Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Anti-Americanism and Anti-Interventionism in Arabic Twitter Discourses

  • Amaney A. Jamal, Robert O. Keohane, David Romney and Dustin Tingley
Abstract

Systematic investigation of attitudes expressed in Arabic on Twitter towards the United States and Iran during 2012–13 shows how the analysis of social media can illuminate the politics of contemporary political discourses and generates an informative analysis of anti-Americanism in the Middle East. We not only analyze overall attitudes, but using a novel events-based analytical strategy, we examine reactions to specific events, including the removal of Mohamed Morsi in Egypt, the Innocence of Muslims video, and reactions to possible U.S. intervention in Syria. We also examine the Boston Marathon bombings of April 2013, in which the United States suffered damage from human beings, and Hurricane Sandy, in which it suffered damage from nature. Our findings reinforce evidence from polling that anti-Americanism is pervasive and intense, but they also suggest that this animus is directed less toward American society than toward the impingement of the United States on other countries. Arabic Twitter discourses about Iran are at least as negative as discourses about the United States, and less ambivalent. Anti-Americanism may be a specific manifestation of a more general phenomenon: resentment toward powerful countries perceived as interfering in national and regional affairs.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Anti-Americanism and Anti-Interventionism in Arabic Twitter Discourses
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Anti-Americanism and Anti-Interventionism in Arabic Twitter Discourses
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Anti-Americanism and Anti-Interventionism in Arabic Twitter Discourses
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Ajami, Fouad. 2003. “The Falseness of Anti-Americanism.” Foreign Policy 138: 5261.
Almond, Gabriel A. 1950. The American People and Foreign Policy. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
Baxter, Kylie, and Akbarzadeh, Shahram. 2008. US Foreign Policy in the Middle East: The Roots of Anti-Americanism. London: Routledge.
Bennett, Lance, and Segerberg, Alexandra. The Logic of Connective Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Berger, Lars. 2014. “Foreign Policies or Culture: What Shapes Muslim Public Opinion on Political Violence against the United States?” 2014. Journal of Peace Research 51(6): 782796.
Blaydes, Lisa, and Linzer, Drew A.. 2012. “Elite Competition, Religiosity, and Anti-Americanism in the Islamic World.” American Political Science Review 106(2): 225–43.
Blei, David M. 2012. “Probabilistic Topic Models.” Communications of the ACM 55(April): 7784.
Blei, David M., and Lafferty, John D.. 2007. “A Correlated Topic Model of Science.” Annals of Applied Statistics 1(June): 1735.
Blei, David M., Andrew, Y. Ng, and Jordan, Michael I.. 2003. “Latent Dirichlet Allocation.” Journal of Machine Learning 3(March): 9931022.
Chiozza, Giacomo. 2007. “Disaggregating Anti-Americanism: An Analysis of Individual Attitudes toward the United States.” In Anti-Americanisms in World Politics, ed. Katzenstein, Peter J. and Keohane., Robert O. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Chiozza, Giacomo. 2009. Anti-Americanism and the American World Order. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Cramer Walsh, Katherine 2007. Talking about Politics: Informal Groups and Social Identity in American Life. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Dawisha, Adeed. 1985. “Anti-Americanism in the Arab World: Memories of the Past and Attitudes of the Present.” In Anti-Americanism in the Third World: Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy, ed. Rubinstein, Alvin Z. and Smith., Donald Eugene New York: Praeger.
Dubai School of Government. 2013. “Arab Social Media Report,” http://www.arabsocialmediareport.com/UserManagement/PDF/ASMR_5_Report_Final.pdf
Esposito, John L. 1998. Islam and Politics. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Esposito, John L. 2011. “Arab Youth Want Democracy, not Theocracy.” CNN, February 28, http://www.cnn.com/2011/OPINION/02/28/protests.democracy.islam/.
Gainous, Jason, and Wagner, Kevin. 2013. “Digital Uprising: The Internet Revolution in the Middle East. Journal of Information Technology and Politics 10: 3.
Gainous, Jason, and Wagner, Kevin. 2014. Tweeting to Power: The Social Media Revolution in American Politics. London: Oxford University Press.
Gerges, Fawaz A. 1996. “The 1967 Arab-Israeli War: U.S. Actions and Arab Perceptions.” In The Middle East and the United States: A Historical and Political Reassessment, ed. Lesch, David W.. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Grimmer, Justin, and Stewart, Brandon M.. 2013. “Text as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic Content Analysis Methods for Political Texts.” Political Analysis 21 (January): 131.
Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck. 1996. “Islamist Perceptions of U.S. Policy in the Middle East.” In The Middle East and the United States: A Historical and Political Reassessment, ed. Lesch, David W.. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hopkins, Daniel, and King, Gary. 2010. “A Method of Automated Nonparametric Content Analysis for Social Science.” American Journal of Political Science 54(1): 229–47.
Howard, Philip. 2011. The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Information Technology and Political Islam. London: Oxford University Press.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Jamal, Amaney. 2012a. “The Youth and the Arab Spring: Cohort Differences and Similarities.” Middle East Law and Governance 4(1): 168–88.
Jamal, Amaney. 2012b. Of Empires and Citizens: Pro-American Democracy or No Democracy at All? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Joffe, Josef. 2006. Überpower: The Imperial Temptation of America. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Katzenstein, Peter J., and Keohane, Robert O. 2007. “Varieties of Anti-Americanism: A Framework for Analysis.” In Anti- Americanisms in World Politics, ed. Katzenstein, Peter J. and Keohane., Robert O. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Keohane, Robert O. 2001. “Governance in a Partially Globalized World.” American Political Science Review 95(1): 113.
Keohane, Robert O., and Nye, Joseph S. Jr. 2000. “Governance in a Globalizing World.” In Governance in a Globalizing World, ed. Nye, Joseph S. Jr., and Donahue, John D.. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Khalidi, Rashid. 2004. Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints and America’s Perilous Path in the Middle East. Boston: Beacon Press.
King, Gary, Pan, Jennifer, and Roberts, Margaret E.. 2013. “How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression.” American Political Science Review 107(2): 326–43.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1999. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Laver, Michael, Benoit, Kenneth, and Garry, John. 2003. “Extracting Policy Positions from Political Texts Using Words as Data.” American Political Science Review 97(2): 311–31.
Lee, Taeku 2002. Mobilizing Public Opinion: Black Insurgency and Racial Attitudes in the Civil Rights Era. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.
Lewis, Bernard. 1990. “The Roots of Muslim Rage.” Atlantic Monthly 266(3): 4760.
Lucas, Christopher, Nielsen, Richard, Roberts, Margaret, Stewart, Brandon, Storer, Alex, and Tingley, Dustin. forthcoming. “Computer Assisted Text Analysis for Comparative Politics.”Political Analysis.
Lynch, Marc. 2007. “Anti-Americanism in the Arab World.” In Anti-Americanisms in World Politics, ed. Katzenstein, Peter J. and Keohane., Robert O. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Lynch, Marc. 2011. “After Egypt: The Limits and Promise of Online Challenges to the Authoritarian Arab State.” Perspectives on Politics 9(2): 301310.
Makdisi, Ussama. 2002. “‘Anti-Americanism’ in the Arab World: An Interpretation of a Brief History.” Journal of American History 89(September): 538–57.
Mossberger, Karen, Tolbert, Caroline J., and McNeal, Ramona S.. 2008. Digital Citizenship : The Internet, Society, and Participation. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Norris, Pippa. 2001. Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty and the Internet Worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press.
O’Connor et al. 2010 – see n.11
Robert, Margaret, Stewart, Brandon, Tingley, Dustin, Lucas, Christopher, Leder-Luis, Jetson, Gadarian, Shana, Albertson, Bethany, and Rand, David. 2014. “Structural Topic Models for Open-Ended Survey Responses.” American Journal of Political Science 58(4): 1064–82.
Tarrow, Sydney 2013. The Language of Contention: Revolutions in Words, 1688–2012. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Telhami, Shibley. 2002. The Stakes: America and the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Tessler, Mark. 2003. “Arab and Muslim Political Attitudes: Stereotypes and Evidence from Survey Research.” International Studies Perspectives 4(May): 175–81.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Jamal et al. supplementary material
Supplementary information

 PDF (331 KB)
331 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 52
Total number of PDF views: 352 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1153 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.