. E-mail: toatley@email.unc.edu
W. Kindred Winecoff
Affiliation:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. E-mail: wkwine@email.unc.edu
Andrew Pennock
Affiliation:
Taubman Center for Public Policy & American Institutions, Brown University. E-mail: Andrew_Pennock@brown.edu
Sarah Bauerle Danzman
Affiliation:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. E-mail: sarah.bauerle@unc.edu

Abstract

Although the subprime crisis regenerated interest in and stimulated debate about how to study the politics of global finance, it has not sparked the development of new approaches to International Political Economy (IPE), which remains firmly rooted in actor-centered models. We develop an alternative network-based approach that shifts the analytical focus to the relations between actors. We first depict the contemporary global financial system as a network, with a particular focus on its hierarchical structure. We then explore key characteristics of this global financial network, including how the hierarchic network structure shapes the dynamics of financial contagion and the source and persistence of power. Throughout, we strive to relate existing research to our network approach in order to highlight exactly where this approach accommodates, where it extends, and where it challenges existing knowledge generated by actor-centered models. We conclude by suggesting that a network approach enables us to construct a systemic IPE that is theoretically and empirically pluralist.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abdelal, Rawi. 2007. Constructing Global Finance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Albert, Réka, Jeong, Hawoong, and Barabási, Albert-László. 2000. “Error and Attack Tolerance of Complex Networks.” Nature 406 (July 27): 378–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Avant, Deborah D., Finnemore, Martha, and Sell, Susan K., eds. 2010. Who Governs the Globe? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bach, David, and Newman, Abraham. 2010. “Transgovernmental Networks and Domestic Policy Convergence: Evidence from Insider Trading Regulation.” International Organization 64 (Summer): 505–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baele, Lieven, and Inghelbrecht, Koen. 2010. “Time-varying Integration, Interdependence and Contagion.” Journal of International Money and Finance 29(5): 791818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bak, Per. 1996. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality. NewYork: Copernicus.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bank for International Settlements 2011. Consolidated Banking Statistics. (http://www.bis.org/statistics/consstats.htm), accessed June 24, 2011.Google Scholar
Barabási, Albert-László. 2001. Linked: the New Science of Networks. New York: Perseus.Google Scholar
Barabási, Albert-László, and Albert, Réka. 1999. “Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks.” Science 286: 509512.Google ScholarPubMed
Bartram, Sohnke M., Brown, Gregory W., and Hund, John E.. 2007. “Estimating Systemic Risk in the International Financial System.” Journal of Financial Economics 86(3): 835–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Battiston, S., Rodrigues, J.F., and Zeytinoglu, H.. 2007. “The Network of Inter-Regional Direct Investment Stocks across Europe.” ACS—Advances in Complex Systems 10(1): 2951. see n.25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumgartner, Frank R., Breunig, Christian, Green-Pedersen, Christoffer, Jones, Bryan D., Mortensen, Peter B., Nuytemans, Michiel, and Walgrave, Stefaan. 2009. “Punctuated Equilibrium in Comparative Perspective.” American Journal of Political Science 53(3): 603–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bianconi, G., and Barabási, A.-L.. 2001. “Competition and multiscaling in evolving networks.” Europhysics Letters 54: 436–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blyth, Mark. 2003. “The Political Power of Financial Ideas.” In In Monetary Orders, ed. Kirshner, J.. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Boss, Michael, Elsinger, Helmut, Summer, Martin, and Thurner, Stefan. 2004. “The Network Topology of the Interbank Market.” Quantitative Finance 4(6): 677–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, Sarah. 2007. “When Does Diffusion Matter? Explaining the Spread of Structural Pension Reforms Across Nations.” Journal of Politics 69(3): 701–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broz, J. Lawrence. 2002. “Political System Transparency and Monetary Commitment Regimes.” International Organization 56(4): 861–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bryan, Dick, and Rafferty, Michael. 2006. Capitalism with Derivatives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burrows, Mathew J., and Harris, Jennifer. 2009. “Revisiting the Future: Geopolitical Effects of the Financial Crisis.” Washington Quarterly 32(2): 2738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buthe, Tim, and Mattli, Walter. 2011. The New Global Rules: The Privatization of Regulation in the World Economy. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Caldarelli, Guido, Battiston, Stefano, Garlaschelli, Diego, and Cantazaro, Michele. 2004. “Emergence of Complexity in Financial Networks.” Lecture Notes in Physics 650: 399423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calleo, David. 2009. “Twenty-First Century Geopolitics and the Erosion of the Dollar Order.” In The Future of the Dollar, ed. Helleiner, Eric and Kirshner, Jonathan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Carpenter, Charli. 2011. “Vetting the Advocacy Agenda: Network Centrality and the Paradox of Weapons Norms.” International Organization 65(Winter): 69102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chin, Gregory, and Helleiner, Eric. 2008. “China as a Creditor: A Rising Financial Power?Journal of International Affairs 62(1): 87102.Google Scholar
Claessens, Stijn, Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni, Igan, Deniz, and Laeven, Luc. 2010. “Lessons and Policy Implications from the Global Financial Crisis.” In IMF Working Paper. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
Clauset, Aaron, Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla, and Newman, M. E. J.. 2009. “Power-law Distributions in Empirical Data.” SIAM Review 51: 661703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Benjamin J. 2006. “The Macrofoundations of Monetary Power.” In International Monetary Power, ed. Andrews, D.. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Cohen, Benjamin J. 2008. International Political Economy: An Intellectual History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cohen, Benjamin J. 2009. “A Grave Case of Myopia.” International Interactions 35(4): 436–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cranmer, Skyler J., and Desmarais, Bruce A.. 2011. Inferential Network Analysis with Exponential Random Graph Models. Political Analysis 19(1): 6686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cranmer, Skyler J., Desmarais, Bruce A., and Menninga, Elizabeth J.. forthcoming. “Complex Dependencies in the Alliance Network.” Conflict Management and Peace Science.Google Scholar
Crouch, Colin, and Farrell, Henry. 2004. “Breaching the Path of Institutional Development: Alternative to the New Determinism in Political Economy.” Rationality and Society 16(1): 543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Csardi, Gabor, and Nepusz, Tamas. 2006. “The igraph Software Package for Complex Network Research.” InterJournal Complex Systems 1695.Google Scholar
de Long, J. Bradford, Shleifer, Andrei, Summers, Lawrence H., and Waldmann, Robert J.. 1990. “Positive Feedback Investment Strategies and Destabilizing Rational Speculation.” Journal of Finance 45(2): 379–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dezső, Zoltán, and Barabási, Albert-László. 2002. “Halting Viruses in Scale-free Networks.” Physical Review E 65(5): 055103-1–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dobbs, Richard, Skilling, David, Hu, Wayne, Lund, Susan, Manyika, James, and Roxburgh, Charles. 2009. “An Exorbitant Privilege? Implications of Reserve Currencies for Competitiveness.” In McKinsey Global Institute discussion paper, McKinsey Global Institute.Google Scholar
Dooley, Michael P., Folkerts-Landau, David, and Garber, Peter. 2004. “The Revived Bretton Woods System.” International Journal of Finance and Economics 9: 307–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drezner, Daniel. 2009. “Bad Debts: Assessing China's Financial Influence in Great Power Politics.” International Security 34(2): 735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drezner, Daniel W. 2007. All Politics Is Global: Explaining International Regulatory Regimes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Eichengreen, Barry. 2011. Exorbitant Privilege: the Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Eichengreen, Barry, and Flandreau, Marc. 2009. “The Rise and Fall of the Dollar, or When Did the Dollar Replace Sterling as the Leading International Currency?European Review of Economic History 13: 377411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. 1997. “History of the 1980s: Lessons for the Future, Volume I. An Examination of the Banking Crises of the 1980s and Early 1990s.”Google Scholar
Fischer, Stanley. 1999. “Reforming the International Financial System.” The Economic Journal 109(459): F557F576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gabaix, Xavier. 2009. “Power Laws in Economics and Finance.” Annual Review of Economics 1: 255–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garlaschelli, Diego, Battiston, Stefano, Castri, Muirzio, Servedio, Vito D.P., and Galdarelli, Guido. 2005. The Scale-free Topology of Market Investments. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 350(2-4): 491–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
General Accounting Office. 2011. Federal Reserve System: Opportunities Exist to Strengthen Policies and Processes for Managing Emergency Assistance. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Germain, Randall. 1997. The International Organization of Credit: States and Finance in the World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., and Montgomery, Alexander H.. 2009. “Globalization and the Social Power Politics of International Economic Networks.” In Networked Politics: Agency, Power, and Governance, ed. Kahler, M.. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., and Montgomery, Alexander H.. 2010. “Centrality in Politics: How Networks Confer Power.” Political Networks Conference. Southern Illinois University.Google Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie, Kahler, Miles, and Montgomery, Alexander. 2009. “Network Analysis for International Relations.” International Organization 63(3): 559–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanneke, S., and Xing, E.. 2006. “Discrete Temporal Models of Social Networks.” In Proceedings of the ICML 06 Workshop on Statistical Network Analysis. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Hanneman, Robert A, and Riddle, Mark. 2005. Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California, Riverside (published in digital form at http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman).Google Scholar
Helleiner, Eric. 1994. States and the Reemergence of Global Finance: From Bretton Woods to the 1990s. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Helleiner, Eric. 2010. “A Bretton Woods Moment? The 2007–2008 Crisis and the Future of Global Finance.” International Affairs 86(3): 619–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helleiner, Eric. 2011. “Understanding the 2007–2008 Global Financial Crisis: Lessons for International Political Economy.” Annual Review of Political Science 14(1): 6787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helleiner, Eric, and Kirshner, Jonathan, eds. 2009. The Future of the Dollar. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Helleiner, Eric, and Pagliari, Stefano. 2011. “The End of an Era in International Financial Regulation? A Postcrisis Research Agenda.” International Organization 65(1): 169200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iazzetta, Carmela, and Manna, Michele. 2009. “The Topology of Theinterbank Market: Developments in Italy Since 1990.” In Working Papers. Rome: Banca d'Italia.Google Scholar
IMF 2010. Consolidated Portfolio Investment Survey. (http://www.imf.org/external/np/sta/pi/datarsl.htm), accessed June 24, 2011.Google Scholar
Jervis, Robert. 1997. System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Jones, Bryan D., Baumgartner, Frank R., Breunig, Christian, Wlezien, Christopher, Soroka, Stuart, Foucault, Martial, Francois, Abel, Green-Pedersen, Christoffer, Koski, Chris, John, Peter, Mortensen, Peter B., Varone, Frederic, and Walgrave, Stefaan. 2009. “A General Empirical Law of Public Budgets: A Comparative Analysis.” American Journal of Political Science 53(4): 855–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahler, Miles, ed. 2009. Networked Politics: Agency, Power, and Governance. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Kapstein, Ethan. 2006. “Architects of Stability?.” In Past and Future of Central Bank Cooperation, ed. Borio, C., Toniolo, G. and Clement, P.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Karolyi, G. Andrew. 2003. “Does Financial Contagion Exist?International Finance 6(2): 179–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keohane, Robert O. 2009. “The Old IPE and the New.” Review of International Political Economy 16(1): 3446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kho, Bong-Chan, Lee, Dong, and Stulz, Rene M.. 2000. “U.S. Banks, Crises, and Bailouts: From Mexico to LTCM.” American Economic Review 90(2): 2831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirshner, Jonathan. 2008. “Dollar Primacy and American Power: What's at Stake?Review of International Political Economy 15(3): 418–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kubelec, Chris, and Sa, Filipa. 2008. “The Geographical Composition of National External Balance Sheets: 1980–2005.” In Working Paper. London: Bank of England.Google Scholar
Laeven, Luc, and Valencia, Fabian. 2008. “Systemic Banking Crises: A New Database.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, DC: IMF.Google Scholar
Lake, David A. 2006. “Overview: International Political Economy—A Maturing Discipline.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy, ed. Weingast, B. R. and Wittman, D.. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lake, David A. 2009. “Open Economy Politics: A Critical Review.” Review of International Organization 4: 219–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lake, David A., and Wong, Wendy. 2009. “The Politics of Networks: Interests, Power, and Human Rights Norms.” In Networked Politics: Agency, Power, and Governance, ed. Kahler, M.. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Layne, Christopher. 2012. “This Time Its Real: The End of Unipolarity and The. International Studies Quarterly 56(1): 203–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindgren, Carl-Johan, Baliño, Tomás J.T., Enoch, Charles, Gulde, Anne-Marie, Quintyn, Marc, and Teo, Leslie. 1999. “Financial Sector Crisis and Restructuring: Lessons from Asia.” Washington, DC: The International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
Maoz, Zeev. 2006. “Network Polarization, Network Interdependence, and International Conflict, 1816–2002.” Journal of Peace Research 43: 391411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGuire, Patrick, and Wooldridge, Philip. 2005. “The BIS consolidated banking statistics: structure, uses and recent enhancements.” BIS Quarterly Review September, 2005: 7386.Google Scholar
Miller, John Howard, and Page, Scott E.. 2007. Complex Adaptive Systems: An Introduction to Computational Models of Social Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Montgomery, Alexander H. . 2008. “Proliferation Networks in Theory and Practice.” In Globalization and WMD Proliferation: Terrorism, Transnational Networks, and International Security, ed. Russell, J. A. and Wirtz, J. J.. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Mosley, Layna. 2000. “Room to Move: International Financial Markets and National Welfare States.” International Organization 54(4): 737–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mosley, Layna. 2003. Global Capital and National Governments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mosley, Layna, and Singer, David. 2009. “The Global Financial Crisis: Lessons and Opportunities for International Political Economy.” International Interactions 35(4): 420–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murdie, Amanda, Brewington, David, and Davis, David. 2010. “The Ties That Bind: A Network Analysis of Human Rights INGOs.” Presented at the annual meeting of the ISA. New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
National Commission on the Causes of the Financial and Economic Crisis in the United States. 2011. Financial Crisis Inquiry Report. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. (http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-FCIC/pdf/GPO-FCIC.pdf), accessed February 1, 2013.Google Scholar
National Intelligence Council. 2008. “Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Newman, M.E.J. 2003. “The Structure and Function of Complex Networks.” Arxiv preprint condmat 0303516.Google Scholar
Nguyen, Khanh, and Tran, Duc A.. 2012. “Fitness-Based Generative Models for Power-Law Networks.” In Handbook of Optimization in Complex Networks, ed. Thai, M. T. and Pardalos, P. M.. New York: Springer US.Google Scholar
Oatley, Thomas. 2011. “The Reductionist Gamble: Open Economy Politics in the Global Economy.” International Organization 65(2): 311–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O'Brien, Matthew. 2012. “It's a Record! U.S. Treasury Yields Hit a 220-Year Low,” The Atlantic (May 31). (http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/05/its-a-record-us-treasuries-hit-a-220-year-low/257948/), accessed May 31, 2012.Google Scholar
Opsahl, Tore, Agneessens, Filip, and Skvoretz, John. 2010. “Node Centrality in Weighted Networks: Generalizing Degree and Shortest Paths.” Social Networks 32(3): 245–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pierson, Paul. 2000. “Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics.” American Political Science Review 94(2): 251–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pierson, Paul. 2004. Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porter, Tony. 2005. Globalization and Finance. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
Rogoff, Kenneth. 1999. “International Institutions for Reducing Global Financial Instability.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 13(4): 2142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schweitzer, Frank, Fagiolo, Giorgio, Sornette, Didier, Vega-Redondo, Fernando, and White, Douglas R.. 2009. “Economic Networks: What Do We Know And What Do We Need To Know?Advances in Complex Systems 12(4-5): 407–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shiller, Robert J. 2003. “From Efficient Markets Theory to Behavioral Finance.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 17(1): 83104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, David Andrew. 2004. “Capital Rules: The Domestic Politics of International Regulatory Harmonization.” International Organization 58(3): 531–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, David Andrew. 2007. Regulating Capital: Setting Standards for the International Financial System. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Soramäki, Kimmo, Bech, Morten L., Arnold, Jeffrey, Glass, Robert J., and Beyeler, Walter E.. 2006. “The Topology of Interbank Payment Flows.” In Staff Report. Federal Reserve Bank of New York.Google Scholar
Sornette, D. 2003. “Critical Market Crashes.” Physics Reports 378: 198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2010a. “Contagion, Liberalization, and the Optimal Structure of Globalization.” Journal of Globalization and Development 1(2): Article 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2010b. “Risk and Global Economic Architecture: Why Full Financial Integration May be Undesirable.” In NBER Working Paper. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
Strange, Susan. 1986. Casino Capitalism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Strange, Susan. 1996. The Retreat of the State: the Diffusion of Power in the World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strange, Susan. 1998. Mad Money: When Markets Outgrow Governments. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Streeck, Wolfgang, and Thelen, Kathleen. 2005. Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Summers, Larry. 2000. “International Financial Crises: Causes, Prevention, and Cures.” American Economic Review 90: 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomz, Michael. 2007. Reputation and International Cooperation: Sovereign Debt across Three Centuries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Tse, Chi K., Liu, Jing, and Lau, Francis C. M.. 2010. “A Network Perspective of the Stock Market.” Journal of Empirical Finance 17(4): 659–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsingou, Eleni. 2010. “Regulatory Reactions to the Global Credit Crisis: Analysing a Policy Community Under Stress.” In Global Finance in Crisis, ed. Helleiner, E., Pagliari, S., and Zimmerman, H.. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Underhill, Geoffrey, and Zhang, Xiaoke. 2008. “Setting the Rules: Private Power, Political Underpinnings, and Legitimacy in Global Monetary and Financial Governance.” International Affairs 84(3): 535–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waltz, Kenneth. 1979. Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw Hill..Google Scholar
Watts, Duncan J. 2003. Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
Youssefmir, Michael, Huberman, Bernardo A., and Hogg, Tad. 1998. “Bubbles and Market Crashes.” Computational Economics 12(2): 97114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
103
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Political Economy of Global Finance: A Network Model
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The Political Economy of Global Finance: A Network Model
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The Political Economy of Global Finance: A Network Model
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *