Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-gvrqt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-04T07:00:44.734Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

What Happened to Post-Partisanship? Barack Obama and the New American Party System

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 March 2012

Sidney M. Milkis
University of Virginia. Email:
Jesse H. Rhodes
University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Email:
Emily J. Charnock
University of Virginia. Email:


Ascending to the presidency in the midst of a severe economic crisis and an ongoing war on terrorism, Barack Obama faced numerous political and policy challenges. We examine the responsibilities he faced in assuming the received tasks of modern presidential leadership amid a polarized political system. To a point, Obama has embraced partisan leadership, indeed, even further articulating developments in the relationship between the president and parties that Ronald Reagan had first initiated, and George W. Bush built upon. Thus Obama has advanced an executive-centered party system that relies on presidential candidates and presidents to pronounce party doctrine, raise campaign funds, mobilize grassroots support, and campaign on behalf of their partisan brethren. Just as Reagan and Bush used their powers in ways that bolstered their parties, so Obama's exertions have strengthened the Democratic Party's capacity to mobilize voters and to advance programmatic objectives. At the same time, presidential partisanship threatens to relegate collective responsibility to executive aggrandizement. Seeking to avoid the pitfalls that undermined the Bush presidency, Obama has been more ambivalent about uniting partisanship and executive power. Only time will tell whether this ambiguity proves to be effective statecraft—enshrining his charisma in an enduring record of achievement and a new Democratic majority—or whether it marks a new stage in the development of executive dominion that subordinates party building to the cult of personality.

Research Article
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abramowitz, Alan. 2010. The Disappearing Center: Engaged Citizens, Polarization and American Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Adams, Rebecca. 2009. “The Costs and Benefits of Cass Sunstein.” CQ Weekly, February 9.Google Scholar
Arnold, Peri. 1987. Making the Managerial Presidency. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
Bai, Matt. 2008. “The Other Winner.” New York Times Magazine, November 16.Google Scholar
Bai, Matt. 2010. “Debt-Busting Issue May Force Obama Off Fence.” New York Times, November 30.Google Scholar
Baker, Peter. 2009. “Compromising on 2 Issues, Obama Gets Partial Wins.” New York Times, December 19.Google Scholar
Baker, Peter. 2010a. “Obama Making Plans to Use Executive Power.” New York Times, February 13.Google Scholar
Baker, Peter. 2010b. “Education of a President.” New York Times, October 12.Google Scholar
Baker, Peter. 2011. “U.S. Political Paralysis is Part of the Game.” International Herald Tribune, June 20.Google Scholar
Baker, Peter, and Landler, Mark. 2010. “Setbacks Cloud U.S. Plans to Get Out of Afghanistan,” New York Times, June 14.Google Scholar
Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Haynes. 2009. The Battle for America 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary Election. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
Becker, Jo, and Drew, Christopher. 2008. “Pragmatic Politics, Forged on the South Side.” New York Times, May 28.Google Scholar
Bellantoni, Christina. 2009. “Transcript: OFA's Mitch Stewart and Jeremy Bird Speak to TPMDC.” Talking Points Memo, November 11. Scholar
Bergen, Peter, and Tiedemann, Katherine. 2010. “There Were More Drone Strikes—And Far Fewer Civilians Killed.” New America Foundation, December 22. Scholar
Brass, Clinton T. 2011. “Obama Administration Agenda for Government Performance: Evolution and Related Issues for Congress.” Congressional Research Service Memorandum. January 19.Google Scholar
Budoff Brown, Carrie, and O'Connor, Patrick. 2010. “No High Hopes for Health Care Summit.” Politico, February 9.Google Scholar
Budoff Brown, Carrie, and Thrush, Glenn. 2010. “Pelosi Steeled W.H. for Health Push.” Politico, March 20.Google Scholar
Calmes, Jackie. 2010. “Obama Offers Hope for Debt Panel's Plan.” New York Times, December 3.Google Scholar
Calmes, Jackie. 2011a. “Obama Draws New Hard Line on Long-Term Debt Reduction.” New York Times, September 19.Google Scholar
Calmes, Jackie. 2011b. “Obama Says He's the Underdog in 2012.” New York Times, October 3.Google Scholar
Cameron, Charles M. 2002. “Studying the Polarized Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 32(4): 647–63.Google Scholar
Canes-Wrone, Brandice. 2006. Who Leads Whom? Presidents, Policy, and the Public. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Cardenas, Al. 2011. “Time to Quit Blaming and Start Leading.” Washington Times, September 8.Google Scholar
Carpenter, Daniel. 2010. “Institutional Strangulation: Bureaucratic Politics and Financial Reform in the Obama Administration.” Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 825–46.Google Scholar
Cillizza, Chris. 2009. “Obama Announces Grassroots Army.” Washington Post, January 18.Google Scholar
Cohen, Jeffrey E. 2011. “Presidents, Polarization, and Divided Government.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 41(3): 504–20.Google Scholar
Cohen, Richard. 2010. “State of the Union: Obama Plays Grown Up.” Washington Post, January 27.Google Scholar
Cohen, Marty, Karol, David, and Noel, Hans. 2008. The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations Before and After Reform. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Coleman, John. 1996. Party Decline in America: Policy, Politics, and the Fiscal State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cooper, Helene. 2009. “Putting Stamp on Afghan War, Obama Will Send 17,000 Troops.” New York Times, February 17.Google Scholar
Cooper, Helene. 2011. “On the Scales: Costs of War vs. Fixing Economy.” International Herald Tribune, June 23.Google Scholar
Cooper, Helene, and Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. 2010. “Obama Declares an End to Combat Mission in Iraq.” New York Times, August 31.Google Scholar
Dahl, Robert. 1990. “The Myth of the Presidential Mandate.” Political Science Quarterly 105(3): 355–72.Google Scholar
DeYoung, Karen, and Jaffe, Greg. 2010. “U.S. ‘Secret War’ Expands Globally as Special Operations Forces Take Larger Role.” Washington Post, June 4.Google Scholar
Dickinson, Tim. 2008. “The Machinery of Hope.” Rolling Stone, March 20.Google Scholar
Dickinson, Tim. 2010. “No We Can't: Obama Had Millions of Followers Eager to Fight for His Agenda. But the President Muzzled Them—And He's Paying the Price.” Rolling Stone, February 2.Google Scholar
Dillon, Sam. 2011. “Obama Turns Some Powers of Education Back to States.” New York Times, September 23.Google Scholar
Doster, Adam. 2008. “Expand the Vote: The Obama Campaign's Voter Registration Drive Could Radically Alter the Electoral Map this Fall.” In These Times, June 11. Scholar
Drew, George. 2008. “The New Liberalism: How the Economic Crisis Can Help Obama Redefine the Democrats.” New Yorker, November 17.Google Scholar
Eckles, David, and Schaffner, Brian. 2010. “Loss Aversion and the Framing of the Health Care Reform Debate.” The Forum 8(1): Article 7.Google Scholar
Edwards, George C. III. 2012. Overreach: Leadership in the Obama Presidency. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Feldman, Linda. 2010. “Deficit Commission's Work Is Finished; What Happens Next?” Christian Science Monitor, December 3.Google Scholar
Galvin, Daniel J. 2008. “Changing Course: Reversing the Organizational Trajectory of the Democratic Party from Bill Clinton to Barack Obama.” The Forum 6(2): Article 3.Google Scholar
Galvin, Daniel J. 2010. Presidential Party Building: Dwight D. Eisenhower to George W. Bush. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Galvin, Daniel J. 2011. “Presidential Partisanship Reconsidered: Eisenhower, Nixon, and Ford and the Rise of Polarized Politics.” Political Research Quarterly.Google Scholar
Hacker, Jacob. 2010. “The Road to Somewhere: Why Health Reform Happened.” Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 861–76.Google Scholar
Han, Hahrie, and Brady, David W.. 2007. “A Delayed Return to Historical Norms: Congressional Party Polarization after the Second World War.” British Journal of Political Science 37(3): 505–31.Google Scholar
Harbridge, Laurel, and Malhotra, Neil. 2011. “Electoral Incentives and Partisan Conflict in Congress: Evidence from Survey Experiments.” American Journal of Political Science 55(3): 494510.Google Scholar
Harwood, John. 2009. “Bipartisan Health Bill is Possible, Leaders Say.” New York Times, June 8.Google Scholar
Heclo, Hugh. 1978. “Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment.” In The New American Political System, ed. King, Anthony. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
Heclo, Hugh. 2009. “The Once and Future Chief Executive: Prophesy versus Prediction.” Remarks delivered at the 4th Annual Symposium in Honor of Ronald Reagan, “The Future of the American Presidency.” Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia, February 6.Google Scholar
Heilemann, John. 2009. “The New Politics: Barack Obama, Party of One.” New York Magazine, January 11.Google Scholar
Herszenhorn, David. 2009. “Democrats Divide over a Proposal to Tax Health Benefits.” New York Times, July 9.Google Scholar
Hetherington, Marc J. 2005. Why Trust Matters: Declining Political Trust and the Demise of American Liberalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Hibbing, John R., and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth. 1995. Congress as Public Enemy: Public Attitudes Toward American Political Institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hibbing, John R., and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth. 2002. Stealth Democracy: Americans' Beliefs about How Government Should Work. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hochschild, Jennifer, and Weaver, Vesla Mae. 2010. “There's No One as Irish as Barack O'Bama.” Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 737–59.Google Scholar
Homans, Charles. 2010. “The Party of Obama: What are the President's Grassroots Good For?” Washington Monthly, January/February.Google Scholar
Howell, William G. 2003. Power without Persuasion: The Politics of Direct Presidential Action. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Hulse, Carl. 2009a. “Republicans Split on Need to Offer Rival for Budget.” New York Times, March 14.Google Scholar
Hulse, Carl. 2009b. “Obama Goes to Lawmakers on Budget.” New York Times, March 31.Google Scholar
Hulse, Carl, and Herszenhorn, David. 2009. “Optimism Grows in Congress for Retooled Budget's Prospects.” New York Times, March 26.Google Scholar
Ignatius, David. 2011. “The Covert Commander in Chief.” Washington Post, September 11.Google Scholar
Isaac, Jeffrey C. 2010. “Editor's Introduction.” Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 733–36.Google Scholar
Jackson, David. 2011. “Debt Commission Co-Chair: Obama is ‘Poisoning the Well.’” USA Today (‘The Oval’ blog), June 15. Scholar
Jacobson, Gary C. 2010. “George W. Bush, the Iraq War, and the Election of Barack Obama.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 40(2): 207–24.Google Scholar
Kennedy, Randall. 2011. The Persistence of the Color Line: Racial Politics and the Obama Presidency. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Kenski, Kate, Hardy, Bruce, and Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. 2010. The Obama Victory: How Media, Money, and Message Shaped the 2008 Election. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Kernell, Samuel. 2007. Going Public: New Strategies of Presidential Leadership. 4th ed.Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
King, Desmond, and Smith, Rogers. 2011. Still a House Divided: Race and Politics in Obama's America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Kirkpatrick, David. 2009. “Obama Is Taking an Active Role in Talks on Health Care Plan.” New York Times, August 13.Google Scholar
Kloppenberg, James. 2011. Reading Obama: Dreams, Hope and the American Political Tradition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Landler, Mark, and Cooper, Helene. 2011. “Obama to Hasten Withdrawal from Afghanistan.” International Herald Tribune, June 24.Google Scholar
Levey, Noam M. 2011. “Obama Administration Drops Part of Health Care Law.” Los Angeles Times, October 14.Google Scholar
Lewis, David E. 2003. Presidents and the Politics of Agency Design. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Lewis, David E. 2008. The Politics of Presidential Appointments: Political Control and Bureaucratic Performance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Lewis, David E. 2011. “Presidential Appointments in the Obama Administration: An Early Evaluation.” In The Obama Presidency: Change and Continuity, ed. Dowdle, Andrew, van Raemdonck, Dirk, and Maranto, Robert. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Lowi, Theodore. 1979. The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States. 2nd ed.New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Lowi, Theodore. 1985. The Personal President: Power Invested, Promise Unfulfilled. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Mayer, Kenneth R. 2001. With the Stroke of A Pen: Executive Orders and Presidential Power. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
McCarty, Nolan, Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 2006. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
McKelvey, Tara. 2011. “Inside the Killing Machine.” Newsweek, February 13.Google Scholar
Melber, Ari. 2010. “Year One of Organizing for America: The Permanent Field Campaign in a Digital Age.” A techPresident Special Report. January, 2010. Scholar
Mendell, David. 2007. Obama: From Promise to Power. New York: Amistad.Google Scholar
Mettler, Suzanne. 2010. “Reconstituting the Submerged State: The Challenges of Social Policy Reform in the Obama Era.” Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 803–24.Google Scholar
Milkis, Sidney M. 1993. The President and the Parties: The New Deal and the Transformation of the American Party System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Milkis, Sidney M. 1999. Political Parties and Constitutional Government. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Milkis, Sidney M. 2009. Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
Milkis, Sidney M., and Rhodes, Jesse H.. 2007. “George W. Bush, the Republican Party, and the “New” Party System.” Perspectives on Politics 5(3): 461–88.Google Scholar
Milligan, Susan, and Wirzbicki, Alan. 2010. “Budget Reflects Dire Realities, Obama Says.” Boston Globe, February 2.Google Scholar
Millman, Jason. 2011. “Number of Healthcare Reform Law Waivers Climbs Above 1,000.” The Hill, March 6.Google Scholar
Moe, Terry M., and Howell, William G.. 1999. “The Presidential Power of Unilateral Action.” Journal of Law, Economics and Organizations 15(1): 132–79.Google Scholar
Nagourney, Adam. 2008. “Obama: Racial Barrier Falls in Decisive Victory.” New York Times, November 5.Google Scholar
Nicholas, Peter, and Mascaro, Lisa. 2010. “U.S. Panel Weighs Deep Budget Cuts.” Los Angeles Times, November 11.Google Scholar
Nickerson, David W., Friedrichs, Ryan D., and King, David C.. 2006. “Partisan Mobilization Campaigns in the Field: Results from a Statewide Turnout Experiment in Michigan.” Political Research Quarterly 59(1): 8597.Google Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2006. The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2007a. “Announcement for President.” Springfield, Illinois. February 10, 2007. Acquired from Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2007b. “Renewing American Leadership.” Foreign Affairs 86(4): 216.Google Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2008a. Change We Can Believe In: Barack Obama's Plan to Renew America's Promise. New York: Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2008b. “Change that Works for You.” Raleigh, North Carolina. June 9, 2008. Acquired from Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2008c. “The America We Love.” Independence, Missouri. June 30. Acquired from Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2008d. “My Plan for Iraq.” New York Times, July 14.Google Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2009a. “Inaugural Address.” January 20. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2009b. “Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress.” February 24. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2009c. “Responsibly Ending the War in Iraq,” Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, February 27. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2009d. “Remarks by the President on the Economy.” Georgetown University, Washington, DC. April 14. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2009e. “Remarks by the President on 21st Century Financial Regulatory Reform.” June 17. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2009f. Barack Obama, “Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on Health Care Legislation.” September 9, 2009. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2009g. “Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on the Way Forward in Afghanistan and Pakistan.” United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. December 1. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2010a. “Remarks by the President in State of Union Address.” January 27. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2010b. “Remarks by the President on Health Insurance Reform.” Arcadia University, Glenside, Pennsylvania, March 8. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2010c. “Weekly Address: Republicans Blocking Progress.” June 19. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2010d. “Weekly Address: Filibustering Recovery and Obstructing Progress.” July 17. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2010e. “Weekly Address: Moving Forward on the Economy vs. Moving Backward.” July 24. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2010f. “Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on the End of Combat Operations in Iraq,” August 31. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2010g. “Weekly Address: The Republican Corporate Power Grab.” September 18. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2011a. “Speech on the Budget Deficit.” George Washington University, Washington, DC. April 13. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2011b. “Remarks by the President on the Way Forward in Afghanistan,” The White House, June 22. Scholar
Obama, Barack. 2011c. “Remarks by the President at a DNC Event.” Broadway Theatre, New York, NY. June 23. Scholar
Obama for America. 2011. “Health Care.” Available at Scholar
Office of Management and Budget. 2009. “A New Era of Responsibility: Renewing America's Promise.” Released February 26, 2009. Available at Scholar
Organizing for America (OFA). 2010a. “Jump on the Phone?” OFA Email. October 10.Google Scholar
Organizing for America (OFA). 2010b. “About 2010.” Organizing for America/Vote 2010 Website. Available at Scholar
Organizing for America (OFA). 2010c. “2010 HQ Blog.” Available at Scholar
Pear, Robert. 2011. “Health Care Waivers Draw Kudos, and Criticism.” New York Times, March 19.Google Scholar
Pear, Robert, and Herszenhorn, David. 2009. “House Democrats End Impasse on Health Bill.” New York Times, July 30.Google Scholar
Pfiffner, James. 2008. Power Play: the Bush Administration and the Constitution. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
Piston, Spencer. 2010. “How Explicit Racial Prejudice Hurt Obama in the 2008 Election,” Political Behavior 32 (December): 431451.Google Scholar
Plouffe, David. 2009. The Audacity to Win: The Inside Story and Lessons of Barack Obama's Historic Victory. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
Radsan, Afsheen John. 2010. “Bush and Obama Fight Terrorists Outside Justice Jackson's Twilight Zone.” Constitutional Commentary 26(3): 551–82.Google Scholar
Remnick, David. 2010. The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
Risen, James. 2011. “Obama Takes On Congress Over Policy Czar Positions.” New York Times, April 16.Google Scholar
Robertson, Campbell. 2010. “Efforts to Repel Oil Spill Are Described as Chaotic.” New York Times, June 14, 2010.Google Scholar
Roosevelt, Theodore. 1926. The Works of Theodore Roosevelt, national edition. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.Google Scholar
Rudalevige, Andrew. 2005. The New Imperial Presidency. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Rutenberg, Jim, and Nagourney, Adam. 2009. “Melding Obama's Web to a YouTube Presidency.” New York Times, January 26.Google Scholar
Sanger, David. 2009. “‘Great Society’ Plan for the Middle Class.” New York Times, February 28.Google Scholar
Savage, Charlie. 2009. “Obama's Embrace of Bush Tactic Criticized by Lawmakers from Both Parties.” New York Times, August 9.Google Scholar
Savage, Charlie. 2010a. “Obama Takes New Route to Opposing Parts of Laws.” New York Times, January 9.Google Scholar
Savage, Charlie. 2010b. “Closing Guantanamo Fades as a Priority.” New York Times, June 25.Google Scholar
Scahill, Jeremy. 2010. “Prepared Testimony.” House Judiciary Committee, December 9, 2010. Available at Scholar
Shane, Scott, Mazzetti, Mark, and Worth, Robert. 2010. “Secret Assault on Terrorism Widens on Two Continents.” New York Times, August 14.Google Scholar
Shapiro, Sidney, and Wright, Ronald. 2011. “The Future of the Administrative Presidency: Turning Administrative Law Inside-Out.” University of Miami Law Review 65(2): 577620.Google Scholar
Shear, Michael D., and Connolly, Ceci. 2009. “Obama Assembles Powerful West Wing,” New York Times, January 8.Google Scholar
Skowronek, Stephen. 1997. The Politics Presidents Make: Leadership from John Adams to Bill Clinton, 2nd ed.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Skowronek, Stephen. 2008. “The Conservative Insurgency and Presidential Power: A Developmental Perspective on the Unitary Executive.” Harvard Law Review 122(8): 2070–103.Google Scholar
Skowronek, Stephen. 2011. Presidential Leadership in Politcal Time: Reprise and Reappraisal, 2nd ed.Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
Smoot, Julianna. 2011. “20,000 New Donors.” OFA e-mail. June 7.Google Scholar
Stiles, Andrew. 2011. “The ‘Biden Commission’ Takes Shape (Sort of).” National Review (‘The Corner’ blog), April 19. Scholar
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. 2009a. “Great Limits Come with Great Power, Ex-Candidate Finds.” New York Times, January 25.Google Scholar
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. 2009b. “‘Public Option’ in Health Plan May Be Dropped.” New York Times, August 17.Google Scholar
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. 2010. “Obama Puts Campaigning Back on his Agenda.” New York Times, September 28.Google Scholar
Sugrue, Thomas J. 2010. Not Even Past: Barack Obama and the Burden of Race. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Taddeo, Lisa. 2009. “The Man Who Made Obama.” Esquire, November 3.Google Scholar
Theriault, Sean. 2008. Party Polarization in Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Trish, Barbara. 2011. “Organizing for America.” In The State of the Parties: The Changing Role of Contemporary American Parties, ed. Green, John C. and Coffey, Daniel J., 6th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Tulis, Jeffrey. 1987. The Rhetorical Presidency. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Tulis, Jeffrey. 2011. “Plausible Futures.” In The Presidency in the Twenty-First Century, ed. Dunn, Charles W.. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
Vargas, Jose Antonio. 2008. “Obama's Wide Web: From YouTube to Text Messaging, Candidate's Team Connects to Voters.” Washington Post, August 20.Google Scholar
Weisman, Jonathan. 2008. “GOP Doubts, Fears ‘Post-Partisan’ Obama.” Washington Post, January 7.Google Scholar
White House. 2011a. “Executive Order 13567—Periodic Review of Individuals Detained at Guantanamo Bay Naval Station Pursuant to the Authorization for Use of Military Force.” March 7.Google Scholar
White House. 2011b. “United States Activities in Libya.” June 15. Available at Scholar
Whoriskey, Peter. 2008. “Candidates' Web Sites Get to Know Voters: President Campaigns Tailor, Target Ads Based on Visitors' Online Habits.” Washington Post, August 30.Google Scholar
Wilson, Scott. 2010. “The Making of a Wartime Commander in Chief.” Washington Post, January 19.Google Scholar
Wilson, Scott. 2011a. “Obama Pushes Boundaries in Targeting al-Aulaqi.” Washington Post, September 30.Google Scholar
Wilson, Scott. 2011b. “Obama, The Loner President.” Washington Post, October 7.Google Scholar
Wolffe, Richard. 2009. Renegade: The Making of a President. New York: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
Wood, B. Dan. 2009. The Myth of Presidential Representation. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Zajac, Andrew. 2010. “Under Obama, a Renewed FDA.” Los Angeles Times, October 10.Google Scholar
Zeleny, Jeff. 2011. “Punching Bag or President?” International Herald Tribune, September 8.Google Scholar