Skip to main content Accessibility help

Beyond Patronage: Violent Struggle, Ruling Party Cohesion, and Authoritarian Durability

  • Steven R. Levitsky (a1) and Lucan A. Way (a2)


We explore the sources of durability of party-based authoritarian regimes in the face of crisis. Recent scholarship on authoritarianism suggests that ruling parties enhance elite cohesion—and consequently, regime durability—by providing institutionalized access the spoils of power. We argue, by contrast, that while elite access to power and spoils may ensure elite cooperation during normal times, it often fails to do so during crises. Instead, the identities, norms, and organizational structures forged during periods of sustained, violent, and ideologically-driven conflict are a critical source of cohesion—and durability—in party-based authoritarian regimes. Origins in violent conflict raise the cost of defection and provide leaders with additional (non-material) resources that can be critical to maintaining unity and discipline, even when a crisis threatens the party's hold on power. Hence, where ruling parties combine mechanisms of patronage distribution with the strong identities, solidarity ties, and discipline generated by violent origins, regimes should be most durable.

We apply this argument to four party-based competitive authoritarian regimes in post-Cold War Africa: Kenya, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In each of these cases, an established single- or dominant-party regime faced heightened international pressure, economic crisis, and a strong opposition challenge after 1990. Yet whereas ruling parties in Kenya and Zambia were organized almost exclusively around patronage, those in Mozambique and Zimbabwe were liberation parties that came to power via violent struggle. This difference is critical to explaining diverging post-Cold War regime outcomes: whereas ruling parties in Zambia and Kenya imploded and eventually lost power in these face of crises, those in Mozambique and Zimbabwe remained intact and regimes survived.



Hide All
Acemoglu, Daron, and Robinson, James A.. 2006. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ajulu, Rok. 2003. “Kenya: A Reflection on the 2002 Elections: Third Time Lucky or More of the Same?” Institute for Global Dialogue Occasional Paper No. 39. Braamfontein, South Africa: Institute for Global Dialogue.
Alao, Abiodun. 1995. “The Metamorphosis of the ‘Unorthodox’: The Integration and Early Development of the Zimbabwean National Army.” In Soldiers in Zimbabwe's Liberation War, ed. Bhebe, Ngwabi and Ranger, Terence. London: James Currey, Ltd.
Alden, Chris. 2001. Mozambique and the Construction of the New African State: From Negotiations to Nation Building. London: Palgrave.
Alexander, Jocelyn. 1997. The Local State in Post-War Mozambique: Political Practice and Ideas about Authority. Africa 67(1): 126.
Alexander, Jocelyn. 2003. “‘Squatters,’ Veterans and the State in Zimbabwe.” In Zimbabwe's Unfinished Business: Rethinking Land, State and Nation in the Context of Crisis, ed. Hammar, Amanda, Raftopoulos, Brian, and Jensen, Stig. Harare: Weaver Press.
Alexander, Jocelyn. 2007. The Unsettled Land: State-Making and the Politics of Land in Zimbabwe 1893–2003. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Anderson, David M. 2003. “Briefing: Kenya's Elections 2002—The Dawning of a New Era?African Affairs 102: 331–42.
Balcells, Laia. 2012. “The Consequences of Victimization on Political Identities: Evidence from Spain.” Politics & Society 40(1): 311–47.
Bartlett, David. 2000. “Civil Society and Democracy: a Zambian Case Study.” Journal of Southern African Studies 26(3): 429–46.
Bates, Robert, and Collier, Paul. 1993. “The Politics and Economics of Policy Reform in Zambia.” In Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform, ed. Bates, Robert and Krueger, Anne. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bauer, Gretchen. 2001. “Namibia in the First Decade of Independence: How Democratic?Journal of Southern African Studies 27(1): 3355.
Bauer, Gretchen, and Taylor, Scott D.. 2005. Politics in Southern Africa: State and Society in Transition. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Baylies, Carolyn, and Szeftel, Morris. 1992. “The Fall and Rise of Multi-Party Politics in Zambia.” Review of African Political Economy 19(54): 7591.
Beissinger, Mark R. 2002. Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bienen, Henry, and Van De Walle, Nicolas. 1989. “Time and Power in Africa.” American Political Science Review 83(1): 1934.
Bienen, Henry, and Van De Walle, Nicolas. 1991 Of Time and Political Power: Leadership Duration in the Modern World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Blair, David. 2003. Degrees in Violence: Robert Mugabe and the Struggle for Power in Zimbabwe (Revised Edition). London: Continuum.
Blaydes, Lisa. 2011. Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak's Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Branch, Daniel. 2009. Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, Civil War, and Decolonization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Branch, Daniel. 2011. Kenya: Between Hope and Despair, 1963–2011. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Bratton, Michael. 1994. “Economic Crisis and Political Realignment in Zambia.” In Economic Change and Political Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. Widner, Jennifer A.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bratton, Michael, and Masunungure, Eldred. 2006. “Popular Reactions to State Repression: Operation Murambatsvina in Zimbabwe.” African Affairs 106(422): 2145.
Bratton, Michael, and van de Walle, Nicolas. 1997. Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Stephen. 2004. “Theorizing Kenya's Protracted Transition to Democracy.” Journal of Contemporary African Affairs 22(3): 325–42.
Brownlee, Jason. 2007. Durable Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Smith, Alastair, Silverson, Randolph, and Morrow, James. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge: MIT University Press.
Cajina, Roberto J. 1997. Transición política y reconversíon militar en Nicaragua, 1990–1995. Managua: CRIES.
Carbone, Giovanni M. 2003. “Emerging Pluralist Politics in Mozambique: The Frelimo–Renamo Party System.” Crisis States Programme Working Paper No. 23. London: London School of Economics Development Research Center.
Chikuhwa, Jacob. 2004. A Crisis of Governance: Zimbabwe. New York: Algora Publishing.
Chung, Fay. 2006. Re-Living the Second Chimurenga. Stockhold: Nordic Africa Institute.
Clinkenbeard, Steven E. 2004. “Donors versus Dictators—The Impact of Multilateral Aid Conditionality on Democratization: Kenya and Malawi in Comparative Context, 1990–2004.” Ph.D. diss., Department Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
De Brito, Luis. 2007. “Rebuilding Frelimo's Hegemony in Mozambique: The Politics of a Presidential Succession.” Presented at the conference “The Politics of Nations and Nationalism in Lusophone Africa,” Oxford University, December 6.
Decalo, Samuel. 1998. The Stable Minority: Civilian Rule in Africa. Gainesville, FL: Academic Press.
Du Toit, Pierre. 1995. State Building and Democracy in Southern Africa: Botswana, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Evans, Michael. 1992. “Making an African Army: The Case of Zimbabwe, 1980–87.” In Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South Africa, ed. Etherington, Norman. London: Hans Zell Publishers.
Finnegan, William. 1992. A Complicated War: The Harrowing of Mozambique. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fish, M. Steven. 2005. Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gandhi, Jennifer. 2008. Political Institutions under Dictatorship. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999. “What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115–44.
Geddes, Barbara. 2003. Paradigms and Sand Castles: Theory Building and Research in Comparative Politics. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor.
Geddes, Barbara. 2005. “Why Parties and Elections in Authoritarian Regimes?” Presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 1–4 September.
Geddes, Barbara. 2008. “Party Creation as an Autocratic Survival Strategy.” Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Los Angeles.
Gilbert, Dennis. 1988. Sandinistas. New York: Basil Blackwell.
Goldworthy, David. 1986. “Armies and Politics in Civilian Regimes.” In Military Power and Politics in Black Africa, ed. Baynham, Simon. London: Croom Helm.
Greene, Kenneth. 2007. Why Dominant Parties Lose: Mexico's Democratization in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grzymala-Busse, Anna. 2011. “Time Will Tell? Temporality and the Analysis of Causal Mechanisms and Processes.” Comparative Political Studies 44(9): 1267–97.
Haantobolo, Godfrey Hammweela Nachitumbi. 2008. “Civil Control of the Military in Zambia.” Ph.D. diss., Faculty of Commerce, Law, and Management, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Han, Yuna. 2009. “South Africa's ANC Split.” Harvard International Review 31(1): 2831.
Hanson, Stephen E. 2010. Post-Imperial Democracies: Ideology and Party Formation in Third Republic France, Weimar Germany, and Post-Soviet Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Harrison, Graham. 1996. “Democracy in Mozambique: The Significance of Multi-Party Elections.” Review of African Political Economy 23(67): 1935.
Heilmann, Sebastian, and Perry, Elizabeth J.. 2011. Mao's Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance in China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Henriksen, Thomas H. 1983. Revolution and Counterrevolution: Mozambique's War of Independence, 1964–1974. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Holmquist, Frank, and Ford, Michael. 1994. Kenya: State and Civil Society the First Year After the Election. Africa Today 41(4): 525.
Howard, Marc, and Roessler, Philip G.. 2006. “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes.” American Journal of Political Science 50(2): 207–25.
Human Rights Watch. 2008. “Bullets for Each of You.” New York: Human Rights Watch Report, June 19.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1970. “Social and Institutional Dynamics of One-Party Systems.” In Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society: The Dynamics of Established One-Party Systems, ed. Huntington, Samuel and Moore, C.. New York: Basic Books.
Hyden, Goran. 1994. “Party, State, and Civil Society: Control versus Openness.” In Beyond Capitalism versus Socialism in Kenya and Tanzania, ed. Barkan, Joel D.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Ihonvbere, Julius O. 1996. Economic Crisis, Civil Society, and Democratization: The Case of Zambia. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
International Crisis Group. 2005. “Post-Election Zimbabwe: What Next?” ICG Africa Report No. 93 (June). Harare, Zimbabwe: International Crisis Group.
James, Daniel. 1988. Resistance and Integration: Peronism and the Argentine Working Class, 1946–1976. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jowitt, Ken. 1992. New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kempton, Daniel R. 1991. “Africa in the Age of Perestroika.” Africa Today 38(3): 729.
Kriger, Norma. 2000. “Zimbabwe Today: Hope Against Grim Realities.” Review of African Political Economy 85: 443–50.
Kriger, Norma. 2003a. Guerrilla Veterans in Post-War Zimbabwe: Symbolic and Violent Politics, 1980–1987. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kriger, Norma. 2003b. “Zimbabwe's War Veterans and the Ruling Party: Continuities in Political Dynamics.” In Twenty Years of Independence in Zimbabwe: From Liberation to Authoritarianism, ed. Darnolf, Staffan and Laakso, Liisa. Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan.
Lala, Anicia, and Ostheimer, Andrea. 2004. “How to Remove the Stains on Mozambique's Democratic Track Record: Challenges for the Democratization Process between 1990 and 2003.” Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Occasional Paper. Maputu: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
Larmer, Miles. 2008. “Enemies Within? Opposition to the Zambian One-Party State, 1972–1980.” In One Zambia, Many Histories: Towards a History of Post-colonial Zambia, ed. Gewald, Jan-Bart, Hinfelaar, Marja and Macola, Giacomo. Leiden: Brill.
Lawson, Colin. 1988. “Soviet Economic Aid to Africa.” African Affairs 87(349): 501–18.
LeBas, Adrienne. 2006. “Polarization as Craft: Party Formation and State Violence in Zimbabwe.” Comparative Politics 38(4): 419–38.
LeBas, Adrienne. 2011. From Protest to Parties: Party-Building and Democratization in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press.
Levitsky, Steven, and Way, Lucan A.. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lindemann, Stefan. 2011. “The Ethnic Politics of Coup Avoidance: Evidence from Zambia and Uganda.” Africa Spectrum 46(2): 341.
Lodge, Tom, Kadima, Denis, and Pottie, David. 2002. “Mozambique.” In Compendium of Elections in Southern Africa, ed. Lodge, Tom, Kadima, Denis, and Pottie, David. Johannesburg: Electoral Institute of Southern Africa.
Lust-Okar, Ellen. 2006. “Elections under Authoritarianism: Preliminary Lessons from Jordan.” Democratization 13(3): 465–71.
MacBruce, James. 1992. “Domestic and Regional Security.” In Zimbabwe in Transition, ed. Baynham, Simon. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiskell International.
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2006. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2008. “Credible Power Sharing and the Longevity of Authoritarian Rule.” Comparative Political Studies 41(4-5): 715–41.
Makumbe, John. 2001. “ZANU-PF: A Party in Transition?” In Zimbabwe's Turmoil: Problems and Prospects, ed. Cornwell, Richard. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Makumbe, John. 2002. “Zimbabwe's Hijacked Election.” Journal of Democracy 13(4): 87101.
Malache, Adriano, Macaringue, Paulino, and Borges Coelho, Joao-Paolo. 2005. “Profound Transformations and Regional Conflagrations: The History of Mozambique's Armed Forces, 1975–2005.” In, Evolutions and Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Revolutions in Southern Africa, ed. Rupiya, Martin. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.
Mandaza, Ibbo. 2007. “Introduction: Edgar Tekere and Zimbabwe's Struggle for Independence.” In Edgar Tekere: A Lifetime of Struggle. Harare: Sapes Books.
Manning, Carrie L. 2002a. “Elite Habituation to Democracy in Mozambique: The View from Parliament, 1994–2000.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 40(1): 6180.
Manning, Carrie L. 2002b. The Politics of Peace in Mozambique: Post-Conflict Democratization, 1992–2000. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Manning, Carrie L. 2005. “Assessing Adaptation to Democratic Politics in Mozambique: The Case of Frelimo.” In The Fate of Africa's Democratic Experiments: Elites and Institutions, ed. Villalón, Leonardo A. and VonDoepp, Peter. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
McFaul, Michael. 2005. “Transitions from Postcommunism.” Journal of Democracy 16(3): 520.
Meredith, Martin. 2002. Our Votes, Our Guns: Robert Mugabe and the Tragedy of Zimbabwe. New York: PublicAffairs.
Miranda, Roger, and Ratliff, William. 1993. The Civil War in Nicaragua: Inside the Sandinistas. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Moss, Todd J. 2007. “Zimbabwe's Meltdown: Anatomy of a Peacetime Economic Collapse.” Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 31(2): 133–48.
Mulford, David. 1967. Zambia: The Politics of Independence 1957–1964. London: Oxford University Press.
Munslow, Barry. 1983. Mozambique: The Revolution and Its Origins. New York: Longman.
Mutua, Makua. 2008. Kenya's Quest for Democracy: Taming Leviathan. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Mwanakatwe, John M. 1994. End of the Kaunda Era. Lusaka, Zambia: A Multimedia Publication.
Nathan, Andrew. 2001. “Introduction: The Documents and Their Significance.” In The Tiananmen Papers, ed. Nathan, Andrew and Link, Perry. New York: Public Affairs.
Ndegwa, Stephen N. 2003. “Kenya: Third Time Lucky?Journal of Democracy 14 (July): 145–58.
Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo. 2006. “Nationalist–Military Alliance and the Fate of Democracy in Zimbabwe.” African Journal of Conflict Resolution 6(1): 4980.
Nordlund, Per. 1996. “Organizing the Political Agora: Domination and Democratization in Zambia and Zimbabwe.” Ph.D. diss., Department of Political Science, Uppsala University.
Odhiambo-Mbai, C. 2003. “The Rise and Fall of the Autocratic State in Kenya.” In The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From KANU to NARC, ed. Oyugi, Walter O., Wanyande, Peter, and Mbai, C. Odhiambo. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.
O'Donnell, Guillermo, and Schmitter, Philippe C.. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ogot, B.A. 1995. “The Decisive Years: 1956–63.” In Decolonization & Independence in Kenya 1940–93, ed. Ogot, B.A. and Ochieng, W.R.. London: James Currey.
Pettman, Jan. 1974. “Zambia's Second Republic: The Establishment of a One-Party State.” Journal of Modern African Studies 12(2): 231–44.
Pitcher, Anne. 2002. Transforming Mozambique: The Politics of Privatization, 1975–2000. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Plank, David. N. 1993. “Aid, Debt and the End of Sovereignty: Mozambique and Its Donors.” Journal of Modern African Studies 31(3): 407–30.
Pond, Elizabeth. 2006. Endgame in the Balkans: Regime Change European Style. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Poppe, Geert. 2009. “The Origins of Mozambique's Liberalization: A Reassessment of Frelimo's Early Years.” Ph.D. diss. Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Southern California.
Prevost, Gary. 1991. “The FSLN as Ruling Party.” In Revolution and Counterrevolution in Nicaragua, ed. Walker, Thomas. Boulder: Westview Press.
Raftopoulos, Brian. 2001. “The Labor Movement and the Emergence of Opposition Politics.” In Striking Back: The Labor Movement and the Post-Colonial State in Zimbabwe, 1980–2000, ed. Raftopoulos, Brian and Sachikoyne, Lloyd. Harare: Weaver Press.
Raftopoulos, Brian. 2002. “Briefing: Zimbabwe's 2002 Presidential Election.” African Affairs 101(2002): 413–26.
Raftopoulos, Brian. 2003. “The State in Crisis: Authoritarian Nationalism, Selective Citizenship and Distortions of Democracy in Zimbabwe.” In Zimbabwe's Unfinished Business: Rethinking Land, State and Nation in the Context of Crisis, ed. Hammar, Amanda, Raftopoulos, Brian, and Jensen, Stig. Harare: Weaver Press.
Raftopoulos, Brian, and Compagnon, Daniel. 2003. “Indigenization, the State Bourgeoisie and Neo-authoritarian Politics.” In Twenty Years of Independence in Zimbabwe: From Liberation to Authoritarianism, ed. Darnolf, Staffan and Laakso, Liisa. Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan.
Rakner, Lise. 2003. Political and Economic Liberalization in Zambia 1991–2001. Stockholm: Nordic Africa Institute.
Rauch, Janine, and Van DerSpuy, Elrena. 2006. Recent Experiments in Police Reform in Post-Conflict Africa: A Review. Pretoria: Idasa.
Reuter, Ora John. 2011. The Origins of Dominant Parties: A Cross-National Investigation. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, September 2–5, 2010.
Reuter, Ora John, and Gandhi, Jennifer. 2011. “Economic Performance and Elite Defection from Hegemonic Parties.” British Journal of Political Science 41(1): 83110.
Reuter, Ora John, and Remington, Thomas F.. 2009. “Dominant Party Regimes and the Commitment Problem: The Case of United Russia.” Comparative Political Studies 42(4): 501–26.
Saunders, Richard. 2001. “Striking Ahead: Industrial Action and Labor Movement Development in Zimbabwe.” In Striking Back: The Labor Movement and the Post-Colonial State in Zimbabwe, 1980–2000, ed. Raftopoulos, Brian and Sachikoyne, Lloyd. Harare: Weaver Press.
Saunders, Richard. 2007. “Trade Union Struggles for Autonomy and Democracy in Zimbabwe.” In Trade Unions and the Coming of Democracy in Africa, ed. Kraus, Jon. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Schmitz, Hans Peter. 1999. “Transnational Activism and Political Change in Kenya and Uganda.” In The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change, ed. Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen C. and Sikkink, Kathryn. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schurmann, Franz. 1966. Ideology and Organization in Communist China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Scott, Ian. 1976. “Party Politics in Zambia: A Study of the Organization of the United National Independence Party.” Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, School of Graduate Studies.
Seegers, Annette. 1996. “Revolutionary Armies of Africa: Mozambique and Zimbabwe.” In Military Power and Politics in Black Africa, ed. Baynham, Simon. London: Croom Helm.
Seton-Watson, Hugh. 1956. The East European Revolution. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.
Skocpol, Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slater, Dan. 2009. “Revolutions, Crackdowns, and Quiescence: Communal Elites and Democratic Mobilization in Southeast Asia.” American Journal of Sociology 115(1): 205–54.
Slater, Dan. 2010. Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slater, Dan, and Smith, Nicholas. 2010. “The Power of Counterrevolution: Contentious Origins of Dominant Party Durability in Asia and Africa.” Presented at the annual meetings of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, September 2–5.
Smith, Benjamin. 2005. “Life of the Party: The Origins of Regime Breakdown and Persistence under Single-Party Rule.” World Politics 57(3): 421–51.
Stoneman, Colin, and Cliffe, Lionel. 1989. Zimbabwe: Politics, Economics, and Society. London: Pinter Publishers.
Svolik, Milan. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tamarkin, M. 1978. “The Roots of Political Stability in Kenya.” African Affairs 77(308): 297320.
Tekere, Edgar. 2007. A Lifetime of Struggle. Harare: Sapes Books.
Tendi, Blessing-Miles. 2010. Making History in Mugabe's Zimbabwe: Politics, Intellectuals and the Media. Oxford: Peter Lang.
Throup, David W., and Hornsby, Charles. 1998. Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta and Moi States and the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Tordoff, William. 1988. “Political Parties in Zambia.” In Political Parties in the Third World, ed. Randall, Vicky. London: Sage Publications.
Walker, Thomas W. 1991. “The Armed Forces.” In Revolution and Counterrevolution in Nicaragua, ed. Walker. Boulder: Westview Press.
Walker, Thomas W. 2003. Nicaragua: Living in the Shadow of the Eagle. Boulder: Westview.
Weinstein, Jeremy. 2007. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weitzer, Ronald. 1990. Transforming Settler States: Communal Conflict and Internal Security in Northern Ireland and Zimbabwe. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Widner, Jennifer A. 1992. The Rise of a Party-State in Kenya: From “Harambee!” to “Nyayo!” Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wintrobe, Ronald. 1998. The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Beyond Patronage: Violent Struggle, Ruling Party Cohesion, and Authoritarian Durability

  • Steven R. Levitsky (a1) and Lucan A. Way (a2)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.