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Shaun Bowler . 2002. “Parties in Legislature: Two Competing Explanations.” In Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies, ed. R.J. Dalton and , M.P. Wattenberg . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
S. Bowler , and D. M. Farrell . 1993. Legislator Shirking and Voter Monitoring: Impacts of European Parliament Electoral Systems upon Legislative-Voter Relationships. Journal of Common Market Studies 31(1): 45–69.
Bruce E. Cain , John A. Ferejohn , and Morris P. Fiorina . 1987. The Personal Vote: Constituency Service and Electoral Independence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
John M. Carey 2007. Competing Principals, Political Institutions, and Party Unity in Legislative Voting. American Journal of Political Science 51(1): 92–107.
John M. Carey , and Matthew S. Shugart . 1995. “Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote: A Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas.” Electoral Studies 14(4): 417–39.
Brian F. Crisp 2007. “Incentives in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: General Election Laws, Candidate Selection Procedures, and Cameral Rules.” Comparative Political Studies 40(12): 1460–85.
Brian F. Crisp , Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon , Bradford S. Jones , Mark P. Jones , and Michelle M. Taylor-Robinson . 2004. “Electoral Incentives and Legislative Representation in Six Presidential Democracies.” The Journal of Politics 66(3): 823–46.
D.M. Farrell , and R. Scully . 2007. Representing Europe's Citizens? Electoral Institutions and the Failure of Parliamentary Representation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rachael E. Ingall , and Brian F. Crisp . 2001. “Determinants of Home Style: The Many Incentives for Going Home in Colombia.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 26(3): 487–511.
Paul Mitchell . 2000. “Voters and Their Representatives: Electoral Institutions and Delegation in Parliamentary Democracies.” European Journal of Political Research 37(3): 335–51.
David J. Samuels 2002. “Incentives to Cultivate a Party Vote in Candidate-Centric Electoral Systems: Evidence from Brazil.” Comparative Political Studies 32(4): 487–518.
David. J. Samuels , and Matthew S. Shugart . 2010. Presidents, Parties, and Prime Ministers: How the Separation of Powers Affects Party Organization and Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Matthew S. Shugart 2005. “Comparative Electoral Systems Research: The Maturation of a Field and New Challenges Ahead.” In The Politics of Electoral Systems, ed. Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell . Oxford: Oxford University Press.