Acharya, Avidit, Blackwell, Matthew, and Sen, Maya. 2016. “The Political Legacy of American Slavery.” Journal of Politics 78(3): 621–41.
Arceneaux, Kevin. 2001. “The “Gender Gap” in State Legislative Representation: New Data to Tackle an Old Question.” Political Research Quarterly 54(1): 143–60.
Berry, William D., Ringquist, Evan J., Forading, Richard C., and Hanson, Russell L.. 1998. “Measuring Citizen and Government Ideology in the American States, 1960–93.” In The Political Research Experience: Readings and Analysis, ed. Ethridge, Marcus E., 60–78. New York: Routledge.
Blalock, Hubert M. 1956. “Economic Discrimination and Negro Increase.” American Sociological Review 21(5): 584–88.
Blumer, Herbert. 1958. “Race Prejudice as a Sense of Group Position.” Pacific Sociological Review 1(1): 3–7.
Bobo, Lawrence. 2000. “Race and Beliefs about Affirmative Action: Assessing the Effects of Interests, Group Threat, Ideology, and Racism.“ In Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America, eds. Sears, David O., Sidanius, Jim, and Bobo, Lawrence, 137–64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bobo, Lawrence, Kluegel, James R., and Smith, Ryan A.. 1997. “Laissez-Faire Racism: The Crystallization of a Kinder, Gentler, Antiblack Ideology.” In Racial Attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and Change, eds. Tuch, Steven A. and Martin, Jack K., 16–42. Westport, CT: Prager.
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2017. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and Racial Inequality in Contemporary America, 5th edition. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo and Lewis, Amanda E.. 1999. “The New Racism: Racial Structure in the United States, 1960s–1990s.” In Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality in the USA: Toward the Twenty-First Century, ed. Wong, Paul, 55–101. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Brace, Paul, Arceneaux, Kevin, Johnson, Martin, and Ulbig, Stacy G.. 2007. “Reply to ‘The Measurement and Stability of State Citizen Ideology.’” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 7(2): 133–40.
Brace, Paul, Sims-Butler, Kellie, Arceneaux, Kevin, and Johnson, Martin. 2002. “Public Opinion in the American States: New Perspectives Using National Survey Data.” American Journal of Political Science 46(1): 173–89.
Buttice, Matthew K. and Highton., Benjamin 2013. “How Does Multilevel Regression and Poststratification Perform with Conventional National Surveys?” Political Analysis 21(4): 449–67.
DeSante, Christopher D. 2013. “Working Twice as Hard to Get Half as Far: Race, Work Ethic, and America’s Deserving Poor.” American Journal of Political Science 57(2): 342–56.
DeSante, Christopher D. and Smith, Candis Watts. forthcoming. Racial Stasis: The Millennial Generation and Stagnation of Racial Attitudes in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Elazar, Daniel Judah. 1966. American Federalism: A View from the States. New York: Crowell.
Enders, Adam M. and Scott, Jamil S.. 2018. “The Increasing Racialization of American Electoral Politics, 1988–2016.” American Politics Research 47(2): 1–29.
Erikson, Robert S., Wright, Gerald C., and McIver, John P.. 1993. Statehouse Democracy: Public Opinion and Policy in the American States. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Erikson, Robert S., Wright, Gerald C., and McIver, John P.. 2006. “Public Opinion in the States: A Quarter Century of Change and Stability.“ In Public Opinion in State Politics. ed. Cohen, Jeffrey E., 229–38. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fossett, Mark A. and Jill Kiecolt, K.. 1989. “The Relative Size of Minority Populations and White Racial Attitudes.” Social Science Quarterly 70(4): 820–35.
Franko, William W. 2017. “Understanding Public Perceptions of Growing Economic Inequality.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 17(3): 319–48.
Gelman, Andrew, Lax, Jeffrey, Phillips, Justin, Gabry, Jonah, and Trangucci, Robert. 2018. “Using Multilevel Regression and Poststratification to Estimate Dynamic Public Opinion.” Unpublished manuscript on file, Columbia University. http://www.stat.columbia.edu/∼gelman/research/unpublished/MRT(1).pdf.
Giles, Micheal W. 1977. “Percent Black and Racial Hostility: An Old Assumption Reexamined.” Social Science Quarterly 58(3): 412–17.
Henry, P. J. and Sears, David O.. 2002. “The Symbolic Racism 2000 Scale.” Political Psychology 23(2): 253–83.
Hero, Rodney E. 2000. Faces of Inequality: Social Diversity in American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press
Kam, Cindy D. and Burge, Camille D.. 2018. “Uncovering Reactions to the Racial Resentment Scale across the Racial Divide.” Journal of Politics 80(1): 314–20.
Katznelson, Ira. 2005. When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. New York: W. W. Norton.
Key, Valdimer Jr. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Knopf.
Key, Valdimer O Jr. 1964. Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups. New York: Crowell.
Kinder, Donald R. and Mendelberg., Tali 2000. “Individualism Reconsidered: Principles and Prejudice in Contemporary American Opinion.” In Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America, eds. Sears, David O., Sidanius, James, and Bobo, Lawrence, 44–74. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kinder, Donald R. and Sanders, Lynn M.. 1996. Divided by Color: Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kinder, Donald R. and Sears, David O.. 1981. “Prejudice and Politics: Symbolic Racism versus Racial Threats to the Good Life.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40(3): 414–31.
Kluegel, James R. and Bobo, Lawrence. 1993. “Dimensions of Whites’ Beliefs about the Black-White Socioeconomic Gap.” In Prejudice, Politics, and the American Dilemma, eds. Sniderman, Paul M., Tetlock, Philip E., and Carmines, Edward G., 127–47. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Kreitzer, Rebecca J. and Smith., Candis Watts 2018. “Reproducible and Replicable: An Empirical Assessment of the Social Construction of Politically Relevant Target Groups.” PS: Political Science & Politics 51(4): 768–74.
Lax, Jeffrey R. and Phillips, Justin H.. 2009. “Gay Rights in the States: Public Opinion and Policy Responsiveness.” American Political Science Review 103(3): 367–86.
Lax, Jeffrey R. and Phillips, Justin H.. 2013. “How Should We Estimate Sub-National Opinion Using MRP? Preliminary Findings and Recommendations.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.
Lewis, Paul G., Provine, Doris Marie, Varsanyi, Monica W., and Decker, Scott H.. 2012. “Why Do (Some) City Police Departments Enforce Federal Immigration Law? Political, Demographic, and Organizational Influences on Local Choices.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 23(1): 1–25.
Mellow, Nicole. 2008. The State of Disunion: Regional Sources of Modern American Partisanship. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Michener, Jamila. 2018. Fragmented Democracy: Medicaid, Federalism, and Unequal Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nagourney, Adam. 2008. “Obama Elected President as Racial Barriers Fall.” New York Times, November 5.
Norrander, Barbara. 2001. “Measuring State Public Opinion with the Senate National Election Study.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 1(1): 111–25.
Nunnally, Shayla C. and Carter., Niambi M. 2012. “Moving from Victims to Victors: African American Attitudes on the ‘Culture of Poverty’ and Black Blame.” Journal of African American Studies 16(3): 423–55.
Omi, Michael and Winant, Howard. 1994. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s, 2nd edition. New York: Routledge.
Pacheco, Julianna. 2014. “Measuring and Evaluating Changes in State Opinion across Eight Issues.” American Politics Research 42(6): 986–1009.
Reardon, Sean F. and Owens., Ann 2014. “60 Years after Brown: Trends and Consequences of School Segregation.” Annual Review of Sociology 40: 199–218.
Rothstein, Richard. 2017. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. New York: Liveright Publishing.
Sandefur, Rebecca L. and Smyth., Aaron 2011. Access across America: First report of the Civil Justice Infrastructure Mapping Project. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Schneider, Anne and Ingram, Helen. 1993. “Social Construction of Target Populations: Implications for Politics and Policy.” American Political Science Review 87(2): 334–47.
Schuman, Howard, Steeh, Charlotte, Bobo, Lawrence, and Krysan, Maria. 1997. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretation, rev. edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sentencing Project. 2017. The Facts: State-by-State Data. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.
Smith, Candis Watts. 2014. “Shifting from Structural to Individual Attributions of Black Disadvantage Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on Black Explanations of Racial Disparities.” Journal of Black Studies 45(5): 432–52.
Sniderman, Paul M., Crosby, Gretchen C., and Howell, William G.. 2000. “The Politics of Race.” In Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America, eds. Sears, David O., Sidanius, Jim, and Bobo, Lawrence, 236–79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Soss, Joe, Fording, Richard C., and Schram, Sanford F.. 2008. “The Color of Devolution: Race, Federalism, and the Politics of Social Control.” American Journal of Political Science 52(3): 536–53.
Taylor, Marylee C. 1998. “How White Attitudes Vary with the Racial Composition of Local Populations: Numbers Count.” American Sociological Review 63(4): 512–35.
Tesler, Michael. 2012. “The Spillover of Racialization into Health Care: How President Obama Polarized Public Opinion by Racial Attitudes and Race.” American Journal of Political Science 56(3): 690–704.
Tesler, Michael and Sears, David O.. 2010. Obama’s Race: The 2008 Election and the Dream of a Post-Racial America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Theoharis, Jeanne. 2018. A More Beautiful and Terrible History: The Uses and Misuses of Civil Rights History. Boston: Beacon Press.
Unnever, James D. and Cullen, Francis T.. 2007. “The Racial Divide in Support for the Death Penalty: Does White Racism Matter?” Social Forces 85(3): 1281–1301.
Valentino, Nicholas A. and Sears, David O.. 2005. “Old Tmes There Are Not Forgotten: Race and Partisan Realignment in the Contemporary South.” American Journal of Political Science 49(3): 672–88.
Yadon, Nicole and Piston, Spencer. 2018. “Examining Whites’ Anti-Black Attitudes after Obama’s Presidency.” Politics, Groups, and Identities. doi: 10.1080/21565503.2018.1438953.