Adelman, Jeremy. 2006. Sovereignty and Revolution in the Iberian Atlantic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ambrosio, Thomas. 2010. “Constructing a Framework of Authoritarian Diffusion: Concepts, Dynamics, and Future Research.” International Studies Perspectives 11(4): 375–92.
Ambrosio, Thomas. 2014. “Democratic States and Authoritarian Firewalls: America as a Black Knight in the Uprising in Bahrain.” Contemporary Politics 20(3): 331–46.
Anderson, Perry. 1999. “A Ripple of the Polonaise.” London Review of Books, November 25. Available at https://bit.ly/2ITpUUI, accessed April 18, 2018.
Bayly, Christopher A. 2010. “The ‘Revolutionary Age’ in the Wider World, c.1790—1830.” In War, Empire, and Slavery, 1770—1830, ed. Bessel, Richard, Guyatt, Nicholas, and Rendall, Jane. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Beissinger, Mark R. 2007. “Structure and Example in Modular Political Phenomena: The Diffusion of Bulldozer/Rose/Orange/Tulip Revolutions.” Perspectives on Politics 5(2): 259–76.
Bermeo, Nancy. 2003. Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times: The Citizenry and the Collapse of Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bessel, Richard, Guyatt, Nicholas, and Rendal, Jane, eds. 2010. War, Empire, and Slavery, 1770–1830. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bethell, Leslie and Roxborough, Ian (1992), eds. Latin America between the Second World War and the Cold War, 1944–1948. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Betts, Raymond. 1991. France and Decolonisation, 1900–1960. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bratton, Michael and de Walle, Nicolas Van. 1997. Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brinks, Daniel ,and Coppedge, Michael. 2006. “Diffusion Is No Illusion: Neighbor Emulation in the Third Wave of Democracy.” Comparative Political Studies 39(4): 463–89.
Brown, Archie. 2007. Seven Years That Changed the World: Perestroika in Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bryce, James. 1921. Modern Democracies. New York: Macmillan.
Bunce, Valerie J. and Wolchik, Sharon. 2011. Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Postcommunist Countries. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Carr, Edward H. 2001 . The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919—1939. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Centeño, Miguel Angel. 2002. Blood and Debt: War and the Nation-state in Latin America. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Cheterian, Vicken. 2011. “The Arab Revolt and the Colour Revolutions.” OpenDemocracy.net, March 10. Available at http://bit.ly/1mGI62L, accessed April 18, 2018.
Clapham, Christopher. 1996. Africa and the International System: The Politics of State Survival. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, Frederick. 1996. Decolonization and African Society: The labor question in French and British Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dahrendorf, Ralf. 1990. Reflections on the Revolution in Europe. London: Chatto and Windus.
Dakin, Douglas. 1973. The Greek Struggle for Independence, 1821–1833. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Darwin, John. 1988. Britain and Decolonisation: Retreat from Empire in the Post-war World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Davies, Norman. 1996. Europe: A History. New York: Harper.
Diamond, Larry. 1996. “Is the Third Wave Over?” Journal of Democracy 7(3): 20–37.
Doorenspleet, Rense. 2005. Democratic Transitions: Exploring the Structural Sources of the Fourth Wave. Boulder, CO: Lynne Riener.
Duignan, Peter and Gann, Lewis. 1999. The Rebirth of the West: The Americanization of the Democratic World, 1945–1948. New York: Blackwell.
The Economist. 2011. “Blood and Oil.” February 24, 11.
Elkins, Zachary. 2008. “Is Democracy Contagious? Diffusion and Dynamics of Regime Transition.” In International Perspectives on Contemporary Democracy, ed. Nardulli, Peter F.. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Elkins, Zachary. 2010. “Diffusion and the Constitutionalization of Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 43(8/9): 969–99.
Elkins, Zachary and Simmons, Beth. 2005. “On Waves, Clusters, and Diffusion: A Conceptual Framework.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 598:33–51.
Evans, R. J. W. 2000. “Liberalism, Nationalism, and the Coming of the Revolutions.” In The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849: From Reform to Reaction, ed. Evans, R.J.W. and von Strandmann, Hartmut Pogge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Foran, John. 1991. “The Strengths and Weaknesses of Iran’s Populist Alliance.” Theory and Society 20: 795–823.
Foran, John. 1993. “Dependency and Resistance in the Middle East, 1800–1925.” In Political Power and Social Theory, ed. Davis, Diane and Kimeldorf, Howard. Vol. 8. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.
Gilardi, Fabrizio. 2013. “Transnational Diffusion: Norms, Ideas, and Policies.” In Handbook of International Relations, 2d ed., ed. Carlsnaes, Walter, Risse, Thomas, and Simmons, Beth A.. Los Angeles: SAGE Press.
De Grazia, Victoria. 2005. Irresistible Empire: America’s Advance through Twentieth-Century Europe. Boston: Belknap.
Grigoryan, Arman. 2016. “A Tale of Two Mass Movements and How the West Related to Them: Or Why John McCain Went to Kiev but Not to Yerevan.” Unpublished manuscript.
Gunitsky, Seva. 2013. “Complexity and Theories of Change in International Politics.” International Theory 5(1): 35–63.
Gunitsky, Seva. 2014. “From Shocks to Waves: Hegemonic Transitions and Democratization in the Twentieth Century.” International Organization 68(3): 561–97.
Gunitsky, Seva. 2015. “Lost in the Gray Zone: Competing Measures of Democracy in the Former Soviet Republics.” In Ranking the World: Grading States as a Tool of Global Governance, ed. Cooley, Alexander and Snyder, Jack. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gunitsky, Seva. 2017. Aftershocks: Great Powers and Domestic Reforms in the Twentieth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hale, Henry. 2005. “Regime Cycles: Democracy, Autocracy, and Revolution in Post-Soviet Eurasia.” World Politics 58(1): 133–65.
Hale, Henry. 2013. “Regime Change Cascades: What We Have Learned from the 1848 Revolutions to the 2011 Arab Uprisings.” Annual Review of Political Science 16: 331–53.
Hart, John Mason. 1987. Revolutionary Mexico: The Coming and Process of the Mexican Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Head, Jacqueline. 2011. “The Arab World’s 1989 Revolution?” Al-Jazeera.com, February 2. Available at http://bit.ly/VHjwU2, accessed April 18, 2018.
Hobsbawm, Eric. 1962. The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Holland, Robert. 1995. European Decolonisation 1918–81: An Introductory Survey. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Houle, Christian. 2009. “Inequality and Democracy: Why Inequality Harms Consolidation but Does Not Affect Democratization.” World Politics 61(4): 589–622.
Houle, Christian, Kayser, Mark A., and Xiang, Jun. 2016. “Diffusion or Confusion? Clustered Shocks and the Conditional Diffusion of Democracy.” International Organization 70(4): 687–726.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Judt, Tony. 2006. Postwar: Europe since 1945. New York: Penguin.
Jones, Peter. 1981. The 1848 Revolutions. Essex, UK: Longman.
Kaplan, Temma. 2014. Democracy: A World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Karl, Terry L. 1990. “Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America.” Comparative Politics 23(1): 1–21.
Karl, Rebecca. 2002. Staging the World: Chinese Nationalism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. Durham: Duke University Press.
Klooster, Wim. 2009. Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A Comparative History. New York: New York University Press.
Koesel, Karrie J. and Bunce, Valerie J.. 2013. “Diffusion-Proofing: Russian and Chinese Responses to Waves of Popular Mobilizations against Authoritarian Rulers.” Perspectives on Politics 11(3): 753–68.
Kuntz, Philipp and Thompson, Mark R.. 2009. “More than Just the Final Straw: Stolen Elections as Revolutionary Triggers.” Comparative Politics 41(3): 253–72.
Kuran, Timur. 1991. “Now Out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989.” World Politics 44(1): 7–48.
Kurzman, Charles. 1998. “Waves of Democratization.” Studies in Comparative International Development 33(1): 42–64.
Kurzman, Charles. 2008. Democracy Denied, 1905-1915: Intellectuals and the Fate of Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Langley, Lester D. 1996. The Americas in the Age of Revolution, 1750–1850. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Linz, Juan and Stepan, Alfred. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Levitsky, Steven and Way, Lucan A.. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lohmann, Susanne. 1994. “The Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany, 1989–91.” World Politics 47(1): 42–101.
Lynch, Marc. 2013. The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East. New York: Public Affairs.
Mainwaring, Scott and Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal. 2013. Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, Survival, and Fall. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Manela, Erez. 2007. The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mann, Michael. 2004. Fascists. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Marks, Steven G. 2003. How Russia Shaped the Modern World: From Art to Anti-Semitism, Ballet to Bolshevism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mazower, Mark. 1998. Dark Continent: Europe’s Twentieth Century. New York: Random House.
McFaul, Michael. 2002. “The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Noncooperative Transitions in the Postcommunist World.” World Politics 54(2): 212–44.
Munck, Gerardo. 2009. Measuring Democracy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Narizny, Kevin. 2012. “Anglo-American Primacy and the Global Spread of Democracy: An International Genealogy.” World Politics 64(2): 341–373.
Ould-Mey, Mohameden. 2006. “Structural Adjustment Programs and Democratization in Africa.” In Multiparty Democracy and Political Change: Constraints to Democratization in Africa, ed. Mukum Mbaku, John, and Ihonvbere, Julius. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
Owen, John. 2010. The Clash of Ideas in World Politics: Transnational Networks, States, and Regime Change, 1510–2010. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Palmer, R. R. 1964. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Palmer, R. R., Colton, Joel, and Kramer, Lloyd S.. 2002. A History of the Modern World. 9th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Pearlman, Wendy. 2013. We Crossed a Bridge and It Trembled. New York: Custom House.
Pinkney, David H. 1973. The French Revolution of 1830. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Plattner, Mark. 2014. “The End of the Transitions Era?” Journal of Democracy 25(3): 5–16.
Pogge von Strandmann, Hartmut. 2000. “1848–1849: A European Revolution?” In The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849: From Reform to Reaction, ed. Evans, R.J.W. and Pogge von Strandmann, Hartmut. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Polasky, Janet. 2015. Revolutions without Borders: The Call to Liberty in the Atlantic World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Price, Don C. 1974. Russia and the Roots of the Chinese Revolution, 1896–1911. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Przeworski, Adam, Alvarez, Michael, Cheibub, Jose Antonio, and Limongi, Fernando. 1996. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950–1990. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Rapport, Mike. 2008. 1848: Year of Revolution. New York: Basic Books.
Reynolds, Andrew, Brownlee, Jason, and Masoud, Tarek. 2015. The Arab Spring: Pathways of Repression and Reform. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Richardson-Little, Ned. 2015. “Human Rights as Myth and History: Between the Revolutions of 1989 and the Arab Spring.” Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe 23(2-3): 151–66.
Risse, Thomas. 1997. “The Cold War’s Endgame and German Unification: A Review Essay.” International Security 21(4): 159–85.
Robertson, Priscilla. 1952. Revolutions of 1848: A Social History. New York: Harper & Row.
Rogers, Everett M. 1962 . Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press.
Rothschild, Joseph. 1974. East Central Europe between the Two World Wars. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Rustow, Dankwart. 1970. “Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model.” Comparative Politics 2(3): 337–63.
Savelle, Max. 1974. Empires to Nations: Expansion in America, 1713–1824. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Schwartzman, Kathleen C. 1998. “Globalization and Democracy.” Annual Review of Sociology 24(1): 159–81.
Seton-Watson, Hugh. 1945. Eastern Europe between the Wars, 1918–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Simmons, Beth A., Dobbin, Frank, and Garrett, Geoffrey. 2006. “The International Diffusion of Liberalism.” International Organization 60(4): 781–810.
Sohrabi, Nader. 1995. “Historicizing Revolutions: Constitutional Revolutions in the Ottoman Empire, Iran, and Russia, 1905-1908.” American Journal of Sociology 100(6): 1383–1447.
Sohrabi, Nader. 2002. “Global Waves, Local Actors: What the Young Turks Knew about Other Revolutions and Why It Mattered.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 44(1): 45–79.
Sohrabi, Nader. 2011. Revolution and Constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire and Iran. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Spector, Ivar. 1962. The First Russian Revolution: Its Impact on Asia. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Sperber, Jonathan. 1994. The European Revolutions, 1848–1851. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stapelbroek, Koen. 2009. “Neutrality and Trade in the Dutch Republic (1775–1783): Preludes to a Piecemeal Revolution.” In Rethinking the Atlantic World: Europe and America in the Age of Democratic Revolutions, ed. Albertone, Manuela and De Francesco, Antonino. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stern, Fritz. 1997. “The New Democracies in Crisis in Interwar Europe.” In Democracy’s Victory and Crisis, ed. Hadenius, Axel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sternberg, Troy. 2012. “Chinese Drought, Bread and the Arab Spring.” Applied Geography 34: 519–24
Tarrow, Sidney. 1991. “Aiming at a Moving Target: Social Science and the Recent Rebellions in Eastern Europe.” PS: Political Science and Politics 24(1): 12–20.
Way, Lucan. 2008. “The Real Causes of the Color Revolutions.” Journal of Democracy 19(3): 55–69.
Way, Lucan. 2011. “The Lessons of 1989.” Journal of Democracy 22(4): 17–27.
Weber, Max. 1978 . Economy and Society. Vol. 2. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Weyland, Kurt. 2009. “The Diffusion of Revolution: ‘1848’ in Europe and Latin America.” International Organization 63(3): 391–423.
Weyland, Kurt. 2012. “The Arab Spring: Why the Surprising Similarities with the Revolutionary Wave of 1848.” Perspectives on Politics 10(4): 917–34.
Weyland, Kurt. 2014. Making Waves: Democratic Contention in Europe and Latin America since the Revolutions of 1848. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weyland, Kurt. 2017. “Autocratic Diffusion and Cooperation: The Impact of Interests vs. Ideology.” Democratization 24(7): 1235–52.
Whitehead, Laurence. 1996. The International Dimensions of Democratization: Europe and the Americas. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Woodruff, William. 2005. A Concise History of the Modern World. London: Little, Brown.
Zartman, William, ed. 2015. Arab Spring: Negotiating in the Shadow of the Intifadat. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.