Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Beyond Patronage: Violent Struggle, Ruling Party Cohesion, and Authoritarian Durability

  • Steven R. Levitsky (a1) and Lucan A. Way (a2)

We explore the sources of durability of party-based authoritarian regimes in the face of crisis. Recent scholarship on authoritarianism suggests that ruling parties enhance elite cohesion—and consequently, regime durability—by providing institutionalized access the spoils of power. We argue, by contrast, that while elite access to power and spoils may ensure elite cooperation during normal times, it often fails to do so during crises. Instead, the identities, norms, and organizational structures forged during periods of sustained, violent, and ideologically-driven conflict are a critical source of cohesion—and durability—in party-based authoritarian regimes. Origins in violent conflict raise the cost of defection and provide leaders with additional (non-material) resources that can be critical to maintaining unity and discipline, even when a crisis threatens the party's hold on power. Hence, where ruling parties combine mechanisms of patronage distribution with the strong identities, solidarity ties, and discipline generated by violent origins, regimes should be most durable.

We apply this argument to four party-based competitive authoritarian regimes in post-Cold War Africa: Kenya, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In each of these cases, an established single- or dominant-party regime faced heightened international pressure, economic crisis, and a strong opposition challenge after 1990. Yet whereas ruling parties in Kenya and Zambia were organized almost exclusively around patronage, those in Mozambique and Zimbabwe were liberation parties that came to power via violent struggle. This difference is critical to explaining diverging post-Cold War regime outcomes: whereas ruling parties in Zambia and Kenya imploded and eventually lost power in these face of crises, those in Mozambique and Zimbabwe remained intact and regimes survived.

Hide All
Acemoglu Daron, and Robinson James A.. 2006. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ajulu Rok. 2003. “Kenya: A Reflection on the 2002 Elections: Third Time Lucky or More of the Same?” Institute for Global Dialogue Occasional Paper No. 39. Braamfontein, South Africa: Institute for Global Dialogue.
Alao Abiodun. 1995. “The Metamorphosis of the ‘Unorthodox’: The Integration and Early Development of the Zimbabwean National Army.” In Soldiers in Zimbabwe's Liberation War, ed. Bhebe Ngwabi and Ranger Terence. London: James Currey, Ltd.
Alden Chris. 2001. Mozambique and the Construction of the New African State: From Negotiations to Nation Building. London: Palgrave.
Alexander Jocelyn. 1997. The Local State in Post-War Mozambique: Political Practice and Ideas about Authority. Africa 67(1): 126.
Alexander Jocelyn. 2003. “‘Squatters,’ Veterans and the State in Zimbabwe.” In Zimbabwe's Unfinished Business: Rethinking Land, State and Nation in the Context of Crisis, ed. Hammar Amanda, Raftopoulos Brian, and Jensen Stig. Harare: Weaver Press.
Alexander Jocelyn. 2007. The Unsettled Land: State-Making and the Politics of Land in Zimbabwe 1893–2003. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Anderson David M. 2003. “Briefing: Kenya's Elections 2002—The Dawning of a New Era?African Affairs 102: 331–42.
Balcells Laia. 2012. “The Consequences of Victimization on Political Identities: Evidence from Spain.” Politics & Society 40(1): 311–47.
Bartlett David. 2000. “Civil Society and Democracy: a Zambian Case Study.” Journal of Southern African Studies 26(3): 429–46.
Bates Robert, and Collier Paul. 1993. “The Politics and Economics of Policy Reform in Zambia.” In Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform, ed. Bates Robert and Krueger Anne. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bauer Gretchen. 2001. “Namibia in the First Decade of Independence: How Democratic?Journal of Southern African Studies 27(1): 3355.
Bauer Gretchen, and Taylor Scott D.. 2005. Politics in Southern Africa: State and Society in Transition. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Baylies Carolyn, and Szeftel Morris. 1992. “The Fall and Rise of Multi-Party Politics in Zambia.” Review of African Political Economy 19(54): 7591.
Beissinger Mark R. 2002. Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bienen Henry, and Van De Walle Nicolas. 1989. “Time and Power in Africa.” American Political Science Review 83(1): 1934.
Bienen Henry, and Van De Walle Nicolas. 1991 Of Time and Political Power: Leadership Duration in the Modern World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Blair David. 2003. Degrees in Violence: Robert Mugabe and the Struggle for Power in Zimbabwe (Revised Edition). London: Continuum.
Blaydes Lisa. 2011. Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak's Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Branch Daniel. 2009. Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, Civil War, and Decolonization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Branch Daniel. 2011. Kenya: Between Hope and Despair, 1963–2011. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Bratton Michael. 1994. “Economic Crisis and Political Realignment in Zambia.” In Economic Change and Political Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. Widner Jennifer A.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bratton Michael, and Masunungure Eldred. 2006. “Popular Reactions to State Repression: Operation Murambatsvina in Zimbabwe.” African Affairs 106(422): 2145.
Bratton Michael, and van de Walle Nicolas. 1997. Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brown Stephen. 2004. “Theorizing Kenya's Protracted Transition to Democracy.” Journal of Contemporary African Affairs 22(3): 325–42.
Brownlee Jason. 2007. Durable Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bueno de Mesquita Bruce, Smith Alastair, Silverson Randolph, and Morrow James. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge: MIT University Press.
Cajina Roberto J. 1997. Transición política y reconversíon militar en Nicaragua, 1990–1995. Managua: CRIES.
Carbone Giovanni M. 2003. “Emerging Pluralist Politics in Mozambique: The Frelimo–Renamo Party System.” Crisis States Programme Working Paper No. 23. London: London School of Economics Development Research Center.
Chikuhwa Jacob. 2004. A Crisis of Governance: Zimbabwe. New York: Algora Publishing.
Chung Fay. 2006. Re-Living the Second Chimurenga. Stockhold: Nordic Africa Institute.
Clinkenbeard Steven E. 2004. “Donors versus Dictators—The Impact of Multilateral Aid Conditionality on Democratization: Kenya and Malawi in Comparative Context, 1990–2004.” Ph.D. diss., Department Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
De Brito Luis. 2007. “Rebuilding Frelimo's Hegemony in Mozambique: The Politics of a Presidential Succession.” Presented at the conference “The Politics of Nations and Nationalism in Lusophone Africa,” Oxford University, December 6.
Decalo Samuel. 1998. The Stable Minority: Civilian Rule in Africa. Gainesville, FL: Academic Press.
Du Toit Pierre. 1995. State Building and Democracy in Southern Africa: Botswana, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Evans Michael. 1992. “Making an African Army: The Case of Zimbabwe, 1980–87.” In Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South Africa, ed. Etherington Norman. London: Hans Zell Publishers.
Finnegan William. 1992. A Complicated War: The Harrowing of Mozambique. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fish M. Steven. 2005. Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gandhi Jennifer. 2008. Political Institutions under Dictatorship. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Geddes Barbara. 1999. “What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115–44.
Geddes Barbara. 2003. Paradigms and Sand Castles: Theory Building and Research in Comparative Politics. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor.
Geddes Barbara. 2005. “Why Parties and Elections in Authoritarian Regimes?” Presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 1–4 September.
Geddes Barbara. 2008. “Party Creation as an Autocratic Survival Strategy.” Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Los Angeles.
Gilbert Dennis. 1988. Sandinistas. New York: Basil Blackwell.
Goldworthy David. 1986. “Armies and Politics in Civilian Regimes.” In Military Power and Politics in Black Africa, ed. Baynham Simon. London: Croom Helm.
Greene Kenneth. 2007. Why Dominant Parties Lose: Mexico's Democratization in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grzymala-Busse Anna. 2011. “Time Will Tell? Temporality and the Analysis of Causal Mechanisms and Processes.” Comparative Political Studies 44(9): 1267–97.
Haantobolo Godfrey Hammweela Nachitumbi. 2008. “Civil Control of the Military in Zambia.” Ph.D. diss., Faculty of Commerce, Law, and Management, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Han Yuna. 2009. “South Africa's ANC Split.” Harvard International Review 31(1): 2831.
Hanson Stephen E. 2010. Post-Imperial Democracies: Ideology and Party Formation in Third Republic France, Weimar Germany, and Post-Soviet Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Harrison Graham. 1996. “Democracy in Mozambique: The Significance of Multi-Party Elections.” Review of African Political Economy 23(67): 1935.
Heilmann Sebastian, and Perry Elizabeth J.. 2011. Mao's Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance in China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Henriksen Thomas H. 1983. Revolution and Counterrevolution: Mozambique's War of Independence, 1964–1974. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Holmquist Frank, and Ford Michael. 1994. Kenya: State and Civil Society the First Year After the Election. Africa Today 41(4): 525.
Howard Marc, and Roessler Philip G.. 2006. “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes.” American Journal of Political Science 50(2): 207–25.
Human Rights Watch. 2008. “Bullets for Each of You.” New York: Human Rights Watch Report, June 19.
Huntington Samuel P. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Huntington Samuel P. 1970. “Social and Institutional Dynamics of One-Party Systems.” In Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society: The Dynamics of Established One-Party Systems, ed. Huntington Samuel and Moore C.. New York: Basic Books.
Hyden Goran. 1994. “Party, State, and Civil Society: Control versus Openness.” In Beyond Capitalism versus Socialism in Kenya and Tanzania, ed. Barkan Joel D.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Ihonvbere Julius O. 1996. Economic Crisis, Civil Society, and Democratization: The Case of Zambia. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
International Crisis Group. 2005. “Post-Election Zimbabwe: What Next?” ICG Africa Report No. 93 (June). Harare, Zimbabwe: International Crisis Group.
James Daniel. 1988. Resistance and Integration: Peronism and the Argentine Working Class, 1946–1976. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jowitt Ken. 1992. New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kalyvas Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kempton Daniel R. 1991. “Africa in the Age of Perestroika.” Africa Today 38(3): 729.
Kriger Norma. 2000. “Zimbabwe Today: Hope Against Grim Realities.” Review of African Political Economy 85: 443–50.
Kriger Norma. 2003a. Guerrilla Veterans in Post-War Zimbabwe: Symbolic and Violent Politics, 1980–1987. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kriger Norma. 2003b. “Zimbabwe's War Veterans and the Ruling Party: Continuities in Political Dynamics.” In Twenty Years of Independence in Zimbabwe: From Liberation to Authoritarianism, ed. Darnolf Staffan and Laakso Liisa. Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan.
Lala Anicia, and Ostheimer Andrea. 2004. “How to Remove the Stains on Mozambique's Democratic Track Record: Challenges for the Democratization Process between 1990 and 2003.” Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Occasional Paper. Maputu: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
Larmer Miles. 2008. “Enemies Within? Opposition to the Zambian One-Party State, 1972–1980.” In One Zambia, Many Histories: Towards a History of Post-colonial Zambia, ed. Gewald Jan-Bart, Hinfelaar Marja and Macola Giacomo. Leiden: Brill.
Lawson Colin. 1988. “Soviet Economic Aid to Africa.” African Affairs 87(349): 501–18.
LeBas Adrienne. 2006. “Polarization as Craft: Party Formation and State Violence in Zimbabwe.” Comparative Politics 38(4): 419–38.
LeBas Adrienne. 2011. From Protest to Parties: Party-Building and Democratization in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press.
Levitsky Steven, and Way Lucan A.. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lindemann Stefan. 2011. “The Ethnic Politics of Coup Avoidance: Evidence from Zambia and Uganda.” Africa Spectrum 46(2): 341.
Lodge Tom, Kadima Denis, and Pottie David. 2002. “Mozambique.” In Compendium of Elections in Southern Africa, ed. Lodge Tom, Kadima Denis, and Pottie David. Johannesburg: Electoral Institute of Southern Africa.
Lust-Okar Ellen. 2006. “Elections under Authoritarianism: Preliminary Lessons from Jordan.” Democratization 13(3): 465–71.
MacBruce James. 1992. “Domestic and Regional Security.” In Zimbabwe in Transition, ed. Baynham Simon. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiskell International.
Magaloni Beatriz. 2006. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Magaloni Beatriz. 2008. “Credible Power Sharing and the Longevity of Authoritarian Rule.” Comparative Political Studies 41(4-5): 715–41.
Makumbe John. 2001. “ZANU-PF: A Party in Transition?” In Zimbabwe's Turmoil: Problems and Prospects, ed. Cornwell Richard. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Makumbe John. 2002. “Zimbabwe's Hijacked Election.” Journal of Democracy 13(4): 87101.
Malache Adriano, Macaringue Paulino, and Borges Coelho Joao-Paolo. 2005. “Profound Transformations and Regional Conflagrations: The History of Mozambique's Armed Forces, 1975–2005.” In, Evolutions and Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Revolutions in Southern Africa, ed. Rupiya Martin. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.
Mandaza Ibbo. 2007. “Introduction: Edgar Tekere and Zimbabwe's Struggle for Independence.” In Edgar Tekere: A Lifetime of Struggle. Harare: Sapes Books.
Manning Carrie L. 2002a. “Elite Habituation to Democracy in Mozambique: The View from Parliament, 1994–2000.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 40(1): 6180.
Manning Carrie L. 2002b. The Politics of Peace in Mozambique: Post-Conflict Democratization, 1992–2000. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Manning Carrie L. 2005. “Assessing Adaptation to Democratic Politics in Mozambique: The Case of Frelimo.” In The Fate of Africa's Democratic Experiments: Elites and Institutions, ed. Villalón Leonardo A. and VonDoepp Peter. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
McFaul Michael. 2005. “Transitions from Postcommunism.” Journal of Democracy 16(3): 520.
Meredith Martin. 2002. Our Votes, Our Guns: Robert Mugabe and the Tragedy of Zimbabwe. New York: PublicAffairs.
Miranda Roger, and Ratliff William. 1993. The Civil War in Nicaragua: Inside the Sandinistas. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Moss Todd J. 2007. “Zimbabwe's Meltdown: Anatomy of a Peacetime Economic Collapse.” Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 31(2): 133–48.
Mulford David. 1967. Zambia: The Politics of Independence 1957–1964. London: Oxford University Press.
Munslow Barry. 1983. Mozambique: The Revolution and Its Origins. New York: Longman.
Mutua Makua. 2008. Kenya's Quest for Democracy: Taming Leviathan. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Mwanakatwe John M. 1994. End of the Kaunda Era. Lusaka, Zambia: A Multimedia Publication.
Nathan Andrew. 2001. “Introduction: The Documents and Their Significance.” In The Tiananmen Papers, ed. Nathan Andrew and Link Perry. New York: Public Affairs.
Ndegwa Stephen N. 2003. “Kenya: Third Time Lucky?Journal of Democracy 14 (July): 145–58.
Ndlovu-Gatsheni Sabelo. 2006. “Nationalist–Military Alliance and the Fate of Democracy in Zimbabwe.” African Journal of Conflict Resolution 6(1): 4980.
Nordlund Per. 1996. “Organizing the Political Agora: Domination and Democratization in Zambia and Zimbabwe.” Ph.D. diss., Department of Political Science, Uppsala University.
Odhiambo-Mbai C. 2003. “The Rise and Fall of the Autocratic State in Kenya.” In The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From KANU to NARC, ed. Oyugi Walter O., Wanyande Peter, and Mbai C. Odhiambo. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.
O'Donnell Guillermo, and Schmitter Philippe C.. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ogot B.A. 1995. “The Decisive Years: 1956–63.” In Decolonization & Independence in Kenya 1940–93, ed. Ogot B.A. and Ochieng W.R.. London: James Currey.
Pettman Jan. 1974. “Zambia's Second Republic: The Establishment of a One-Party State.” Journal of Modern African Studies 12(2): 231–44.
Pitcher Anne. 2002. Transforming Mozambique: The Politics of Privatization, 1975–2000. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Plank David. N. 1993. “Aid, Debt and the End of Sovereignty: Mozambique and Its Donors.” Journal of Modern African Studies 31(3): 407–30.
Pond Elizabeth. 2006. Endgame in the Balkans: Regime Change European Style. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Poppe Geert. 2009. “The Origins of Mozambique's Liberalization: A Reassessment of Frelimo's Early Years.” Ph.D. diss. Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Southern California.
Prevost Gary. 1991. “The FSLN as Ruling Party.” In Revolution and Counterrevolution in Nicaragua, ed. Walker Thomas. Boulder: Westview Press.
Raftopoulos Brian. 2001. “The Labor Movement and the Emergence of Opposition Politics.” In Striking Back: The Labor Movement and the Post-Colonial State in Zimbabwe, 1980–2000, ed. Raftopoulos Brian and Sachikoyne Lloyd. Harare: Weaver Press.
Raftopoulos Brian. 2002. “Briefing: Zimbabwe's 2002 Presidential Election.” African Affairs 101(2002): 413–26.
Raftopoulos Brian. 2003. “The State in Crisis: Authoritarian Nationalism, Selective Citizenship and Distortions of Democracy in Zimbabwe.” In Zimbabwe's Unfinished Business: Rethinking Land, State and Nation in the Context of Crisis, ed. Hammar Amanda, Raftopoulos Brian, and Jensen Stig. Harare: Weaver Press.
Raftopoulos Brian, and Compagnon Daniel. 2003. “Indigenization, the State Bourgeoisie and Neo-authoritarian Politics.” In Twenty Years of Independence in Zimbabwe: From Liberation to Authoritarianism, ed. Darnolf Staffan and Laakso Liisa. Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan.
Rakner Lise. 2003. Political and Economic Liberalization in Zambia 1991–2001. Stockholm: Nordic Africa Institute.
Rauch Janine, and Van DerSpuy Elrena. 2006. Recent Experiments in Police Reform in Post-Conflict Africa: A Review. Pretoria: Idasa.
Reuter Ora John. 2011. The Origins of Dominant Parties: A Cross-National Investigation. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, September 2–5, 2010.
Reuter Ora John, and Gandhi Jennifer. 2011. “Economic Performance and Elite Defection from Hegemonic Parties.” British Journal of Political Science 41(1): 83110.
Reuter Ora John, and Remington Thomas F.. 2009. “Dominant Party Regimes and the Commitment Problem: The Case of United Russia.” Comparative Political Studies 42(4): 501–26.
Saunders Richard. 2001. “Striking Ahead: Industrial Action and Labor Movement Development in Zimbabwe.” In Striking Back: The Labor Movement and the Post-Colonial State in Zimbabwe, 1980–2000, ed. Raftopoulos Brian and Sachikoyne Lloyd. Harare: Weaver Press.
Saunders Richard. 2007. “Trade Union Struggles for Autonomy and Democracy in Zimbabwe.” In Trade Unions and the Coming of Democracy in Africa, ed. Kraus Jon. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Schmitz Hans Peter. 1999. “Transnational Activism and Political Change in Kenya and Uganda.” In The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change, ed. Risse Thomas, Ropp Stephen C. and Sikkink Kathryn. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schurmann Franz. 1966. Ideology and Organization in Communist China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Scott Ian. 1976. “Party Politics in Zambia: A Study of the Organization of the United National Independence Party.” Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, School of Graduate Studies.
Seegers Annette. 1996. “Revolutionary Armies of Africa: Mozambique and Zimbabwe.” In Military Power and Politics in Black Africa, ed. Baynham Simon. London: Croom Helm.
Seton-Watson Hugh. 1956. The East European Revolution. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.
Skocpol Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slater Dan. 2009. “Revolutions, Crackdowns, and Quiescence: Communal Elites and Democratic Mobilization in Southeast Asia.” American Journal of Sociology 115(1): 205–54.
Slater Dan. 2010. Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slater Dan, and Smith Nicholas. 2010. “The Power of Counterrevolution: Contentious Origins of Dominant Party Durability in Asia and Africa.” Presented at the annual meetings of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, September 2–5.
Smith Benjamin. 2005. “Life of the Party: The Origins of Regime Breakdown and Persistence under Single-Party Rule.” World Politics 57(3): 421–51.
Stoneman Colin, and Cliffe Lionel. 1989. Zimbabwe: Politics, Economics, and Society. London: Pinter Publishers.
Svolik Milan. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tamarkin M. 1978. “The Roots of Political Stability in Kenya.” African Affairs 77(308): 297320.
Tekere Edgar. 2007. A Lifetime of Struggle. Harare: Sapes Books.
Tendi Blessing-Miles. 2010. Making History in Mugabe's Zimbabwe: Politics, Intellectuals and the Media. Oxford: Peter Lang.
Throup David W., and Hornsby Charles. 1998. Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta and Moi States and the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Tordoff William. 1988. “Political Parties in Zambia.” In Political Parties in the Third World, ed. Randall Vicky. London: Sage Publications.
Walker Thomas W. 1991. “The Armed Forces.” In Revolution and Counterrevolution in Nicaragua, ed. Walker. Boulder: Westview Press.
Walker Thomas W. 2003. Nicaragua: Living in the Shadow of the Eagle. Boulder: Westview.
Weinstein Jeremy. 2007. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weitzer Ronald. 1990. Transforming Settler States: Communal Conflict and Internal Security in Northern Ireland and Zimbabwe. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Widner Jennifer A. 1992. The Rise of a Party-State in Kenya: From “Harambee!” to “Nyayo!” Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wintrobe Ronald. 1998. The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 20
Total number of PDF views: 225 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1271 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.